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On-Street Parking Management: Confront the Key Choices

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Keynote #1 by Paul Barter at the Parking Industry Exhibition (PIE) 2017 in Chicago, March 2017.

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On-Street Parking Management: Confront the Key Choices

  1. 1. ON-STREET PARKING MANAGEMENT Confront the Key Choices Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org @ReinventParking Keynote Presentation for PIE 2017
  2. 2. On-street parking should be boring Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org By Yoshimasa Niwa from Tokyo, Japan (IMG_0061.JPG) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  3. 3. On-street parking should be boring Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Public domain image by Kici via Wikimedia Commons
  4. 4. Sadly, it is often far from boring Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Jakarta, IndonesiaDhaka., Bangladesh
  5. 5. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  6. 6. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  7. 7. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image by Derek Harper from http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2592439 licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence Image from SFGate's City Insider blog
  8. 8. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Beijing, China
  9. 9. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Adelaide, Australia
  10. 10. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Smart (digital) single-space meter in San Francisco (Photo by Carlos Gomez on Flickr)
  11. 11. Many cities have improved their on-street parking management recently
  12. 12. Parking success for urban success Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Berlin, Germany
  13. 13. Take it seriously The stakes are high Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Summary
  14. 14. The right goals? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Summary
  15. 15. Do what you have to do Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Summary
  16. 16. Support and trust Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Summary
  17. 17. Wider opportunities Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Summary
  18. 18. Who is this guy? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  19. 19. Who is this guy? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  20. 20. Who is this guy? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  21. 21. Who is this guy? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  22. 22. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Who is this guy?
  23. 23. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Who is this guy?
  24. 24. TAKE IT SERIOUSLY THE STAKES ARE HIGH Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  25. 25. How bad can it get? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Palembang, Indonesia
  26. 26. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Dhaka, Bangladesh
  27. 27. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Ahmedabad, India
  28. 28. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Something missing Beijing, China
  29. 29. Does this help local business? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Beijing, China
  30. 30. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Shenzhen. China
  31. 31. How much of your traffic is reallyjust cruisingfor parking? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Seoul, South Korea
  32. 32. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Shortage or management problem? Obstructive on-street parking in Amman, Jordan; Kiev, Ukraine; and Beijing, China (Photos by Andrea Broaddus, Manfred Breithaupt and Paul Barter)
  33. 33. Chaos! There must be a parking shortage! Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org New Delhi, India
  34. 34. … or maybe not Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Shenzhen (2013) Parking chaos in the streets Half-empty off-street parking nearby Photos: Paul Barter
  35. 35. Weak on-street parking management Obstruction, double parking, cruising On-street parking panic Excessive parking supply Undermining urban success Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  36. 36. Enough? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo: Paul Barter Bangkok
  37. 37. Enough yet? Is this urban success? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo: Paul Barter Near the center of Houston, USA (via Google Maps)
  38. 38. Enough yet? Urban success? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo: Paul Barter Noarlunga, South Australia (via Google Maps)
  39. 39. THE RIGHT GOALS? Which on-street parking management goals are best for building urban success? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  40. 40. Parkingwhere you want it, the way you want it Toulouse, France Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo by Andrea Broaddus, GIZ-SUTP on Flickr
  41. 41. … nowhere else Beijing, China Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  42. 42. … including no double parking Near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  43. 43. And minimal cruising for parking Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Mumbai, India
  44. 44. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Perception of shortage Side- effects Full parking in streets
  45. 45. Ensure vacancies on arrival Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Seoul, South Korea
  46. 46. Vacancies versus turnover Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Palembang, Indonesia
