Health, stress, and coping


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  • Ages ranged from 2 to 81 years old (median 28 years). The 20-29 year old age group had the most (58%) number of cases for 2012.
  • HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders use was strongly associated with behavioral risk factors for HIV infection, including infrequent condom use, commercial sex activity, and low rates of HIV testing
  • Health, stress, and coping

    1. 1. Health, Stress, and Coping Reporters: Paul Symon Alonzo Joseph Hector Galang Geanne Flores February 26, 2013 Main Reference: General Psychology for Filipino College Students Edited by Lota A. Teh and Ma. Elizabeth J. Macapagal
    2. 2. Overview:Health and Psychology Health Psychology Biopsychosocial model of health Focus: AIDS in the PhilippinesStress and stressors. General Adaptation SyndromeCoping with Stress
    3. 3. Health psychology
    4. 4. HealthAs defined by the World Health Organization(WHO), is “the state of completephysical, mental, and social well-being.”
    5. 5. Health PsychologyThe branch of psychology concerned with individual’sbehaviors and lifestyles affecting a person’s healthand illness.Uses psychological processes to help improve thephysical outcomes of individuals.In general, health psychology is concerned with therole of cognitive, affective, behavior, and socialfactors affecting health illness.
    6. 6. The shift to Biopsychosocial model of Health Central to linking the mind (realm of psychology) and the body (realm of biology) in understanding illness.
    7. 7. Focus: AIDS in the Philippines Source: Philippine National AIDS Council of December 2012: ations/NEC_HIV_Dec-AIDSreg2012.pdf
    8. 8. Focus: AIDS in the PhilippinesSocial factors: Thriving commercial sex industry Failure to use condoms especially in paid sex. Sexual cultural norms “Embarrassment, from a social psychological perspective (e.g., Dahl, Gorn& Weinberg, 1998), can occur when a situation poses a dilemma between a publicly observable behavior (e.g., buying condoms at a drugstore) and apprehension about negative social evaluation by others (e.g., disapproving judgments by others, like people in l ine at the counter or even imaginedothers not physically present like one’s parents). ”(Manalastas, 2009)
    9. 9. Focus: AIDS in the Philippines Increase in casual sex among the youth.Methamphetamine use was stronglyassociated with behavioral risk factors for HIVinfection. (US Center for Disease Control)
    10. 10. Stress andStressors
    11. 11. Stress Term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
    12. 12. Stressors Stress-causing events May come from within a person or from an external source, and ranges from mild to severe.
    13. 13. Kinds of stressors Distress Eustress
    14. 14. External events that can causestress Catastrophes  Acute Stress Disorder and Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder Major Life Changes Hassles
    15. 15. Measuring Stress Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
    16. 16. Measuring Stress College Undergraduate Stress Scale
    17. 17. Psychological Factors Pressure Uncontrollability Frustration Conflict
    18. 18. Pressure Happens when…  There are urgent demands for a person’s behavior coming from an outside source.
    19. 19. Uncontrollabillity Depends on the degree pf control a person has over a situation  The lesser the control, the greater the stress.
    20. 20. Frustration Occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.  External Frustration  Internal/Personal Frustration
    21. 21. Frustration Responses to frustration  Persistence • Continuation of efforts to get around whatever is causing the frustration.  Aggression • Actions meant to harm or destroy • Displaced aggression
    22. 22. Frustration Occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.  External Frustration  Internal/Personal Frustration
    23. 23. Conflict Approach-Approach Conflict  Involves choosing between two desirable goals. Also a “win-win” situation. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict  Involves choosing between two or more unpleasant goals.
    24. 24. Conflict Approach-Avoidance Conflict  Involves only one goal or event, which may have both positive and negative aspects Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict  Involves multiple goals that have both positive and negative elements.
    25. 25. General Adaptation Syndrome
    26. 26. What is the General Adaptation Syndrome?The General Adaptation Syndrome (or GAS) describesthe bodys short and long-term emotional andphysical effects of stress.
    27. 27. GAS: A Brief HistoryIntroduced by Hans Selye in 1936. Hans Selye isconsidered as the founding father of stress research.He conducted a research involving rats in which heinjected various extracts from the glands of the body.The rats exhibited the same symptoms.He believed at first that he discovered a newhormone.
    28. 28. GAS: A Brief HistoryHowever, after further tests using other substancesand methods such as injecting formaldehyde, cuttingthe rats’ spinal cord, exposure to cold and forcedexercise, the results were still the same.The predictable sequence he observed on the rats isnow what we call the General Adaptation Syndrome.
    29. 29. Three StageReaction• Alarm phase• Stage of resistance• Exhaustion stage.
    30. 30. The alarm phase of the general adaptation syndromeIn the alarm phase you enter a heightenedpsychological and physiological arousal, known as thefight or flight response.Stress hormones are released into the bloodstream.Adrenaline increases muscle tension, heart rate, andcauses a number of other physical effects of stress.You are now immediately equipped with enoughenergy to handle it.You are more focused and alert!
    31. 31. The resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome The mind and the body attempt to adapt to the cause of stress. Also known as the adaptation phase. Homeostasis begins restoring balance and a period of recovery for repair and renewal takes place. Body remains alert (at a lower level) but continues the normal functions. Stress hormone levels may return to normal but you may have reduced defenses and adaptive energy left.
    32. 32. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome Exhaustion sets in. Stress has generally occurred for some time and at this point, resistance can drop off and the activity returns to the point before the emergency. Characterized by issues such as burnout and exhaustion. Body’s immune system that fights off disease and infection is weakened.
    33. 33. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome Chronic stress can damage nerve cells in tissues and organs. Particularly vulnerable is the hippocampus section of the brain. Thinking and memory are likely to become impaired, with tendency toward anxiety and depression.
    34. 34. Coping
    35. 35. Coping “The process of managing externaland/or internal demands that areappraised as taxing or exceeding theresources of the person.” By Lazarus and Folkman (1984)
    36. 36. Basically… Coping is anything wedo to deal with stress!
    37. 37. Coping is divided into two basic types:• Problem-focused Coping• Emotion-focused Coping
    38. 38. Problem-Focused CopingProblem-Focused strategies includes: Defining the problem. Generating the alternative solutions. Weighing those solutions. Implementing the selected alternative.
    39. 39. Emotion-Focused Coping - Means concentrating on alleviatingthe emotions associated with the stressfulsituatione. - Especially when the situation isbeyond one’s control.
    40. 40. This involves cognitivestrategies, some behavioral strategies tocope with negative feelings are exercise, useof alcohol, drugs, releasing anger andseeking emotional support fromfriends.(Atkinson et al., 1996)
    41. 41. Defense Mechanism1. Repression2. Rationalization3. Projection4. Intelectualization5. Denial6. Displacement
    42. 42. Positive Thinking
    43. 43. Religion
    44. 44. Stress Management Programs
    45. 45. Culture related to Stress and coping What people find stressful and how theyrespond to stress is partly patterned by culture(Western,1996) 1. Cultural context shapes the types ofstressors we experience. 2. Culture may affect how we appraise thestressfulness of a given event. 3. Culture affects our individual choice ofcoping strategy. 4. Culture provide different institutionalmechanisms for coping with stress.