Reformation Background Causes Early reformers Martin Luther Henry VIII Quiz (part 1)
Over centuries, rulers, scholars and members of the clergy criticized church practices. Though reforms were made and introduced publicly during the Middle Ages, problems with the Church still lingered.
Problems in the Catholic Church Corruption of Church leaders ▪ Pope Pius II says “If the truth be confessed, the luxury and pomp of our courts is too great.” Poorly educated low-ranking members of the clergy ▪ Couldn’t read nor teach people of the words of God. Marrying, gambling, drinking, and other practices which counter the doctrines of the Church. ▪ Pope Alexander VI admits to having fathered several children.
In the late 1300s and Girolamo Savonarola early 1400s, John from Florence. Wycliffe and Jan Hus Wanted to change advocated church Florentine’s secular view. reform. Executed for heresy, POPE does NOT have eventually. the right to worldly power. By the early 1500s, more Bible had MORE Europeans began to authority than Church question religious leaders. teachings.
MARTIN LUTHER 95 THESES 1517, Martin Luther opposed These are formal statements the actions of a friar named aimed to criticize the Johann Tetzel who was selling “pardon-merchants”. indulgences by raising money Luther wanted a full reform of to rebuild the St. Peter’s the Church. His ideas rested Cathedral in Rome. on three: People could win salvation only Tetzel gave this impression by God’s forgiveness. that by buying indulgences, a All Church teachings should be person can have an assured clearly based on the words of place in heaven. the Bible. All people with faith were equal.
After being excommunicated, Luther and his followers became a separate religious group called Lutherans. Priests were dressed in ordinary clothes. They would be called as ministers. Ministers were allowed to marry. They led services not in Latin but in German.
Luther was revolutionary in his ideas on the Church’s teachings. Many people began to apply Luther’s ideas to society. German peasants’ revolt to end serfdom Luther’s response: SHOW PEASANTS NO MERCY 100,000 peasants, more or less, were massacred by German princes’ armies.
The agreement that the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler. German princes loyal to the pope VS German princes who supported Luther. Protestants was the term used to refer to these protesting German princes (against an agreement between the Pope and his loyal German princes to join forces against Luther’s ideas). Charles V, wanting to put an end to the dispute between German princes, ordered all of them to assemble in the city of Augsburg.
Was a young, strong, handsome, intelligent royal. Loved sports, literature, music, food, and most of all, he loved his God. Defender of the Faith
Fear of producing no heir Secret marriage to Anne Believed that Catherine of Boleyn Aragon could no longer bear Parliament legalized their a son (they only had one child marriage – Mary) The Parliament ended pope’s First sought to have his power in England by marriage divorced, then he approving the Act of wanted it to be annuled Supremacy Pope’s side is with Catherine Act of Supremacy – English of Aragon king, not the pope, is the official head of England’s Henry breaks with the pope Church. and started the Protestant Anglican Church.
Married 6 times. Produced 3 children, all of whom would eventually rule England: Edward VI – king of England at the age of 9. And ruled for only 6 years. Mary – devout Catholic who reinforced the authority of the Pope over the English Church. Elizabeth I – Anne Boleyn’s daughter who would restore Protestantism in England.
True or False1) According to John Wycliffe and Jan Hus, the bible has more authority than the Church.2) Johann Tetzel was selling his self just so to acquire money for the beautification of St. Peter’s Cathedral.3) Henry VIII was known as the Defender of Faith before going against the Church.4) Henry VIII’s reasons for going against the Church were personal and political.5) Mary would restore Protestantism after the death of Henry VIII.
Became Queen of England in 1558 Elizabeth I returned her kingdom to Protestantism. Somehow, she tried to harmonize Protestantism and Catholicism. For Protestants, priests in the Church of England were allowed to marry. For Catholics, the Church of England maintained the richQUEEN ELIZABETH I, head of the robes and golden crucifixes. Church of England or Anglican Furthermore, the Book of Church Common Prayer was revised to be acceptable to Catholics.
JOHN CALVIN CALVINISM Institutes of the Christian Religion “Men and women are sinful in nature.” Predestination explains that God has known since the beginning who will be Believed that the ideal government was saved. theocracy, Calvin would eventually lead the Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland.
JOHN KNOX PRESBYTERIANS A Scottish preacher who was greatly inspired by Calvin’s ideas. Knox, with other Scottish Protestant nobles, made Calvinism as their country’s official religion. Huguenots, on the other hand are those Calvinists in France.
ANABAPTISM People who had been baptized as children should be rebaptized as adults. “to baptize again” Church and state must be separate, they refused to fight in wars. They shared their Anabaptism would later influence Quakers and Baptists who would possessions. split from Anglican Church
CATHOLIC REFORMATION ST. IGNATIUS DE LOYOLA “Helping Catholics to Spiritual Exercises –laid out remain loyal to the Church” a day by day plan of meditation Aka the COUNTER- Society of Jesus – Jesuits REFORMATION (members of the order) Founded superb schools throughout Europe Convert non-Christians to Catholicism Stop Protestantism from spreading
PAUL III Directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling Approved the Jesuit order Used Inquisition to seek out and punish heresy in papal territory. Gathered a great council of Church leaders at Trent
COUNCIL OF TRENT1) The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was FINAL.2) Christians need faith and good works for salvation.3) The Bible and the Church were equally powerful authorities for guiding the Christian life.4) Indulgences were valid expressions of faith.
PAUL IV EFFECTS OF REFORMATION Index of Forbidden Books – Protestant religion list of books considered flourished dangerous to Catholic Religion no longer united Church. Europe Most of them were Protestant Set the stage for modern Bibles world.