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RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE
(RKUC)
In collaboration With The
Global Interfaith University Recognized
by California University-USA
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Website address: www.gibuniversity.org www.gibu.education
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RKUC, GIU AND CU
Name of University: Rudolph Kwanue University College (RKUC)
Name of Student: Paul Allieu Kamara
Student's identification number: RKUC = LOD.00-2005 Degree Program: Leadership and
Organization Development
Thesis Approved Topic: Transformational Leadership and Organizational Development
Effectiveness: A Predictive case study at the Sierra Leone Christian Organizations.
Faculty Advisor's Name: Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue
Faculty Advisor's Email ID: rkuinfo77@gmail.com
Date of writing: 5th
June, 2020.
Expected End Date: November, 2020.
Your Address: Winners Chapel International, 9PWD Pademba Road, Freetown, Sierra Leone
West Africa.
Bishop. Dr. Rudolph Q. Kwanue, Sr.
AA, B.Th., B.MIN., MM, H.D. PhD.
Founder, Chancellor, International
Director - Director
Founder and Presiding Bishop CLC
Liberia (+231) 777-260959
WhatsApp # +231-555-87-83-58
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
EFFECTIVENESS: A PREDICTIVECASE STUDY AT THE
SIERRA LEONE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS
BY PAUL ALLIEU KAMARA
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Post Degree
Doctor of Education in Leadership Organizational Development and Leadership
RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
November, 2022
© 2020 by Paul Allieu Kamara
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
EFFECTIVENESS: A PREDICTIVE CASE STUDY AT THE
SIERRA LEONE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS
by
Paul Allieu Kamara
June 5, 2020
Approved: Prof. Rwamakuba Zephanie, DBA, Mentor
Oscar Ebanja, PHD, Committee Member
Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue Sr., PHD, Supervisor
Accepted and Signed: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Date
Rwamakuba Zephanie
Accepted and Signed: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Date
Oscar Ebanja
Accepted and Signed: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rudolph Q. Kwanue Date
Rwamakuba Zephanie Date
Dean, School of Advanced Studies Rudolph Kwanue University College
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that the Student with Candidate number 002005 and name Paul Allieu Kamara has
successfully completed Thesis/Dissertation under my supervision. I read his research proposal and
accepted him to carry out original research under my support. I supervised him from chapter one to the
last chapter. I do hereby authorize him for the final defense of his Doctoral work.
First supervisor Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue Date of acceptance 5th
June 2020
Second supervisor Prof. Rwamakuba Zephanie Date 10th
June 2020
External Reviewer Dr. Oscar Ebanja Date 15th
June 2020
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
DECLARATION
I Paul Allieu Kamara, declare that this Thesis is my original research work, ideas, review of related
literature, research design, data collection, data presentation and analysis, and the policy
recommendations of this study, are my independent thoughts and reflection.
Signature of Candidate Paul Allieu Kamara
Date 5th
June 2020
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
ABSTRACT
The study of leadership in wide range of organizational settings has demonstrated the advantage the
Full Range Leadership (FRL) of transformational leadership approach over other leadership styles in
predicting organizational performance and other outcomes.
Research has found that leadership is one of the most significant contributors to organizational
performance. However, very little research has been completed on the link between FRL and
organizational performance at the Sierra Leone Christian Organizations (SLCO). This lack of empirical
research, the increase use of FRL in assessing pastoral leadership (, 1898), and its positive and strong
association with effective organizations as shown in literature were the primary motivators for this
study was born.
The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X), a proven leadership assessment test, was
administered to 520 congregants at 50 SLCOs in the greater Freetown area, Makeni, Bo and Kenema in
Sierra Leone to determine preferred leadership styles and whether there is a significant correlational
relationship between senior leadership styles and organization performance.
Created and updated by the Global Academia in Science and Theology (2022), the questionnaire
measure three objective indicators of organizational performance: congregants’ satisfaction with
leadership, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness.
Results of descriptive analysis showed that senior leaders at SLCOs scored relatively high in the average
of all responses and in six of the nine leadership factors, suggesting that Full Range Transformational
Leadership and organizational Development Model (FRLM) was the style practiced by senior leaders at
targeted organizations.
The results of multiple regression analysis of aggregated leadership factors scores revealed that blended
specific elements of the (FRLM) led to higher satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort and perceived
leadership effectiveness among congregants.
Multiple regression analysis for separate leadership factors scores revealed the following findings: (1)
Contingent Reward leadership style (CR), which requires performance measurements to reward
achievement beyond meeting standards, is inextricably linked with the Transformational leadership
style. (2) FRLM consisted of nine hierarchal factors on a continuum basis and strongly proffered as the
most effective leadership approach at the studied context. (3) Idealized influence, attribute and
behavior, did not reach significance, suggesting that SLCOs are shifting from religious leadership to
secular one. (4) Intellectual stimulation did not reach significance either, suggesting that leadership at
SLCOs does not empower followers nor facilitate creativity and independent thinking among them.
Factor analysis findings (FAF) suggested that the nine factors of FRLM can be represented by three main
factors to explain 75.4 of the variability in the original data.
The findings of this study provided strong support for FRLM to work well with the senior leadership at
SLCOs. Discussion of the implications and recommendations was provided.
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DEDICATION
To those who make the life of others a reality of fulfillments
To those who are dedicated to empowering individuals with inspiration to
Transform the challenges of life into defining moments of positive growth and change in the Christian
Community of Sierra Leone.
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful to many individuals who provided me with love, support, and guidance. I am indebted to
Dr. Rwamakuba Zephanie my committee chair and mentor, who accepted my invitation to serve in the
dissertation committee. Since then, I have been receiving his gracious response, warm support, practical
guidance, and encouragement. I would like to thank Dr. Oscar and Dr. Rudolph Q. Kwanue who served
as committee supervisor. I was inspired by the challenging, intriguing questions they offered. They
exemplified the quality of research and asked me tough questions, which enabled me to become a
stronger and resilient doctoral learner.