  47. 47. Should revenue be a key goal? Jakarta, Indonesia Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  48. 48. How about demand management (TDM)? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Source for map: Presentation by Sang Bum Kim (Assistant Mayor for City Transportation), “Policy Directions of Seoul for a Clean and Green City” to CUD Global Conference Seoul 2009 Seoul strictly limits the parking supply in 5 large business districts
  49. 49. How about demand management (TDM)? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Vienna, Austria
  50. 50. So simple goals? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Not in anyone’s way Never full Revenue nice but never primary
  51. 51. DO WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO: PREVENT NUISANCE PARKING Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  52. 52. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Carrera 15, Bogotá, Colombia: before and after Mayor Peñalosa’s 1999-2000 parking reforms Photos via Carlos Felipe Pardo http://www.reinventingparking.org/2010/10/parking-revolution-in-bogota-golden-era.html
  53. 53. Via designand clearmarkings/ signageif possible Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org CG Road, Ahmedabad, India
  54. 54. Is this parking on-street or off-street? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Ahmedabad, India
  55. 55. Basics that should go without saying Vehicle owner responsibility not driver Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Tokyo, Japan
  56. 56. Basics that shouldgo without saying Robust registry of vehicles Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Kathmandu, Nepal
  57. 57. Basics that shouldgo without saying In most countries, local wardens are best. Don’t just rely on traffic police. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Taipei, Taiwan
  58. 58. Basics that shouldgo without saying Keep it an administrative matter (civil) and out of the law courts as much as possible Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo ‘Traffic warden Campden’ by SalimFadhley under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=86724 Campden, London
  59. 59. Basics that should go without saying: Lax enforcement is not the answer to a backlash Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Beijing, China
  60. 60. Oppportunity: LPR Capture plates Digital enforce- ment Pay by plate License Plate Recognition Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  61. 61. DO WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO: RATION (USUALLY WITH PRICING) Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  62. 62. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.orgBogor, Indonesia
  63. 63. Toughest nut = late at night in old, dense residential Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Beijing, China
  64. 64. Japan’s approach Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org This makes the night parking ban reasonable and easier to enforce Night on-street parking ban So there is no point cheating on proof of parking Proof of parking See http://www.reinventingparking.org/2014/06/japans-proof-of-parking-rule-has.html
  65. 65. Permits Can you limit the number? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.orgImage by DeFacto [CC BY-SA 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons
  66. 66. Daytime/non-residentialiseasier One option: time limits Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Melbourne, AustraliaStockholm, Sweden Image by Ellgaard via Wikimedia Commons
  67. 67. On-street pricing really does work No meters Meters Prices quadrupled (free parking) (price a little too low) (now too high) Grosvenor square, London Source: TRL via ITDP (2011): Europe‘s Parking U-Turn but based on a figure in Donald Shoup‘s High Cost of Free Parking Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  68. 68. On-streetpricing works Saudi Arabia Used with permission: Andrew Perrier, Mawqif, Presentation to the 2nd Annual Parking Management Conference, Singapore, Feb. 2017. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  69. 69. Basicsthatshouldgowithoutsaying: don’t banon-streetparkingfeesundernationallaw! Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image: Parking meter in Moscow https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Parking_meter_in_Moscow_02.jpg by Stolbovsky - under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license Moscow, Russia Image: Kozitsky (Staropimenovsky incorrect file name) Lane, Moscow, 2007 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Moscow,_Kozitsky_Lane.jpg by NVO - under a CC BY 3.0 license
  70. 70. Basics that should go without saying: fees must be duration-based to “work” Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Dhaka, Bangladesh
  71. 71. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Pricing mechanisms Beijing, China
  72. 72. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Pricing mechanisms Singapore
  73. 73. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Pricing mechanisms Hong Kong
  74. 74. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Pricing mechanisms Tokyo, Japan
  75. 75. Digital pricing mechanisms Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Ann Arbor digital pay-by-space multi-space parking meter. Image by Dwight Burdette (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons)
  76. 76. Digital pricing mechanisms Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Westminster, UK Glasgow, UK
  77. 77. Digital paid parking with no meters Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Shenzhen, China
  78. 78. Digital paid parking with no meters Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image via Google Street View https://www.google.com.sg/maps/@32.0813772,34.7762914,3a,75y,101.49h,87.47t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s1T3RHO7LBKGBsf7qZ0qtdA!2e0!7i13312!8i6656?hl=en Tel Aviv, Isreal
