INFORMATION OVERLOAD IN
THE CONTEXT OF APPAREL,
EFFECTS ON CONFIDENCE,
SHOPPERS ORIENTATION
AND LEADERSHIP
(JULIE V. STANT...
HYPOTHESES
H1

Consumer confidence regarding apparel purchases will
be adversely affected by consumer perceptions of
infor...
HYPOTHESES
H3

More exposure to fashion information will increase
clothing purchasing.
Being a trendsetter or a follower i...
MODELS
PERCEPTION OF
INFORMATION

SHOPPING
ORIENTATIONS

HYPOTHESIS 1

CONFIDENCE

HYPOTHESIS 2
MODELS
HYPOTHESIS 3

HYPOTHESIS 4

EXPOSURE

SOCIAL STANDING

APPAREL PURCHASE
LITERATURE REVIEW

METHODOLOGY

&
LITERATURE REVIEW

INFORMATION EXPOSURE AND APPAREL PURCHASING

Purchase decision process leads to:
• Problem recognition
...
LITERATURE REVIEW

INFORMATION EXPOSURE AND APPAREL PURCHASING

Type of techniques to inform shoppers:
• More visual and v...
LITERATURE REVIEW

TRENDSETTER VS. FOLLOWERS APPAREL PURCHASES

Trendsetters according to Summers:
• Higher income
• Highe...
LITERATURE REVIEW

TRENDSETTER VS. FOLLOWERS APPAREL PURCHASES

•

Buy at different locations

•

Impulsive

•

Budget all...
LITERATURE REVIEW

OVERALL

Trendsetters:
• Interest in fashion
• Impulsive buying behavior
• Buy trendy apparel to be “up...
COLLECTION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA

• Replicate a study
• Create two new related hypotheses in order to
compare find...
SAMPLING

•

Convenience

No Specific Emphasis On Gender
•

Participants
18-20
21-23
24-26
27+

Sample size: 50 Students

...
SEVEN FACTORS
Sample Question:

(Q1C): I feel more ____ when I inform myself on
apparel.
Sample Question:

(Q2B): There are so many plac...
Sample question:
(Q3F): Shopping itself is an enjoyable activity regardless of whether I

buy something or not.

Sample qu...
Sample question:

(Q5B): I buy what I see in ads.
Sample question:
(Q6C): If you and your friends were to discuss fashion,...
apparel purchase

Sample question:

7

(Q7): I get ideas from what the people are wearing and I will look
for something si...
“Consumer confidence regarding
apparel purchases will be adversely
affected by consumer perceptions of
information overloa...
“Consumer confidence regarding
apparel purchases will be adversely
affected by consumer perceptions of
information overloa...
H2

“Higher perceptions of information
overload will be correlated with
negative or utilitarian shopping
orientations whil...
H2

“Higher perceptions of information
overload will be correlated with
negative or utilitarian shopping
orientations whil...
“More exposure to fashion
information will increase clothing
purchasing.”

H3

FIGURE 3.A COEFFICIENTSA HYPOTHESIS 3
Model...
“More exposure to fashion
information will increase clothing
purchasing.”

H3

FIGURE 3.C CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 3
Purcha...
H4

“Being a trendsetter or a follower in a
social group will affect their apparel
purchases positively.”

FIGURE 4.A COEF...
H4

“Being a trendsetter or a follower in a
social group will affect their apparel
purchases positively.”

FIGURE 4.C CORR...
H4

“Being a trendsetter or a follower in a
social group will affect their apparel
purchases positively.”

FIGURE 4.B CORR...
TYPE OF DATA COLLECTION METHOD

LIMITATIONS
LIMITATIONS

AGE: 18-27
PARTICIPANTS: Only students
attending JMSB

GENDER: Not specific

Cannot represent the
population ...
LIMITATIONS

PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED
SURVEYS RAPIDLY

DESIGN FLAW: Lack Of A Positive Or
Negative End Of Scale

DISCREPANCY...
LACK OF OBSERVATIONAL AND
EXPERIMENTAL DATA COLLECTION
METHODS
RESPONSE BIAS

TYPE OF DATA COLLECTION METHOD

LIMITATIONS
...
• Replicated hypotheses did not yield the same results
• Sample size is not representative
• Marketers must go big or go h...
Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits
Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits
Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits
Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits
Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits
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Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits

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Presentation made for my Marketing Research class at the John Molson School of Business. (MARK 302/ Autumn 2013)

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Information & Leadership: Effect on consumer purchasing habits