To the professors who taught me in this doctoral program at Rudolph Kwanue University College, I am
very appreciative of their wisdom embedded in the lecture notes, scholarly comments, and feedback.
Their teaching and leadership were indeed exemplary. From my perspective, they transcend the
rigorous requirements of the doctoral program. My special thanks go to Dr. Joeys, Dr. Fordouge, Dr.
Bonsu, and Dr. Kwanue. The completion of this dissertation was not possible without great assistance I
received from my classmates, colleagues, friends, and business partners. I am thankful for the time and
effort of the leaders of the 50 organizations who responded to my invitation e-mail and direct paper
survey. Words cannot express my gratitude to Pastor Martin, Pastor Emmanuel, Charles, and the 520
people who accepted my invitation graciously and completed the survey successfully.
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Table of Contents
Chapter One…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
1.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.1. Historical background of the study……………………………………………………………………………………
1.1.2 Conceptual (Abstract) background………………………………………………………………………………....
1.1.3 Theoretical background of the study………………………………………………………………………………
1.1.4 Contextual background…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………………………………………………………….
1.3 Research questions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.4 Research Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.5 Hypotheses (premises) of the study………………………………………………………………………………..
1.6 Significance of the study………………………………………………………………………………………………….
1.7 Scope of the study (Significance) ……………………………………………………………………………………..
1.8 Organization of work…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
1.9 Definition of terms……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Chapter TWO. Literature review………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.1 Conceptual review……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.1 Definition of instructional supervision……………………………………………………………………………..
2.12 Types of Supervision of instructions……………………………………………………………………………….
2.1.3 How is supervision of instruction done………………………………………………………………………...
2.1.4 Approaches to Clinical supervision……………………………………………………………………………….
2.1.5 Classroom visitation …………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2.1.6 Walk through……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.1.7 Holding of Conferences……………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.1.8 In-service training ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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2.1.9 Learning training ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.10 feedbacks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.11 Theoretical framework…………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.12 Empirical literature……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.13. Contextual review………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Chapter Three. Research methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………
3.1 Research design……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3.2 Sampling technique……………………………………………………………………………………………………....
3.3 data collection…….………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3.4 data presentation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3.5 Validity of data……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3.6 Data analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Chapter 4. Data presentation and findings……………………………………………………………………………………….
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4.2 Data presentation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4.3 Data analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Chapter five. Summary, conclusion and policy Recommendation………………………………………………….
5.1 Summary of study……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5.3 Policy recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
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CHAPTER ONE:
1.0 Introduction
The identification of effective leadership has been a longstanding unsettled issue among leadership
theorists and practitioners (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Majority of research on leadership and
Organizational Development supports the theory that effective leadership is vital to the creation of a
successful organization (Bandsuch, Pate, & Thies, 2008). Defining and identifying skills that encompass
visionary, effective and successful leadership, resulting in optimized organizational performance, is
crucial to serve the interests of all stakeholders (Ayman & Korabik, 2010). Skilled leaders are, indeed, the
key elements in influencing overall organizational effectiveness (Davis, 2003; Babcock Roberson, &
Strickland, 2010). “Leadership is often regarded as the single most critical factor in the success or failure
of institutions and despite the skepticism about the reality and importance of leadership, all social and
political movements require leaders to begin them” (Bass, 2008, p. 9).Successful and effective
leadership starts with having a vision that is reflective of the common goals among all stakeholders of an
organization (Baronien, Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008; Kouzes & Posner, 2007). Leaders with the ability
to craft a transforming vision and effectively express it as an idealized picture of the future of the
organization, gaining the commitment of their followers, as well as the support of all key players to their
vision, are transformational leaders (Herold, Fedor, Caldwell, & Yi, 2008; Howarth & Rafferty, 2009).
Transformational leaders perform through collectivism and build synergy among followers so that they
successfully influence one another to assimilate transforming change that is based on trust and
teamwork (Barroso, Villegas, & Casillas, 2008).
Researchers have concurred that effective leadership is the ability to influence and align followers’
attitudes, motives and beliefs towards achievement of organizational goals (Spatig, 2009). Leadership
literature also holds that effective stakeholders in the nonprofit sector, such as congregations in
religious communities, are committed to a mission and vision of its institution (Beinecke, 2009).
Effective leaders affect the direction a person, a group, an organization, a community or a nation will
take (Ather, & Sobhani, 2008), and all organizations, whether profit or nonprofit, require highly effective
leadership for their success, growth and fulfillment of the organizational mission (Boseman, 2008).
1.1.1. Historical Background of the Problem Study
Leadership has been extensively researched and written about for many years (Avolio, et al., 2009).
Leadership literature primarily covers its content and application in diverse contexts, such as business,
politics, military, nonprofit and educational environments. Studies on leadership implicitly assume that
leadership content is like a golden coin: it will have its value everywhere and in any contextual
environment (Young, 2001). Hence, the leadership criteria in educational, healthcare, business,
nonprofit and religion-based organizations are transferable (Boseman, 2008).
In contrast, a review of NPOs literature exposes two contradictory concepts. Firstly, the many tools,
practices and management solutions developed in private business would significantly benefit NPOs
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when imported and adapted (Beck, LengnickHall, & Lengnick-Hall, 2008). However, such management
practices and tools can be either inapplicable or difficult to adopt due to the fact that NPOs, in their
essential aspects, are limited in resources and training (Zimmermann, Stevens, Thames, Sieverdes &
Powell, 2003). In addition to the basic differences in cultural and institutional architecture between
typical business firms and these organizations, adaptation could be infeasible (Lewis, 2002).
