Parking Policies for Avoiding Car Dependence
Paul Barter
http://www.reinventingparking.org/
http://www.adb.org/publication...
Summary
Failings of mainstream parking policy
The unglamorous secret to success
A “map” of reform options
A promising, res...
Most parking policy is
modelled on the USA’s
conventional suburban
approach:
Assumes parking should be
on-site infrastruct...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Conventional suburban:
Fears on-street parking chaos
(‘spillover’)
Any successful al...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Wasteful parking investments
Much off-street parking
is under-used
even when nearby
...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Parking search traffic
Saturated on-street parking
causes ‘cruising for parking’
Oft...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Conventional parking
policy is a ‘fertility drug for
cars’ and generator of
traffic
...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Harm to housing
affordability
Obstacle to legalization of
extra-legal settlements
Ku...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Decline and blight of old
urban districts
Parking regulations hinder
re-use, redevel...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Conventional approach in
South and Southeast Asia
http://www.adb.org/publications/pa...
Failings of mainstream parking policy
Conventional approach in Latin America
Source: Guía Práctica Estacionamiento y Polít...
Unglamorous secret to success:
on-street management basics
Clear rules
Build enforcement capacity
Trustworthy time-based f...
Many cities lack trusted pricing
and lack mechanism for
time-based fees
But crucial for fairness
(pay for what you use)
an...
Parking inventories
Simple occupancy surveys
At least for problem districts
Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
Unglamorous s...
Unglamorous secret to success:
on-street management basics
Enforcement needs to be ‘good enough’:
– Prioritize efforts
– C...
Unglamorous secret to success:
on-street management basics
Strong on-street parking management:
frees us from the trap of ...
A “map” of reform options
Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
Every site should
have its own
parking
Parking facilities
serve...
A “map” of reform options
1. Moderate the conventional suburban approach
Same assumptions but a moderated goal: Avoid exce...
A “map” of reform options
2. “Parking management”
Parking is still ‘infrastructure’
but now for whole area
Active manageme...
A “map” of reform options
Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
3. Responsive
Parking is a real-estate based
service (like meet...
A “map” of reform options
Responsive: Donald Shoup’s proposals
i. Price on-street parking for 85%
occupancy
ii. Use revenu...
A “map” of reform options
Responsive (de facto) in Japan
Almost no on-street parking
Parking minimums are low
and exempt s...
Adaptive Parking
A variation on, and extension of,
Donald Shoup’s proposals
Nudge policies along these five reform
directi...
Adaptive Parking
Share! (make most
parking shared or open
to the public)
Foster ‘park-once districts’
Discourage
this
Aust...
Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
A promising responsive approach
San Francisco has an ambitious
version (SFPark) but many ...
Adaptive Parking Sweeten! (make
stakeholders happy)
For example, spend local parking
revenue very locally
Parking Benefit ...
Adaptive Parking
Despite high car ownership, Japan has
very low parking requirements and
exempts small buildings
Relax! (a...
Adaptive Parking
Parking options
Alternatives to
driving a private car
Counter “my car is
necessary” pleas
Choice! (improv...
Adaptive Parking
The five reforms directions WORK
TOGETHER to make parking
systems more responsive
Share! (make most parki...
A promising responsive approach
1. Build/improve on-street management basics
(necessary for all parking policy progress!)
...
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Parking policies for avoiding car dependence (presented at Ecomobility 2 sept 2013)

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Explains how the conventional approach to parking is messed up. Suggests an unglamorous secret to success. The offers a "road map" of reform options.

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Parking policies for avoiding car dependence (presented at Ecomobility 2 sept 2013)