  79. 79. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Digitalpaidparkingwithno meters:Singaporefrom2020 Image copyright: Channel News Asia, 25 Feb 2017Image: Singapore Land Transport Authority, Feb 2017
  80. 80. The right price? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Political judgement Serve traffic reduction goals Turnover (short durations) Public transport fares as benchmark Intensity of development or land values On-street prices higher than off- street Non-systematic occupancy targeting Occupancy targeting with simple zones Precise occupancy targeting with tiny zones
  81. 81. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image source: Donald Shoup, ‘Cruising for Parking’, Access Magazine, Spring 2007. http://www.accessmagazine.org/articles/spring-2007/cruising-parking/
  82. 82. Occupancy targeting behind the scenes is not new. Why make it explicit? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  83. 83. Price zones: howbig? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Los Angeles Express Park Calgary
  84. 84. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/parking/paidparking.htm Seattle
  85. 85. Occupancy targeting with a mix of cars and motorcycles? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Kathmandu, Nepal
  86. 86. EARN SUPPORT AND TRUST Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  87. 87. Peoplehate feelingtricked Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Washington, DC (Photo by ‘Dada1960’ in Wikimedia Commons)
  88. 88. Make it easy to add time or register start/stop time Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Image by RichardBH - Pay by phone at University of Guelph under CC BY 2.0 license
  89. 89. “Parking ambassadors” Image by Gerald England and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Tameside, UK
  90. 90. Address privacy concerns ? Image by opensource.com (Facebook: The privacy saga continues) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  91. 91. Make sure there are visible improvements Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Vienna, Austria
  92. 92. TheThe Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Bearman of Bearman Cartoons Aug 8 2010 under this Creative Commons License
  93. 93. Make parking management primary not revenue and be willing to prove it Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  94. 94. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Performance pricing (occupancy targets) Lowest price that hits target Allays retailer fears Walk a bit for lower prices Visit off- peak for lower prices Debate principle not each adjustment
  95. 95. Whocan(andwill)vetoparkingmanagementif unpersuaded? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Power High Context setters (keep satisfied) Players (engage closely and influence actively) Low Crowd (monitor, minimal effort) Subjects (keep informed) Low High Interest
  96. 96. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org New Delhi, India Ahmedabad, India
  97. 97. SomeDonaldShoup suggestions Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Enforcement Target scofflaws Warnings only for first-time violations Pricing Discount for locals Parking benefit districts Surplus to charity
  98. 98. Parking Benefit Districts: Can it take off? Can we aim higher? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org By Kamyar Adl (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0] via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGiant_snowball_Oxford.jpg
  99. 99. Permits But not for residents of new buildings Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Nightingale 2 apartment project in Fairfield (an inner north suburb of Melbourne) recently approved with zero car parking. Image source: The Fifth Estate http://www.thefifthestate.com.au/innovation/residential-2/nightingale-2-no-parking-ok-with-vcat/88373
  100. 100. Willoff-streetparking “transitions”ease resistanceto on-street management? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  101. 101. OPEN WIDER OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUR CITY Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  102. 102. Can we aim so high that ... No shortage perceived No pressure for more supply Parking-related fears eased “Management first, before supply” is plausible No fuss. It just works Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  103. 103. Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org 0.25 € / per 15 min 0.50 € / per 15 min 0.75 € / per 15 min (Image source: Dr Friedemann Kunst) Potsdamer Platz, Berlin. Image by Michael J. Zirbes (public domain image) https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=715371 Berlin –urbansuccess withoutparkingexcess?
  104. 104. Strong On-street Parking Management Less perception of shortage Motorists more willing to use and pay for off-street parking Market gets right signals on parking investments Less fear of developments that add to parking demand Courage to abolish parking minimums Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  105. 105. Strong On-street Parking Management Less perception of shortage Motorists more willing to use and pay for off-street parking Market gets right signals on parking investments Less fear of developments that add to parking demand Courage to abolish parking minimums Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org
  106. 106. Future proof? Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org Photo by Grendelkhan CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikipedia
  107. 107. PARKING MANAGEMENT Opens Wider Opportunities Paul Barter www.reinventingparking.org @ReinventParking WEDNESDAY
  108. 108. THANK YOU Questions?

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