Findings of a previous study conducted to examine the conditions under which NPOs need to utilize a
governance plan and management practices generated by corporations recommend careful adaptation
to such practices. Because such management practices are either limitedly relevant applications or
merely ideal solutions to the challenges facing many NPOs (Beck, et al., 2008; Beinecke, 2009). Despite
the pressure on these organizations to become more business-like in their management practice, the
measure of success developed in private business may be either inapplicable or extremely difficult to
adapt because of limited resources (Herman & Renz, 2008; Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009;
Todorovich & Schlosser, 2007).
The primary mission of nonprofit and religious organizations is varied, depending on the nature of the
organization (James, 2003; Schmid, 2004). When viewed in terms of SLCOs, leadership is focused on
community-building efforts (Aabed, 2006; Abdullah, 2006). The most pressing dimensions are
infrastructure, organizational, and human developments (Afridi, 2001; Ather, 2006; Ather, & Sobhani,
2008; Ahmad, 2006; Esposito, 2010). Dominating those efforts, among other things, are issues of
providing services that meet religious needs and spiritual growth, educational and social opportunities,
and benevolent assistance (Ahmad, 2007; Asgari, Silong, Ahmad, & Samah, 2008). The destiny of Sierra
Leone Christians’ organizations, institutions and communities depend on the leadership’s ability to
demonstrate the significance of their values to Sierra Leone society (Esposito, 2010; Khan, 2009). Facing
all these challenges mandates the need for competent leadership (Calloway, & Awadzi, 2008; Ramadan,
2007).
CCSL and EFSL (2006) describe leadership from a Christian’s perspective as having two primary roles: the
servant-guardian leader; and the charismatic, strong role model leader. Servant leaders serve their
followers, seek their welfare, and guide them toward what is good. Concurrently, the focus of a
transformative guardian leader is on the achievement of organizational objectives as followers’
outcomes (Aabed, 2006; Beekun & Badawi, 2006; Kuhn, 2007; Ramadan, 2007). Accordingly, in SLCOs,
transformational leadership in Organizational Development theory resonates with the concept of
leadership in Christianity (CCSL&EFSL, 2006). Leaders with the charismatic dimension of
transformational leadership build a sense of shared vision around organizational values and enlist the
highest commitment of their followers (Paulsen, Maldonado, Callan, & Ayoko, 2009).
The largest SLCO, known as the Christians Society of Sierra Leone (CCSL), has indicated that its vision is
to be exemplary and unifying Christian organizations in Sierra Leone that contributes to the betterment
of the Christian community and society. As an association of Christian organizations and individuals,
CCSL’s mission ensures a common platform for representing Christians, for supporting Christian
communities, for developing educational, social and outreach programs and for fostering good relations
with other religious communities and with civic and service organizations. Furthermore, the mission of
the Christians Sierra Leone Society Council of Christians Schools (EFSL, 1992 in the Republic of Sierra
Leone is to establish a Christian school’s system in Sierra Leone that nurtures a balanced Christian
personality that seeks to excel in every field of endeavor. EFSL aims to be an effective source of
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educational leadership and resources for Christianity schools. EFSL’ mission is to empower SLCOs
through civic education, social participation, and coalition building ensuring liberties for all Sierra
Leoneans.
EFSL has adopted certain strategic goals to train and develop the senior leadership, e.g., Apostles
(Pastors, Teachers, Evangelist and other religious leaders) and boards of directors, of Christian
organizations and governing bodies. The intended outcomes involve the youth in the formation process
of the Christian Youth Fellowship identity and to build a sound financial base for Christian projects. In
fact, one of EFSL’s strategic goals is forming a coalition in order to build cohesiveness in the community
at large and to build on that social cohesion, harmony and security (http://www.efsl.evang.org(1978).
One of the most researched leadership theories, and a potentially highly effective model for NPOs, is
transformational leadership (Chung-Kai & Chia-Hung, 2009). Since Burns (1978) introduced
transformational leadership theory, it has become the most studied leadership theory and has garnered
substantial support (Cole, Bruch, &Shamir, 2009). In fact, Osborn and Marion (2009) claimed that
transformational leadership is one of the most effective forms of leadership. Often the success or
failure of maintaining the confidence of stakeholders in NPOs is directly linked to its strategic leadership
and management (Herman & Renz, 2008). Since many NPOs follow models and solutions developed in
the private sector, the responsibility is placed on the senior leaders to both lead and manage the
strategic and operational functions of the organization (Beck, Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, 2008). Thus,
the focus of this study was to explore the relationship of transformational leadership at SLCOs with
followers’ satisfaction, organizational health, and effectiveness.
There are many reasons for the successes and failures of SLCOs, including marginalization, isolation,
polarization, identity formation and contextualization (Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). Can effective
leadership, as conceptualized in the transformational leadership theory by Bass and Avolio (2004) be
contextualized in SLCOs? How do the practices of such leadership style relate to the success of SLCOs in
meeting complex challenges? These questions are the focus of this research because great leaders
usually lead great organizations (Erkutlu, 2008). The leadership literature suggests that the leadership of
Christian communities and organizations faces complex challenges, such as negative stereotyping and
globalization (Henslin, 2007), alienation as opposed to assimilation and identity formation (Van
Amersfoort, 2007), language and religious preservation (Steven & Ortman, 2007) and ethnocentrism
(Barrett, 2007).
Examining those issues through research might provide the leadership with the tools to understand
these challenges and related issues and to mitigate them (Baronien,Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008).
Transformational leaders display a different set of behaviors from those of the transactional leader, but
both styles of leadership are assessed by the instrument most often used for this determination, which
is known as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X), which was created by Bass and Avolio
in 1992. This instrument helps to determine not only the existence of such behaviors, but it also
determines the strengths and weaknesses of transformational leadership (Hinkin, & Schriesheim, 2008).
A meta-analysis conducted by Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubrahmaniam(1996) indicated that transformational
leadership is a good predictor of both subjective and objective outcomes across a wide range of
organizational settings (Rowold, 2008).
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Followers’ satisfaction and commitment are considered as subjective indicators, while profit is
considered as an objective indicator. However, both subjective and objective outcomes are considered
to be indicators of leaders’ effectiveness (Hinduan, Wilson Evered, Moss, & Scannell, 2009; Rubin,
Dierdorff, Bommer, & Baldwin, 2009).