  1. 1. INFORMATION OVERLOAD IN THE CONTEXT OF APPAREL, EFFECTS ON CONFIDENCE, SHOPPERS ORIENTATION AND LEADERSHIP (JULIE V. STANTON AND DIANE M. PAOLO 2012)
  2. 2. HYPOTHESES H1 Consumer confidence regarding apparel purchases will be adversely affected by consumer perceptions of information overload. Higher perceptions of information overload will be correlated with negative or utilitarian shopping orientations while lower perceptions of overload will be correlated with more positive shopping orientations. H2
  3. 3. HYPOTHESES H3 More exposure to fashion information will increase clothing purchasing. Being a trendsetter or a follower in a social group will affect their apparel purchases positively. H4
  4. 4. MODELS PERCEPTION OF INFORMATION SHOPPING ORIENTATIONS HYPOTHESIS 1 CONFIDENCE HYPOTHESIS 2
  5. 5. MODELS HYPOTHESIS 3 HYPOTHESIS 4 EXPOSURE SOCIAL STANDING APPAREL PURCHASE
  6. 6. LITERATURE REVIEW METHODOLOGY &
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW INFORMATION EXPOSURE AND APPAREL PURCHASING Purchase decision process leads to: • Problem recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase • Post-purchase evaluation
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW INFORMATION EXPOSURE AND APPAREL PURCHASING Type of techniques to inform shoppers: • More visual and verbal information • Attitudes and purchase intentions  More positive • Bigger images leads to higher purchase intentions • Smaller images leads to lower purchase intentions
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW TRENDSETTER VS. FOLLOWERS APPAREL PURCHASES Trendsetters according to Summers: • Higher income • Higher education • Social involvement • Media influence • Higher budget allocated to apparel
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW TRENDSETTER VS. FOLLOWERS APPAREL PURCHASES • Buy at different locations • Impulsive • Budget allocation • Different online shopping habits
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW OVERALL Trendsetters: • Interest in fashion • Impulsive buying behavior • Buy trendy apparel to be “up-to-date” • Buy at specialty stores or department stores Followers: • No interest in fashion • Follows budget • Buy apparel to “fit in” • Buy at discount stores
  12. 12. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA • Replicate a study • Create two new related hypotheses in order to compare findings and add to previous research SECONDARY DATA: Databases PRIMARY: Survey  Quantitative Data METHODOLOGY GOALS:
  13. 13. SAMPLING • Convenience No Specific Emphasis On Gender • Participants 18-20 21-23 24-26 27+ Sample size: 50 Students METHODOLOGY •
  14. 14. SEVEN FACTORS
  15. 15. Sample Question: (Q1C): I feel more ____ when I inform myself on apparel. Sample Question: (Q2B): There are so many places to find out fashion trends that it makes me overwhelmed.
  16. 16. Sample question: (Q3F): Shopping itself is an enjoyable activity regardless of whether I buy something or not. Sample question: (Q4E): I constantly see apparel advertisement.
  17. 17. Sample question: (Q5B): I buy what I see in ads. Sample question: (Q6C): If you and your friends were to discuss fashion, what role would you be most likely to play? (Q6H): I do not want to be the first person to be wearing something unusual.
  18. 18. apparel purchase Sample question: 7 (Q7): I get ideas from what the people are wearing and I will look for something similar.
  19. 19. “Consumer confidence regarding apparel purchases will be adversely affected by consumer perceptions of information overload.” H1 FIGURE 1.A COEFFICIENTSA HYPOTHESIS 1 Model B Std. Deviation Beta t Sig. Perception Of Information 0.011 0.048 0.033 0.228 0.821 *data generated from SPSS*
  20. 20. “Consumer confidence regarding apparel purchases will be adversely affected by consumer perceptions of information overload.” H1 FIGURE 1.C CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 1 Shopping Confidence Perception Of Information Person Correlation 0.033 Sig. (Two-tailed) 0.821 *data generated from SPSS*
  21. 21. H2 “Higher perceptions of information overload will be correlated with negative or utilitarian shopping orientations while lower perceptions of overload will be correlated with more positive shopping orientations.” FIGURE 2.A COEFFICIENTSA HYPOTHESIS 2 Model B Std. Deviation Beta t Sig. Perception Of Information -0.001 0.100 -0.002 -0.011 0.991 *data generated from SPSS*
  22. 22. H2 “Higher perceptions of information overload will be correlated with negative or utilitarian shopping orientations while lower perceptions of overload will be correlated with more positive shopping orientations.” FIGURE 2.C CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 2 Perception Of Information Shopping Orientations Person Correlation -0.002 Sig. (Two-tailed) 0.991 *data generated from SPSS*
  23. 23. “More exposure to fashion information will increase clothing purchasing.” H3 FIGURE 3.A COEFFICIENTSA HYPOTHESIS 3 Model B Std. Deviation Beta t Sig. Exposure To Information -0.077 0.100 -0.065 -0.169 0.241 *data generated from SPSS*
  24. 24. “More exposure to fashion information will increase clothing purchasing.” H3 FIGURE 3.C CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 3 Purchasing Habits Exposure to Information Person Correlation -0.169 Sig. (Two-tailed) 0.241 *data generated from SPSS*
  25. 25. H4 “Being a trendsetter or a follower in a social group will affect their apparel purchases positively.” FIGURE 4.A COEFFICIENTSA HYPOTHESIS 4 Model B Std. Deviation Beta t Sig. Social Standings 0.302 0.065 0.554 4.616 0.000 *data generated from SPSS*
  26. 26. H4 “Being a trendsetter or a follower in a social group will affect their apparel purchases positively.” FIGURE 4.C CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 4 Apparel Purchase Social Standings Person Correlation 0.554 Sig. (Two-tailed) 0.000 *data generated from SPSS*
  27. 27. H4 “Being a trendsetter or a follower in a social group will affect their apparel purchases positively.” FIGURE 4.B CORRELATIONS HYPOTHESIS 4 Model R Square 1 0.307 *data generated from SPSS*
  28. 28. TYPE OF DATA COLLECTION METHOD LIMITATIONS
  29. 29. LIMITATIONS AGE: 18-27 PARTICIPANTS: Only students attending JMSB GENDER: Not specific Cannot represent the population as a whole
  30. 30. LIMITATIONS PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED SURVEYS RAPIDLY DESIGN FLAW: Lack Of A Positive Or Negative End Of Scale DISCREPANCY WITH SPSS QUANTITATIVE DATA ONLY
  31. 31. LACK OF OBSERVATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA COLLECTION METHODS RESPONSE BIAS TYPE OF DATA COLLECTION METHOD LIMITATIONS HYPOTHESIS TESTED: General Failed to go in depth to focus on a specific topic within the hypothesis
  32. 32. • Replicated hypotheses did not yield the same results • Sample size is not representative • Marketers must go big or go home • An overload of information makes consumers less inclined to purchase CONCLUSION

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