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Parking Management Opens Wider Opportunities

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Keynote #2 by Paul Barter at the Parking Industry Exhibition (PIE) 2017 in Chicago, March 2017.

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Parking Management Opens Wider Opportunities

  1. 1. PARKING MANAGEMENT OPENS WIDER OPPORTUNITIES Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org @ReinventParking Keynote Presentation for PIE 2017
  2. 2. Mindset matters Mindsets matter! Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  3. 3. Parking is usually planned like … Can you guess what’s coming? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  4. 4. Parking is usually planned like … Restrooms Every development expected to provide enough on-site to meet its own demand Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  5. 5. But is parking really like restrooms? Do people do it in the streets without embarrassment? Does off-street provision easily prevent a mess in the street? Does everyone need it, or only motorists? Do some users occupy it for hours on end? Can we predict long-term demand, even if the use changes? How much space and cost does it take to have enough? Does oversupply encourage excessive use? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  6. 6. Parking is also often planned like … Transit As a public service/infrastructure that serves an area Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  7. 7. Parking supply can ALSO be determined like … Restaurants A real-estate service serving an area and provided by a competitive market at market- responsive prices Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo: Matthew Roth
  8. 8. Off-street parking ~~ restaurants On-street parking ~~ sidewalk vendors Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  9. 9. Off-street parking ~~ restaurants On-street parking ~~ sidewalk vendors (which the city needs to regulate) Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  10. 10. like restrooms in car-oriented suburbs Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Parking is usually planned …
  11. 11. like restrooms like transit in car-oriented suburbs in many urban districts Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Parking is usually planned …
  12. 12. like restrooms like transit like restaurants in car-oriented suburbs in many urban districts in some downtowns Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Parking is usually planned …
  13. 13. Can we EXPAND the zones in which parking supply is determined like transit or like restaurants? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  14. 14. And can we shrink the area in which it is planned like restrooms? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Blackwood, South Australia
  15. 15. Which of these yields most value from urban space? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Urban success Like restrooms? Like restaurants? Like local streets? Which is most responsive to change? Which is most adaptable to local context?
  16. 16. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Donald Shoup’s most prominent three proposals for municipal parking policy i. Price on-street parking for 85% occupancy ii. Use revenue as desired by local stakeholders iii. Abolish minimum parking requirements
  17. 17. Adaptive Parking Towards municipal parking policy that delivers: - success without excess - responsiveness to local conditions and to change - more value from urban space Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  18. 18. THE PRIZE Freedom, Choices, Options! Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  19. 19. Traffic reduced Housing affordability Unleash part of parking ‘land bank’ Transit-oriented development boost Infill boost Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  20. 20. Fiscally healthy development Fargo (as highlighted by Strong Towns) Renaissance zone: zero parking minimums Enormous increase in assessed value of the area Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image via https://www.strongtowns.org/journal/2015/11/23/ robust-growth-and-development-without-mandating-parking
  21. 21. “Future proof” the parking ecosystem Adaptive Parking thrusts aim to increase market- responsiveness in local parking Photo by Grendelkhan CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikipedia Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  22. 22. RELAX! Success without Excess Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  23. 23. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org The place where my elementary school used to be
  24. 24. Enough yet? Urban success? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo: Paul Barter Noarlunga, South Australia (via Google Maps)
  25. 25. Stop boosting supply So long as on-street parking is very well managed Photo by Flickr user gregwake Photo by Mariordo - CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons Sao Paulo in Brazil completely abolished parking minimums in 2014 Paul Barter