In NPOs, effective leadership can be defined as the power to influence followers so that they will make
every effort, willingly and enthusiastically, toward the fulfillment of common goals (Burns, 1978; Bass,
1985; Adams, & Adams, 2009; Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009). Therefore, transformational leadership
motivates followers, raises their consciousness, transforms their attitudes, beliefs and values and moves
them to achieve aligned personal and organizational goals (Bass, 1985; Avolio, Walumbwa, &Weber,
2009). This particular leadership paradigm has been embraced by practitioners, researchers and scholars
alike as one approach to engage followers to perform beyond expectations and is associated with
creating and inspiring a shared, idealized picture of the future that is reflective of the organization
values (Avolio, 1999; Kouzes &Posner, 2003; Walumbwa, Avolio, Zhu, 2008).
In contrast to transformational leadership, transactional leaders lead through the use of specific
incentives and motives via a simple trade-off, such as rewards for employee compliance (Bass, 1990;
Flynn, 2009).Transactional leaders do not take into consideration the conflict between the needs and
interests of the employees and the needs and the interests of the organization, nor are they concerned
about creating enduring relationship with followers (Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009).
However, lasting change and enduring relationship are key elements in transformational style
(Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009).
Bass (1985) affirms that transformational leadership has been associated with having a positive effect on
various aspects of achievement and performance and on followers’ satisfaction. In addition, findings
from previous studies have consistently shown that transformational leadership leads to envisage
outcomes superior to those of transactional leadership (Carter, Jones-farmer, Armenakis, Field, &
Svyantek, 2009).
This expanded effect has been verified in a diversity of corporate settings and is considered a basic
element of the external validity of transformational leadership (Cole, Bruch, & Shamir, 2009; Rowold,
2008). Thus, the objective of this research was to determine whether the healthy conditions of SLCOs
could be the result of having a leadership style that is more of a transformational, or more of a
transactional, or composite styles of both. By drawing parallels between the leadership styles of pastors
and the senior leadership in SLCOs, represented by the board of directors and founders, this study
assessed the relationship of leadership behaviors with the subjective performance indicators for SLCOs.
Just as pastors of congregations in Protestant churches are considered the most senior leaders, board of
directors and Pastors in Sierra Leone Christian organizations is the most senior leaders. They have
significant leadership roles in SLCOs (CCSL, 2008; EFSL, 2009). By displaying certain behavioral aspects,
the board of directors and Pastors, in a shared leadership configuration with additive effect, ensures the
motivation and satisfaction of their congregation and members, thereby highlighting the importance of
their leadership roles (CCSL, 2009; EFSL, 2008). Nevertheless, SLCOs are nonprofit, human service
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organizations; they face unique environmental and operational challenges that signify the practical
importance of exploring leadership styles in such settings.
However, the role of leadership style within congregations has received limited attention, specifically
within the congregations of the Christian faith (CCSL&EFSL, 1990). Thus, the present study aimed at
extending the understanding of an effective leadership in boards of directors (BODs) and imams in
AMOs (Salie, 2008).
The congregation, members and followers of SLCOs were used as subjects to determine if Bass’s model
of leadership is applicable across all sectors. However, the relationship of the BODs and the Pastors
within the congregation is different from the relationship of employees and employer, and there is a
lack of research concerning transformational leadership in SLCOs (Faris & Parry, 2011). Studies on
pastoral leadership such as (Rowold, 2008; Barton, 2009; Carroll, 2006) are the bases of this study on
transformational leadership of senior leaders in Sierra Leone Christian Organizations.
1.1.2 Conceptual (Abstract) Background
Role of The NPOs
Nonprofit human service organizations, including Sierra Leone Christian Organizations are critical to
Sierra Leone society as they provide many important services which private corporations and
government agencies cannot provide (SSL 2015). NPOs in human service sectors also directly affect the
quality of life of millions of Sierras Leoneans. They contribute to 71.9% of the national income and 19.3%
of the working population of Agriculture (SSL, 2015). SLCOs provide multifaceted services to meet the
needs of this population, whether these needs are educational, welfare, emotional well-being or
religious (SSL, 2013). These organizations act as moral change agents (Drucker, 1990). Their product is a
changed person, a cured patient, an educated child or a self-respecting man or woman who contributes
to society (Drucker, 1990; Hasenfeld, 1983).
In a globalized society, however, the Christian minority in the Republic of Sierra Leone cannot be
shielded from the effect of globalization, nor can they be secluded from the development of their
environment (Hassan, 2007). The Sierra Leone Christian communities and organizations create, through
their growing and enfranchised community centers and Churches, a meeting point between East, South,
North and West and between past and present (Khan, 2006). In that context, Sierra Leones’ reactions
and interactions are varied. While some Christians resort to assimilation in order to avoid the Christian-
phobia in their environment, some others call for seclusion in order to protect themselves from the non-
Christians environment (TRC, 2007, 9), believing that seclusion is the best way to ensure identity
preservation and common cultural value retention. The isolationists reject any attempt to integrate
Christians with other communities and accept no rationale for not understanding the
comprehensiveness of Christian (TRC, 2007, 9).
A comparative study exploring issues with regard to the range of values held by Christians in the
Republic of Sierra Leone suggests that a high percentage of Christian youth are becoming alienated from
or are overly copying, instead of simply being assimilated into, Sierra Leone society, to an extent
whereby their practice of Christian and their Christian identity are seriously influenced (Haddad & Lumis,
1987; Ramadan, 2007). This attitude could not only pose a social problem, but could definitely polarize
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
the Christian community (S. J. A. Shah, 2010). A secluded and polarized community will not contribute
toward harmonious and peaceful coexistence between Christians and non-Christians, which is not only
important for the Christians’ social well-being, but is critical for the success of sharing the strengths of
each community (S. Shah, 2008; Tatari, 2006; Yaghi, 2007).