  1. 1. Parking Policies for Avoiding Car Dependence Paul Barter http://www.reinventingparking.org/ http://www.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-citiesAuckland, New Zealand
  2. 2. Summary Failings of mainstream parking policy The unglamorous secret to success A “map” of reform options A promising, responsive approach Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  3. 3. Most parking policy is modelled on the USA’s conventional suburban approach: Assumes parking should be on-site infrastructure (like the toilets with a building) So every site needs “enough” parking for its own demand Parking standards (minimums) The median USA parking requirements for restaurants. Source Seth Goodman http://graphingparking.wordpress.com/ Failings of mainstream parking policy Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  4. 4. Failings of mainstream parking policy Conventional suburban: Fears on-street parking chaos (‘spillover’) Any successful alternative must transcend this fear! Assumes on-street parking management is too hard Assumes private sector will not supply enough unless forced to (a self-fulfilling prophecy) Dhaka, Bangladesh Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  5. 5. Failings of mainstream parking policy Wasteful parking investments Much off-street parking is under-used even when nearby on-street parking is full and chaotic Parking chaos often remains Shenzhen, China Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  6. 6. Failings of mainstream parking policy Parking search traffic Saturated on-street parking causes ‘cruising for parking’ Often 30% or more of traffic volume Seoul, Korea Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  7. 7. Failings of mainstream parking policy Conventional parking policy is a ‘fertility drug for cars’ and generator of traffic Locks us into or pushes us towards automobile dependence Unjust subsidies and cross-subsidies Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Auckland, New Zealand A new, heavily subsidized parking structure in Delhi, India, which remains under-used despite continued on-street parking chaos nearby
  8. 8. Failings of mainstream parking policy Harm to housing affordability Obstacle to legalization of extra-legal settlements Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Near Mexico City
  9. 9. Failings of mainstream parking policy Decline and blight of old urban districts Parking regulations hinder re-use, redevelopment and infill Promotes demolitions for parking Near the center of Houston, USA (via Google Maps) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  10. 10. Failings of mainstream parking policy Conventional approach in South and Southeast Asia http://www.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  11. 11. Failings of mainstream parking policy Conventional approach in Latin America Source: Guía Práctica Estacionamiento y Políticas de Reducción de Congestión en América Latina (Practical guide to parking and policies to reduce congestion in Latin America) p.84 Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Square metres of commercial space per required parking space Cities in Brazil, Mexico and Chile have high parking requirements
  12. 12. Unglamorous secret to success: on-street management basics Clear rules Build enforcement capacity Trustworthy time-based fees Parking data collection capacities Strengthen parking institutions Good on-street management opens up other options and frees us from the trap of the conventional approach Dhaka Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Photo by Flickr user gregwake
  13. 13. Many cities lack trusted pricing and lack mechanism for time-based fees But crucial for fairness (pay for what you use) and as key tool of parking management Makati, Metro Manila, The Philippines Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Unglamorous secret to success: on-street management basics
  14. 14. Parking inventories Simple occupancy surveys At least for problem districts Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Unglamorous secret to success: on-street management basics
  15. 15. Unglamorous secret to success: on-street management basics Enforcement needs to be ‘good enough’: – Prioritize efforts – Clear rules and signs – Better as an administrative, not a law court matter – Best NOT by the police! – Better at local level – Keep revenue very local – Better outsourced to private contractors Good models include: UK, Netherlands, Spain, Japan(since 2006) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  16. 16. Unglamorous secret to success: on-street management basics Strong on-street parking management: frees us from the trap of the conventional suburban approach expands our parking policy options But what are the options? Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  17. 17. A “map” of reform options Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Every site should have its own parking Parking facilities serve whole neighbourhoods Parking is “infrastructure” 1. conventional 2. parking management Parking is a “real-estate based service” 3. Responsive With sub-types distinguished by parking policy goals (especially regarding parking supply)
  18. 18. A “map” of reform options 1. Moderate the conventional suburban approach Same assumptions but a moderated goal: Avoid excessive wasteful parking supply, not just shortage For example, King County, Washington, USA: “Right-sizing” of parking requirements to better match local conditions and actual demand Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking http://www.rightsizeparking.org/
  19. 19. A “map” of reform options 2. “Parking management” Parking is still ‘infrastructure’ but now for whole area Active management (prices, eligibility, time-limits, sharing, supply, etc.) Various goals Management often favours residents and retailers Many cities limit parking supply in city centres Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  20. 20. A “map” of reform options Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking 3. Responsive Parking is a real-estate based service (like meeting rooms) serving each area Make on-street prices responsive (occupancy target) Make off-street supply choices responsive to context Involve very local stakeholders Source: Shoup, D. The High Cost of Free Parking
  21. 21. A “map” of reform options Responsive: Donald Shoup’s proposals i. Price on-street parking for 85% occupancy ii. Use revenue as desired by local stakeholders iii. Abolish minimum parking requirements Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  22. 22. A “map” of reform options Responsive (de facto) in Japan Almost no on-street parking Parking minimums are low and exempt small buildings Proof of parking law In inner areas of Japanese cities, most parking is commercial and supply and prices depend primarily on market conditions in each area Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  23. 23. Adaptive Parking A variation on, and extension of, Donald Shoup’s proposals Nudge policies along these five reform directions to make your parking system more responsive to local context Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Price! (price to prevent queues and cruising for parking) Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) Relax! (about supply) Choice! (improve options and ensure competition in parking) For more information see www.reinventingparking.org Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach
  24. 24. Adaptive Parking Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Foster ‘park-once districts’ Discourage this Australia Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach Various cities have incentives for parking with buildings to be open to the public Shared parking, like shared seating at food courts, is much more efficient
  25. 25. Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach San Francisco has an ambitious version (SFPark) but many cities do this to some extent. This is Central Seattle for example. Adaptive Parking Price! (price with the aim of preventing queues and cruising for parking) For example, have an on-street OCCUPANCY TARGET If >>85% full THEN ↑ price If <<85% full THEN ↓ price Otherwise no change See http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/parking/paidparking.htm
  26. 26. Adaptive Parking Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) For example, spend local parking revenue very locally Parking Benefit Districts are one possible mechanism Singapore Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach
  27. 27. Adaptive Parking Despite high car ownership, Japan has very low parking requirements and exempts small buildings Relax! (about supply) Many jurisdictions have abolished parking requirements, with little evidence of ill-effects: For example, England, Berlin, central parts of San Francisco, New York, Boston, Portland and Seattle and city centres in Australia. http://beta.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach
  28. 28. Adaptive Parking Parking options Alternatives to driving a private car Counter “my car is necessary” pleas Choice! (improve options and ensure competition in parking) Tokyo Ahmedabad Sydney Vienna Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking A promising responsive approach
  29. 29. Adaptive Parking The five reforms directions WORK TOGETHER to make parking systems more responsive Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Price! (price to prevent queues and cruising for parking) Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) Relax! (about supply) Choice! (improve options and ensure competition) For more information see www.reinventingparking.org A promising responsive approach Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  30. 30. A promising responsive approach 1. Build/improve on-street management basics (necessary for all parking policy progress!) 2. Adaptive Parking: make parking prices, supply and demand more responsive to local context and to each other 3. Then many places can also use parking policy for demand management (where relevant and politically possible, primarily by constraining supply in transit-rich city centers and sub-centers) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking For more on my parking views see www.reinventingparking.org

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