  26. 26. Abolishingparkingminimumsis notradical: exampleLondon No non-residential minimums since 1974 (maximums instead) Similarly for residential minimums since 2004 Average 40% fewer spaces with new residential buildings (steepest drops in transit-rich areas) (Zhan Guo) London PTAL (public transport accessiility level) scores Photo by Rept0n1x CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons Beaufort Park Apartments, Colindale, London Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  27. 27. Abolishingparkingminimumsis notradical: exampleBerlin 0.25 € / per 15 min 0.50 € / per 15 min 0.75 € / per 15 min Off-street parking deregulation was complemented by improved on-street management (Image source: Dr Friedemann Kunst) In the 1990s: Berlin abolished ALL parking minimums No maximums Result: less parking in transit-oriented locations but little change elsewhere (according to Dr Kunst, former head of transport for the Berlin Senate) Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  28. 28. Abolishingparkingminimumsis notradical: exampleUSA cities Source: Strong Towns, http://www.strongtowns.org/journal/2015/11/18/a- map-of-cities-that-got-rid-of-parking-minimums Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  29. 29. At least make parking minimums less harmful: Japan Simple land-use categories (only 2 main ones) for parking minimums Zero parking minimums for small and medium-sized buildings <1500 m2 Low minimums generally (applying in full only for buildings with 6,000 m2 or more): Office: 0.3 spaces per 100 m2 Retail: 0.4 spaces per 100 m2 Residential: 0.2 to 0.3 spaces per 100 m2 (Gradually rises to these levels between 1500 and 6000 m2) Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  30. 30. Fix more than just the minimums Tax and zoning anomalies Parking usually doesn’t count as floor area in zoning codes Dubious evaluation practices for city parking investments Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  31. 31. SHARE! “Walkable Parking” Towards more widespread park-once-and-walk districts where most parking is open to the public Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  32. 32. Each site required to provide enough on- site parking for its own peak parking demand Visitors to a site expected to park on site Graphic by Patrick Siegman of Nelson/Nygaard Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  33. 33. Graphics by Patrick Siegman of Nelson/Nygaard Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  34. 34. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Source: ITDP, Shared Parking, 2015.
  35. 35. Park-once-and-walkdistricts Encourage parking to be open to the public Stop requiring on-site parking Focus on design quality not quantity Manage on-street parking well Parking guidance Walkability Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  36. 36. Avoid permit- holder ONLY zones Prefer permit zones that give priority to permit holders Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.orgImage by DeFacto [CC BY-SA 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons
  37. 37. ON-STREET PARKING UNDER CONTROL Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  38. 38. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  39. 39. Weak on-street parking management Obstruction, double parking, cruising On-street parking panic Excessive parking supply Undermining urban success Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  40. 40. Many cities have improved their on-street parking management recently Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  41. 41. PRICE! Responsive rationing both on-street and off Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  42. 42. GOAL: new arrivals find a space PRICE-SETTING PRACTICE: occupancy targets For city-owned parking BOTH on-street AND off-street Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image source: Donald Shoup, ‘Cruising for Parking’, Access Magazine, Spring 2007. http://www.accessmagazine.org/articles/spring-2007/cruising-parking/
  43. 43. Price zones: howbig? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Los Angeles Express Park Calgary
  44. 44. Discourage bundling of parking costs Unbundle parking in commercial space leases Unbundle residential parking costs Discourage employer-provided free parking Avoid the oversupply that prompts bundling
  45. 45. ENGAGE! Engage with local stakeholders who feel a strong sense of ownership over local parking Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  46. 46. Canwegetthatsnowballrolling? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org By Kamyar Adl (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0] via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGiant_snowball_Oxford.jpg
  47. 47. COULD THIS WORK FOR YOU? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  48. 48. Benefits from even small steps on each Adaptive Parking thrust? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Wicker Park, Chicago, IL Image via Google Maps
  49. 49. Benefits from even small steps on each Adaptive Parking thrust? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Blackwood, South Australia Part of central Detroit Image via Google Maps
  50. 50. Benefits from even small steps on each Adaptive Parking thrust? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Blackwood, South Australia Image via Google Maps
  51. 51. Benefits from even small steps on each Adaptive Parking thrust? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Blackwood, South Australia Image via Google Maps
  52. 52. THANK YOU Questions? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org @ReinventParking

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