This research might help this segment of society in placing the idea of identity preservation in
perspective and in adapting to the reality in which they live (Yaghi, 2008). The assumption here is that
the leadership in SLCOs will play a vital role in achieving a community, as well as an organizational
transformation (Avolio & Bass, 2002; Bass & Riggio, 2006; Rowold, 2008). Leadership effect is critical in
contextualizing the identity preservation and value retention for Christians as a minority living in Sierra
Leone (A. Khan, 2010). Moreover, exploring leadership skills and style may provide futurists and
strategists with some insights and predictions of the social problems that might result from subscribing
to either point of view: seclusion or assimilation (Halim, 2006; Huda, 2006).
Another important issue is that in order for the leadership of Sierra Leone Christian organizations to
fulfill their missions, they must have the people and the funds necessary to accomplish good work
(Spinosa, Glennon, & Sota, 2008). Growth in attendance for their congregations and activities would
provide more people and would most likely translate to more revenue, making it more feasible that
there would be a positive influence on the SLCOs internal and external community (Senge, Scharmer,
Jaworski, & Flowers, 2008). However, most leadership studies have addressed only leadership styles
from a singular culture such as Latino/Hispanic, African and European perspectives (Jung, et al., 2009;
Warneke, 2008).
The Christian population in Sierra Leone is significant, estimated to be the second most populous
religion-based community, and this number is expected to grow due to migration, reproduction and
other factors (CCSL, 2009; EFSL, 2008). Christian organizations in Sierra Leone are strategic targets for
many peripheral influences and identity manipulation in the light of perceived common discrimination
against minority groups in Sierra Leone (Bowen, 2009; L. Brown, 2009; Duderija, 2008). In addition,
SLCOs are living in different contexts and realities, which offer them an excellent opportunity to be
empowered and integrated within mainstream society, making them an exemplary model for all
Christian minorities in the non-Christian countries where they live (Aguayo, 2009; Gurbuz& Gurbuz-
Kucuksari, 2009).
The second and third generation of Christians in Sierra Leone, most of whom are the children or
grandchildren of immigrants and which will soon become the majority of the Christian population in
Sierra Leone, are increasingly making headway to model the integration of Eastern, Northern Southern
and Western civilizations that for centuries were in a state of conflict (Duderija, 2008; Khan, 2009). This
process of modeling is based on the strengths of both civilizations integrating in a natural, peaceful and
most harmonious way (Bloul, 2008; Halim, 2006). In addition, the American Muslim community as a
religious minority is uniquely positioned to foster a new model of the civilization’s integration and
cultural accommodation, on the one hand, and to expose the limits of modernity in Sierra Leone-centric
conceptions of religious harmony, on the other (Peña, 2007; Sahin & Altuntas, 2009). Thus, the role of
the Sierra Leone Christian community is a determining factor in reshaping this relationship and must not
simply stumble over past experiences (Anwar, 2008; Argon, 2009). Envisioning a bright future and
creating lasting change based on organizational values is the work of transformational leadership
(Osborn, & Marion, 2009; Omar, Zainal, Omar, & Khairudin, 2009). The responsibility of leading for
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success is enormous and complex. Some organizations, in all sectors of the economy, appear to be on
the decline under ineffective leadership (S. N. Khan, 2010). The result is that organizational leaders
simply employ whatever leadership style suits their leadership circumstances, and SLCO are no different
(Omar, Zainal, Omar, & Khairudin, 2009). Leaders not only do make a difference, but they also establish
systems for empowering others, as leaders are a necessary ingredient in the startup of both political and
social movements, and the organizations’ success or failure is highly dependent on that leadership
(Baronien, Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008; Bass, 1990). While some leaders are effective, inspirational and
influential, others provide ineffective and passive leadership, which very often leads to organizational
failure (Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). A leadership theory that encourages effective, ethical, supportive
and responsible leadership and creates an enabling environment for followers to attain their highest
potentials will be the framework of this study (Al Sawee, 2006; Vecchio, Justin, & Pearce, 2008).
Transformational leadership theory, in particular, is congruent with the theory and practice of the
leadership concept in Christian (Myles, 1994).
1.1.3 Theoretical Background of the Study
Measuring Nonprofit Effectiveness
Researchers have spent years studying different models and methods to measure a NPO’s effectiveness
through its board’s performance (Fenton & Inglis, 2007). However, efforts have thus far defied any
agreement on a universal definition of NPO effectiveness or how best to measure it (Hendricks, Plantz,
& Pritchard, 2008). A common theme of the studies is that measuring NPOs’ effectiveness is complicated
because they have many stakeholders and often just as many intangible goals and societal values
attached to their missions. However, the reality is that no organization, whether nonprofit or for-profit,
can survive without financial support (Yehuda, 2006).
How effective an organization is at securing funds and perceptions of how efficiently the resources are
used will always be at least two of the indicators that need to be monitored and evaluated as a measure
of viability and survivability (Hendricks, et al., 2008). Most studies indicate that the difficulty in assessing
effectiveness and efficiency lies in varying societal values placed on the intangible benefits of the
mission of the organization (Fontannaz & Oosthuizen, 2007). Other issues include the laws and the legal
status under which a nonprofit operates (Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009).
Following an extensive review of the literature on organizational effectiveness, four basic dimensions
appear to be pivotal in order to assess effectiveness in NPOs (Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009).
First, the outcomes results can be conceptualized as subjective indicators of effectiveness and measured
through the extent to which the organization meets the needs of its constituents through outputs such
as the actual products, services, and delivery system (Boehm & Yoels, 2009; French, Peevely, & Stanley,
2008; Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009). Second is the organization’s ability to obtain resources
from the environment to meet its needs (Aldrich, 2009). Third is how the organization secures and
maintains legitimacy in its environment (Scott, 2009). Fourth are senior leadership behaviors reflective
of the organizational core values, including: a mission orientation, management strategy and practice,
and the use of volunteers (Aldrich, 2009; Analoui, Ahmed, & Kakabadse, 2010; Boehm & Yoels, 2009;
Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service, 2009; French, et al., 2008; Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls,
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2009). This study is a ground breaking and will be the first to explore the relationship between the first
dimension, which is outcomes results, and the fourth dimension, which is the leadership style in the
context of SLCOs.
