A dynamic process of determining goals,
systematically selecting alternative courses
of actions to achieve those goals,
implementing the chosen alternatives, and
evaluating the choice to determine if it is
successful. The planning process regards the
environment which includes political,
physical, social and economic elements as
interrelated and interdependent
components which should be taken into
account in considering the future of
Barriers to PlanningBarriers to Planning
1.) Many people are against planning in
principle, particularly within the free-
enterprise system. Many businessmen
view tourism planning as an
encroachment into their domain and are
skeptical of it’s real value.
free enterprise - an economic system
where few restrictions are placed on business
activities and ownership.
encroachment - something that intrudes
and has the power to influence whatever it
Barriers in PlanningBarriers in Planning
2.) It is expensive. Effective tourism
planning must be based upon detailed
resource analysis and market research.
3.) The tourism industry is complex and
diverse. A large number of government
departments have activities that impinge
on tourism. Unlike the automobile
manufacturing business, the tourism
industry cannot be readily identified.
Although the front-line recipients of tourists
expenditure such as hotels, airlines, resorts,
restaurants and commercial attractions are
obvious, others like retail stores and banks
are not normally seen as part of the tourism
industry. Another complication is that many
tourism businesses receive their income both
from visitors and local residents.
Barriers in PlanningBarriers in Planning
4.) Tourism is characterized by few large
businesses and various smaller
enterprises. There is also the tendency
for individual operators to consider
themselves as being in the hotel industry
or restaurant industry rather than
accepting their broader role in the
The Tourism Planning ProcessThe Tourism Planning Process
Planning is an ongoing process that must
keep up with the changing character of
the world and of the destination area.
The planning procedure follows a step by
There are five essential steps inThere are five essential steps in
tourism planning process:tourism planning process:
1.) Background-analysis phase.
-Tourism policy goals are usually
classified into four, namely : economic,
consumer / social, resource / environmental,
and government operations.
2.) Detailed research and analysis phase.
-a valid tourism plan cannot be
formulated without research.
Research should be concentrated in
four distinct areas namely: resources,
markets, activities, and competition.
3.) Synthesis phase.
◦ -tourism plans provide the “bridge”
between the present situation in a
destination area. They provide the
means to an end.
4.) Goal setting, strategy selection and
-the fourth step in the tourism
planning process is to define the planning
goals, strategies, and objectives. They
must becomplementary to policy and
5.) Plan development .
-the last step of the tourism planning
process is the development of the plan.
The plan includes the actions needed to
achieve the objectives, implement the
strategy, and satisfy the planning goals.
Classification of TravelersClassification of Travelers
According to PurposeAccording to Purpose
Travelers have a wide range of classifications
or categories based on the type of travel
they are engaged in. This is an important
detail during travel because it results in
getting the appropriate travel insurance or
the appropriate visa for international flights.
All international travel must have a passport.
Inappropriate insurance or the wrong visa
can create problems for the traveler, so
knowing the classification by purpose makes
a differences in travel.
Business TravelersBusiness Travelers
Business travelers are the men and women
who are traveling for business or job
purposes. This might result in international
travel, or it might remain in the United
States depending on the job and the type of
business. Business travelers going to an
international location need an appropriate
business or work visa for the country before
leaving based on the length of their stay.
Regardless of location, business travelers
should get appropriate travel insurance for
items like work computers.
Student TravelersStudent Travelers
Student travelers is the group that is either traveling
for educational purposes or the travelers who are
going for vacation between classes during school
breaks. Student travelers going abroad must have
appropriate visas, which will differ depending on
whether the trip is a pleasure trip or an educational
trip. For an education trip, student visas allowing the
student to study in a school are necessary, though
countries differ in exact requirements. For
vacationing purposes, students need a tourist visa for
international travel. Visas are not required for
traveling within the United States. Travel insurance
for students will usually cover items like laptops and
Group TravelersGroup Travelers
The group traveler is the large tourist
group, often of friends and family, who have
at least 10 individuals within the group. In
most cases group travelers are going as
tourists to any given location. When
applying for a visa, group travelers usually
apply for a tourist visa to a country. For
insurance purposes, group travelers often
get special rates or deals because of the
large number of individuals.
Medical TravelersMedical Travelers
Medical travelers are those who are
traveling to see a specialized doctor for a
medical ailment. For example, traveling from
one side of the country to the other to see
a specific medical doctor. This type of
traveler will vary in needs for both insurance
or visas depending on the location of the
travel. If traveling to a location outside the
United States the appropriate visa will either
be a tourist or visitors visa or a medical visa
if the country has a separate category.
Family, Senior or SingleFamily, Senior or Single
Vacationers who are not part of a large
group, but rather fall under a family, senior
or single's category, are often separated in
insurance. As far as visas for international
travel are concerned, the typical visa is a
tourist or visitor's visa. For short-term visits,
some countries might have a visa waiver,
such as travel to Japan, which allows
Americans with a valid passport to enter the
country up to 90 days without a visa. In
general, most countries will require a valid
Characteristics Of IndividualCharacteristics Of Individual
Tourism Development ProjectTourism Development Project
Individual tourism development projects
are generated either through the tourism
planning processor by the private sector.
In destinations without tourism plans, the
public sector may identify development
opportunities for private sector
investment. All individual tourism
development opportunities must be
carefully researched and analyzed before
Steps in the Tourism ProjectSteps in the Tourism Project
Evaluation and Analysis SystemEvaluation and Analysis System
The seven steps in the tourism project evaluation and
analysis system are:
1. Pre-feasibility Study
2. Site Analysis
3. Market Analysis
4. Economic Feasibility Study
5. Cost-benefit Analysis
6. Government Financial Incentives in Tourism
7. Private Sector Financing for Tourism Development
Definition of MarketingDefinition of Marketing
Marketing consists of all those activities
necessary to bring a product or service from
the manufacturer to the end user. These
1. The product or service itself
2. The methods of distribution
3. The methods of pricing
4. The methods of promotion
5. The form of selling; and
6. The form of advertising
Uniqueness of Tourism MarketingUniqueness of Tourism Marketing
Although the theories and methods of
marketing tourism are the same as those of
other products, there are some unique
qualities. Tourism is a service. An intangible
experience is being sold, not a physical good
that can be inspected before it is bought.
For example, a consumer does not buy a
bed or a beach, but buys a night’s lodging in
a hotel at the seashore. Because it is a
service, production and consumption take
place at the same time.
Marketing OrientationMarketing Orientation
Product orientation emphasizes the
products or services that are available. It
may be successful if there is a surplus of
demand over supply. Thus, the
destination which offers the best product
will get the tourist. The old adage that
reflects this is “build a better mousetrap,
and the world will beat a path to your
Consumer Orientation places the
needs and wants of the tourist
foremost in the mind of the
marketer who seeks to provide a
product or service that will satisfy
those needs and wants.
Societal-marketing Approach or
Societal Orientation which
focuses on the satisfaction of tourist
needs and wants while respecting the
long-term interests of the