Environment• The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth.• Environ means surrounding• According to UN convention, “Environment is the sum of all social, biological and physical, chemical factors which compose the surroundings of man.”
Concept of Sustainable development• There are many definitions of sustainable development, including this landmark one which first appeared in 1987: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Concept of Sustainable Administration• "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:• the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the worlds poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and• the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environments ability to meet present and future needs."
Environmental Administration• It is a concept of managing human affair in such a way that biological health, diversity and ecological balance will be preserved.• It is also defined as process of carrying out activities which are concerned with protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment.
Relevant Issues to the Enviroment• Arms Race• Poverty• Population growth & Agricultural development• Debt Burden• Pattern of consumption• Global Technology• Energy Dependence and Crisis• Imprudent Technology
Environmental Problems• Land and Water• Forestry and Wildlife• Pollution -Air -Water -Noise• Human Settlements
Legislative and Administrative Measures• Article 48A – The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country.• Article 51A – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the national resources.
Institutional Measures• Department of Environment - Established in 1980 - Integrated into MoEF in 1985• Pollution control Board• National Wasteland Development Board• Indian Board for Wildlife
Contd.• Environmental Information System (ENVIS) - 1982 - under the ministry of environment• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - Doing Appraisals of schemes - Inspecting the projects
Contd.• Pollution Monitoring and Control• Control of Hazardous substances - Controlling the transportation of drugs• Biosphere Reserve Programme - Reserves at Nanda devi, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Sunderbans and Manas
Global Environmental Interaction• UN Convention on Environment at Stockholm,1972 is a basic foundation for global environment interaction.• The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies.
Contd.• The other agencies of UNEP are The World Meteorological Organization and the UNEP established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).• Its Head Quarters at Nairobi, Kenya• UN announced 2011 as International Year of Forest.
Environmental Projects in India• National River Conservation Plan : The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase - I which was taken up as 100% Centrally funded scheme and aimed at preventing the pollution of river Ganga and to improve its water quality. The plan was started in June 1985.• National Green Tribunal (NGT) : The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources
Contd.• NLCP : The objective of the scheme is to restore and conserve the urban and semi- urban lakes of the country degraded due to waste water discharge into the lake and other unique freshwater eco systems, through an integrated ecosystem approach.• CAMPA: Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
CAPACITY BUILDING FOR INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION MANAGEMENT• The Capacity Building for Industrial Pollution Management (CBIPM) to build capacity at the state and central level, and develop a framework to address these issues in a comprehensive and systemic manner under an area-wide management approach.
Conclusion• There should be a integrated approach towards evolving an international system.• There should be recognition between sound environmental management and international economic development.