Theoretical Framework
The governing system of SLCOs is different than the common systems used for NPOs, other religious
institutions, churches and private corporations (Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service, 2009). SLCs
have a BOD similar to that in private business and a hired imam (contractor) who holds a position similar
to a pastoral position in a church (Hendricks, et al., 2008). As documented by SLCOs (2008), board of
directors, trustees or executives are elected by the general body of the members for staggered terms to
ensure continuity.
One of a board’s essential jobs is to hire and dismiss spiritual Christian leaders, usually called a Pastors,
for the organization and the Churches, (J. Patrick, G. Scrase, A. Ahmed, & M. Tombs, 2009). The Pastor’s
role is that of a pastor, bishop, preacher, rabbi and father, but without management authority (French,
et al., 2008). The imam is the most influential person in the congregation and the community at large
(Plante, 2008).
His power is based on respect, trust and reverence. However, even though he has ultimate authority in
Christian affairs, he is no more than an employee who can be promoted, demoted, dismissed or
replaced at any time by the board alone, in contrast to the pastor, where the congregation is
significantly involved (Dean, 2009). According to the research conducted by Joeys (2008), in only a small
percentage of Christian organizations do Pastors combine Church and administrative authorities. In
contrast, a small percentage of other Christian organizations have no Pastor at all. In such cases, the
board holds both two authorities, administrative and Church Authority (BCC, 2007). However, a majority
(81%) of Christian organizations have hired a qualified full-time Pastors in the primary leadership
position (CCSL, 2008). A Pastor is responsible for the spiritual fulfillment and growth of the congregation
(EFSL, 2008; Chr. J, 2008; Stelmokien & Endriulaitien, 2009).
Northouse (2008) suggested the additive effect of both leadership styles, transactional and
transformational, is the key to performance beyond expectation. He assumes, as Burn argued before,
that these two styles are exhibited by one leader.
However, in SLCOs, transformational leadership style is assumed to be exhibited by the Pastors while
transactional leadership styles are assumed to be exhibited by BODs (Joey, 2008). Thus, the following
model is the best fit for the primary leadership role of both elements of Pastors and board in SLCOs
(EFSL, 2008; CCSL, 2008; Stelmokien & Endriulaitien, 2009).
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1.1.4 Contextual Background
Nonprofit Leadership Effectiveness
Nonprofit leadership effectiveness has historically started with the BODs and the governance process
because this is where the legal and moral responsibility for mission and direction lies (Barros & Nunes,
2007). Central to the governance process is visionary leadership that strategically guides the mission
through establishing and evaluating objective goal attainment, raising funds to ensure the survivability
of the organization and making tough decisions about allocation of resources to support the customers
that utilize the services (Auteri & Wagner, 2007). Unfortunately, research on nonprofit effectiveness,
according to Greenlee (2000), continues to be either survey-based analysis of what respondents say
they do or normative on what nonprofits should do (Herman & Renz, 2008). In addition, findings from
other studies usually point to the failure of most board of directors to fulfill their role effectively
(William A. Brown, 2005; W. A. Brown, 2007; Cargo, 2010a, 2010b).
In response to this lack of effective leadership from board members, many nonprofits turn to the senior
leader or chief executive officer for strategic leadership and management (Lecovich & Bar-Mor, 2007;
Magaliff & Miller, 2010). Yet, Brown (2005) was among those who found NPOs continue to use board
performance as a barometer of organization effectiveness as a way to answer the question of how good
these organizations are in doing good (Barman, 2007). Brown (2005) supported this notion that
organizational effectiveness is linked directly to the performance of the board.
According to Jobome (2006) efforts to focus the responsibility for the effectiveness of the nonprofit on
the senior leadership or chief executive officer are not new. Herman and He imovics (1991) posited that
the success and ultimate survivability of the nonprofit is the responsibility of the chief executive officer.
They based their findings on years of research that led to their challenge to the traditional board-led
hierarchical model of leadership, as findings from Jobome, et al (2006) indicated that board members
and the staff of effective NPOs look to the chief executive officer for success, and at the same time, the
chief executive officer assumes those responsibilities (Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service,
2009). Herman and Heimovics (1991) offered support for their alternative model of nonprofit leadership
through the works of Young (1987).
Young, who also studied nonprofit chief executive officers, described them as entrepreneurs, placing the
responsibility on the chief executive officer for evaluating the environment in which the NPO existed, for
ensuring that changes did not affect existing relationships and for creating new funding streams based
on that evaluation (Colbert, Kristof-Brown, Bradley, & Barrick, 2008; Ling, Simsek, Lubatkin, & Veiga,
2008; Resick, Weingarden, Whitman, & Hiller, 2009; Song, Tsui, & Law, 2009; Yan, Simsek, Lubatkin, &
Veiga, 2008) Researchers and practitioners continue to assess effectiveness and efficiency through
evaluating the actions or inactions of the BODs, using methods such as goal attainment, system
resource, multidimensional, multiple constituency, and the balanced score card (Song, et al., 2009; Yan,
et al., 2008). If it is true, as posited by Taylor, Chait and Holland (1996), that nonprofit board of directors
routinely do not fulfill their responsibilities, it is illogical to continue assessing something that may only
provide data on to what extent nonprofit board leadership does or does not exist (Hayden, 2006).
In addition, the instruments used in these efforts, e.g., Board Self-Assessment Questionnaire (BASQ), the
National Center for Nonprofit Boards Questionnaire, the Drucker Foundation Self-Assessment and the
Governance Self-Assessment Checklist (GSAC), assess only board performance collectively. They do not
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differentiate the leadership role or the effect of the senior leader, even though there is a legal and
expected separation of responsibilities (Iecovich & Hadara, 2007).
