Waiting and Consumer Measures in    Interactive, Multi-Stage Services                Dennis von Bergh                  Pau...
Introduction• Increasing importance of services• Increasing value of time for customers    (Lovelock and Gummesson, 2004)•...
Research Objective• Analyse the relative importance of customer perceptions with the waits before, during and following th...
Research Questions•   What is effect of wait perception affect    consumer measures before, during and    following the se...
Theoretical background 1/3• Waiting time perception    • Service entry wait is predominant: “people want to get          s...
Theoretical Background 2/3• Service & Marguiles (1980),literatureMoffatt (1991)            classification     •Mills      ...
Theoretical Background 3/5• “Revised Service Process Matrix”  (Schmenner, 2004)
Theoretical Background 4/4• Service evaluation literature:• •consumer measures        Pollack (2009), Brady & Cronin (2001...
Theoretical Background 3/3• “Hierarchical Service Quality Model” and the Consumer  Measures (Pollack, 2009; Brady & Cronin...
Adapted Conceptual Model     Basic Conceptual Model                                        Waiting time                   ...
Methodology• Selection service venues    • Maintentance-interactive services: 4 restaurants    • Task-interactive serv.: 1...
Results Basic modelMaintenance-interactive                Task-interactive                      Personal interactiverestau...
Results Adapted model
Results Adapted model
Results Adapted model
ResultsMaintenance-interactive                    Task-interactive                      Personalinteractive      •        ...
Conclusions• Findings nuance Maister’s (1985) proposition   • “People want to get started” (in Maintenance IS)   • “People...
Conclusions• Explanation may be suggested from:   • “StagesTheory”     (Gottschalk & Solli-Saether, 2009)   • “Elaboration...
Limitations, implications and FR• Limitations     •   Customer demographics     •   Objective waiting time aspects     •  ...
Thank youQuestions or comments?
Eirass Presentation July10th Vienna
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Eirass Presentation July10th Vienna

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Presented at the 19th Eirass conference in Vienna on July 10th.

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Eirass Presentation July10th Vienna

  1. 1. Waiting and Consumer Measures in Interactive, Multi-Stage Services Dennis von Bergh Paul Ghijsen Kees Gelderman Presentation preparted for EIRASS TU3.4 sessionOn Service Quality in Vienna July 10th
  2. 2. Introduction• Increasing importance of services• Increasing value of time for customers (Lovelock and Gummesson, 2004)• Negative influence between waiting time perception and service evaluation• Few studies on waiting in multi-stage services (Hensley & Sulek, 2007) • Pre-process phase with service-entry wait • In-process phase with in-service wait • Post-process phaseLeclerc, 1988) (Dubé-Rioux, Schmitt & with service-exit wait
  3. 3. Research Objective• Analyse the relative importance of customer perceptions with the waits before, during and following the service delivery in relation to service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.
  4. 4. Research Questions• What is effect of wait perception affect consumer measures before, during and following the service?• Which wait perception exerts the largest relative influence?• Does the effect of wait perception on customer metrics differ between service industries?• What is the effect of waiting time satisfaction on waiting time and consumer measures
  5. 5. Theoretical background 1/3• Waiting time perception • Service entry wait is predominant: “people want to get started” (Maister, 1985; Davis & Maggard, 1990; Hwang & Lambert, 2005; Hensley & Sulek, 2007) • Objective, subjective, cognitive and affective aspects Demoulin, 2007) (Bielen &• Hierarchical Service Quality Model 2001) (Pollack, 2009; Brady & Cronin, • Service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty (Hayes, 2008; Söderlund, 2006)• Service classification literature • Interaction (Mills & Marguiles, 1980, 1986; O’Farrell & Moffatt, 1991) • Processes (Schmenner, 2004)
  6. 6. Theoretical Background 2/3• Service & Marguiles (1980),literatureMoffatt (1991) classification •Mills O’Farrell & • Maintenance interactive services (MIS) • Cosmetic, continuous employee/customer interaction with focus on building trust/confidence to sustain relationship • Restaurants, banks, insurance • Task interactive services (TIS) • Concentrated employee/customer interaction with focus on the task to be performed • Job selection, advertising, engineering • Personal interactive services (PIS) • Focuses on the improvement of the client/customers direct intrinsic and intimate wellbeing • Dentists, schools, professionals
  7. 7. Theoretical Background 3/5• “Revised Service Process Matrix” (Schmenner, 2004)
  8. 8. Theoretical Background 4/4• Service evaluation literature:• •consumer measures Pollack (2009), Brady & Cronin (2001) • Service quality • Interaction quality • Physical environment quality • Outcome quality • Hayes (2008), Söderlund (2006) • Customer satisfaction • Transaction perspective • Service perspective • Overall perspective • Customer loyalty • Word-of-mouth • (re)purchase intentions
  9. 9. Theoretical Background 3/3• “Hierarchical Service Quality Model” and the Consumer Measures (Pollack, 2009; Brady & Cronin, 2001)
  10. 10. Adapted Conceptual Model Basic Conceptual Model Waiting time satisfaction Perceived service Service quality entry waiting time Perceived in-service Customer waiting time satisfaction Perceived service Customer exit waiting time loyalty…waiting time satisfaction is a complete mediating variable in the perceived waiting time and service satisfaction link … (Bielen and DeMoulin, 2007)
  11. 11. Methodology• Selection service venues • Maintentance-interactive services: 4 restaurants • Task-interactive serv.: 1 job selection center 4 processes • Personal-interactive serv.: 1 dental clinic 4 dental proc.• 500 questionnaires per service venue• Simple random sampling (p=.5) Results overview• 1027 respondents included (response rate 68,5%) • 329 Mi (65.8%), 343 Ti (68,6%), 355 Pi (71%)• Age: mean=33, sd=17, min=13, max=87• 59% Male, 41% female
  12. 12. Results Basic modelMaintenance-interactive Task-interactive Personal interactiverestaurants job selection dental * significant p<.05, ** significant p<.01 and *** significant p<.001
  13. 13. Results Adapted model
  14. 14. Results Adapted model
  15. 15. Results Adapted model
  16. 16. ResultsMaintenance-interactive Task-interactive Personalinteractive • * significant p<.05, ** significant p<.01 and *** significant p<.001
  17. 17. Conclusions• Findings nuance Maister’s (1985) proposition • “People want to get started” (in Maintenance IS) • “People want to get on with it” (in Personal IS) • “People want to leave asap” (in Task IS)• Two effect-routes of waiting time perception • Central route with high involvement processing and (largest) cognitive formulation of service quality • Peripheral route with low involvement processing and direct effect on customer satisfaction “Elaboration Likelihood Model” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
  18. 18. Conclusions• Explanation may be suggested from: • “StagesTheory” (Gottschalk & Solli-Saether, 2009) • “Elaboration Likelihood Model” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) • Conscious central route • High involvement processing • Cognitive responses • Conscious formulation of service quality • Direct effect of wait satisfaction on service quality • Unconscious peripheral route • Low involvement processing • Customer makes less cognitive effort and • Unconsciously formulation of service quality • Direct effect of wait satisfaction on customer satisfaction
  19. 19. Limitations, implications and FR• Limitations • Customer demographics • Objective waiting time aspects • Emotional states of consumers (e.g. anxiety) • Consciousness of the wait (awareness)• Theoretical implications • Service settings matter and mediation matters• Managerial implications • Influence relative importance of wait stages (in combination with type of customer interaction)• Further research • Customers’ emotional states (e.g. anxiety) • Customers’ degree of consciousness of a wait situation • Manage expectations via Edutainment or playing games
  20. 20. Thank youQuestions or comments?

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