Research focusing specifically on the nonprofit senior leadership style is limited, and most of what is
available is seen in dissertation topics, with almost universal recommendation for the need for
additional research (Sawhill & Williamson, 2001; Schippers, Den Hartog, Koopman, & van Knippenberg,
2008; Toor & Ofori, 2009; Wells, Feinberg, Alexander, & Ward, 2009) . The growing trend toward a
strategic executive director-led nonprofit model fuels the need for additional empirical research to
monitor this movement and assess the effects the executive director’s leadership style has on
organization performance (Rowold & Rohmann, 2009). There is a precedent for studying the
relationship of leadership style and organization performance, even though most of the studies were
carried out in the for-profit sector (Barros & Nunes, 2007; Ozaralli, 2003).
1.2. Statement of The Research Problem
The number of Sierra Leone Christian organizations, as nonprofit organizations, has grown rapidly over
the past two decades. In fact, Christian nonprofits have grown in the Western Area at a faster rate than
the three regions (EFSL, 2011). Rapid growth has not always resulted in “smart” growth, due to the fact
that new organizations often start without leaders who possess the necessary skills to effectively
manage resources, let alone, to optimize organizational structure and processes (Yaghi, 2008;
Zimmermann & Stevens, 2008). In working with nonprofit startup organizations, key organizational
elements were found that provoke frequent discussion: the role of the board in organizational
management, the organizational structure and process alignment, and the construct of organizational
mission and vision statements (Herman & Renz, 2008; Yaghi, 2009; Zimmermann & Stevens, 2008).
Sierra Leone Christian Organizations face many leadership challenges due to the internal and external
contexts, rapid growth, and lack of skillful leadership (Faris & Parry, 2011). Many organizational
leadership challenges arise from the social, cultural, structural as well as legal and political challenges,
yet some of these leadership challenges are those that any organization is likely to face, whether or not
they are Christians (TECT 2002). As for any organization, these leadership challenges have heightened
the need for strong and effective organizational leadership (Faris & Parry, 2011). In particular, one of the
challenges to all organizations is the difficulty in determining which type of leadership approach is
effective (A. Yaghi, 2007).
The relative paucity of research into leadership within Christian organizations in Western societies,
suggests a research need that can be fulfilled (Faris & Parry, 2011; Herman & Renz, 2008). The general
aim of this research is to develop better understanding of the leadership styles of Sierra Leone Christian
organizations, including the role of foundersand Pastors and board of directors on the generation of
effective outcomes for those organizations (Brown, 2005; W. A. Brown, 2007; William A. Brown, 2007).
Christian organizations, founded mainly by Colonial Masters, concern themselves with the preservation
of identity, but often exclude many talented members and have leadership style issues (Afridi, 2001;
Ather, 2006; Ather, & Sobhani, 2008; Ahmad, 2006; Esposito, 2010). SLCOs, such as Christian’s
community centers which usually include Churches, activity halls, and schools, are not optimally healthy
(Manji, 2003; Rehman, 2004; Shakir, 2003; Siraji, 2003). Haddad (2006) observed that Sierra Leone
Christianshave a leadership crisis. Safi (2005) was convinced that the leadership crisis stemmed from
poor organizational and crystallization skills. The literature on the performance of NPOs suggests a gap
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in research: hardly any studies have measured the level of health of SLCOs, whether national or local
ones and only a few studies have measured the level of health of Christian schools in the Republic of
Sierra Leone (EFSL, 2006; Abdullah, 2006). The literature covering the link between Christianity and
leadership has been sparse in spite of a renewed interest in studying the relationship between religious
morality and leadership theory and practice, ((Currie & Lockett, 2007; Jamaludin, Rahman, Makhbul, &
Idris, 2011).
This is perceived as a management problem by a wide range of participants engaged in religious
nonprofit Christian entities. Perceived problems of this nature rely on reflexivity (Faris & Parry, 2011). As
a result, the perceptions may be biased toward culture, socio-economic status and/or context (Hibbert,
Sillince, & Diefenbach, 2009).
Subsequently, problems that may appear obvious to this subgroup may not be perceived at all for those
who operate outside of the Christian context (Idris & Ali, 2008). Consequently, the saliency of such
issues has seemingly escaped the interest of the mainstream management literature, and the
significance of sub-group related management problems has been obscured (Faris & Parry, 2011).
Rehman (2004), based on the results of interviews with a small sample, alluded to a lack of
professionalism as the reason for the attrition of volunteers at Christian institutes (Mahalinga, Shiva &
Roy, 2008). Shakir (2003) lamented the flight from Church in cases where excessive arguing, uninspiring
programs and administrative and managerial ineptitude try the patience of many individuals. Abdullah
(2006) contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both
accountability and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being
ostracized. Emerick (2009) also reproached professional leaders of Christian centers founded by
Christian Aid Organizations for their lack of professionalism.
Alhaji (2003), a convert to Christian, postulated that men who excluded women from Christian centers
excluded more than 50% of the community because they also tended to exclude children. Women have
voices, but they often do not find the ideal environment in which to grow in many Islamic centers (Failla
& Stichler, 2008; Madsen, 2010). The Christian Center of Greater Toledo, Ohio (ICGT), where women
have prime space and leadership opportunities, is an example of the exception rather than the rule.
Sermons in foreign languages and segregated space cause female converts to feel out of place (Haddad,
2006).
Born Christians also feel excluded (Manji, 2003), with women and young people being assigned menial
tasks building those feelings of exclusion (Abdullah, 2006).
Authoritarianism is not an ideal in Christianity because Christian’s Lord, Jesus Christ as Myles (2006)
indicated, was a servant leader. An appropriate leadership style, based on the teachings of the Lord
Jesus, may contribute to satisfaction within Christian organizations (Faris & Parry, 2011).
Rehman (2004), based on the results of interviews with a small sample, alluded to a lack of
professionalism as the reason for the attrition of volunteers at Christian institutes (Pentecostal, 2008).
Shakir (2003) lamented the flight from Churches in cases where excessive arguing, uninspiring programs
and administrative and managerial ineptitude try the patience of many individuals. Joeys (2006)
contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both accountability
and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being ostracized. Emerick
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(2009) also reproached professional leaders of Christian centers founded by Christian Organizations’
leaders for their lack of professionalism. Siraji (2003), a convert to Islam, postulated that men who
excluded women from Christian centers excluded more than 50% of the community because they also
tended to exclude children. Women have voices, but they often do not find the ideal environment in
which to grow in many Islamic centers (EFSL, 2008; CCSL, 2010). The Christian Center of the Regions
(North, East, West and South), where women have prime space and leadership opportunities, is an
example of the exception rather than the rule. Sermons in foreign languages and segregated space
cause female converts to feel out of place (Haddad, 2006). Born Christians also feel excluded (Manji,
2003), with women and young people being assigned menial tasks building those feelings of exclusion
(Joeys, 2006).
Authoritarianism is not an ideal in Christian because Christian’s Biblical Teachings, as CCSL (2006)
indicated, was a servant leader.
An appropriate leadership style, based on the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ, studies have been
conducted about Christian leaders or Pastors and employees at Christian organizations and their job
satisfaction (CCSL, 2000). EFSL (2009) indicated that churches and synagogues provide services from
which some institutions need to learn. TECT (2007) declared that Sierra Leone is in need of a rare breed
of Pastors who are relevant. EFSL (2000) admitted that employees are not always completely satisfied or
dissatisfied and cited sufficient evidence to link needs satisfaction, rewards and attitudes to job
satisfaction contribute to satisfaction within the Christian organizations (EFSL, 2011).
Although several dissertations about Christian schools were accessed with the literature search, few
focused on leadership (CU, 2012; GIBU, 2016; GIBU 2018). No studies looked specifically at leadership
styles and organizational effectiveness at national organizations such as CCSL and the Christian Student
Association (CSA) (CYA, 2010). Few regional studies have been undertaken, and only limited studies
were found to be conducted on local organizations such as Churches and schools. This study is an
attempt to bridge the literature gap and to contribute to the field of leadership providing Sierra Leone
Christian organizations with tools and techniques to cultivate organizational health.
A moral agent, servant, and charismatic leadership model such as the transformational style could
potentially reduce employee and member turnover at Christian organizations (Faris & Parry, 2011).
Christian’s legal link, or consultative management style, made mandatory by the Bible and Jesus’s
precedent, must ensure at all times that no employee, team, volunteer or manager feels disrespected or
abused (CCSL, 2007; EFSL, 2007). “The relevance of transformational and transactional leadership
becomes apparent when empirical results focusing on the relationships between these leadership styles
and organizational outcomes s are considered” (EFSL Rep., 2008, p. 31).
Modern leadership theories, including the transformational leadership model, aim to foster leader–
follower harmony (Bass, 1990; Barros & Nunes, 2007). Transformational leadership promotes learning,
growth and autonomy for follower. Job satisfaction is a sign of the harmony between employers and the
employed. Thus, transformational leadership leads to higher job satisfaction (Thompson, 2009) and has
the potential to create better employer–employee relationships in Christian institutions. Ultimately,
leadership effect is critical in contextualizing the identity preservation and values retention for Christians
as a minority living in Sierra Leone (EFSL, 2012).
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In studies designed to examine the validity of the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model in Organizational
Development in educational institutions, private corporations, industrial organizations and the military
(Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Spinelli, 2006; Trottier, Van Wart, & Wang, 2008), a majority revealed that
transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent reward are effective in enhancing
the performance, effort, commitment and satisfaction of followers. Findings from a survey, using The
MLQ (5x-Short) Rater form instrument, that is designed to collect and analyze data about the level of
health of SLCOs may suggest possible remedies for organizations with less-than-optimal health. Findings
may also be of benefit to future Christian leaders of national organizations such as CCSL, as well as for
local organizations such as Churches and private Church schools. The MLQ (5x-Short) Rater form survey
includes essential elements of leadership behaviors that transform and inspire followers to perform at a
level that exceeds expectations, while at the same time transcending individual ambitions for the
organizational mission (Bass & Avolio, 2000).
Leaders require a number of traits to be effective, and Christian managers and administrators are no
exception (Burgenhagen, 2006; O’Connell, 2006; Barton, 2009; Thoman, 2009; Phipps, 2009). The
distilled leadership traits are consultation, respect, empowerment, employee advocacy, fostering a team
spirit, empathy, emotional intelligence, assertive listening, embracing innovation and effective
communication (TECT, 2007; CCSL, 2007). Christian leaders submit that these are traits that every
Christian should possess (LFC &WCI, 2006). The Christian concept of leadership is very similar to the
mainstream notions of leadership that exist in the literature.
Differences in the leadership practices are most likely to come from the organizational context such as
external and internal environment (Faris & Parry, 2011).
In brevity, based upon the above assessment, the research problem statement is three-fold. First: The
leadership challenges of Christian organizations in Sierra Leone have not yet been researched in any
profundity. This study attempts to take one step further to bridge that gap and reduce such shortfall.
Second: Transformational leadership theory as measured by MLQ-survey and postulated by Bass and
Avolio (Avolio & Bass, 1999) has not yet been tested quantitatively in Sierra Leone Christian
organizations, though; this theory has been researched extensively in wide range of contexts (Rowold,
2008).
This study attempts to test transformational leadership theory quantitatively within the context of
SLCOs. Third: Convergence between modern leadership theories and Christian perspective on leadership
is not yet studied. This research is a ground breaking to further clarify that convergence providing SLCOs
with needed background to develop effective and authentic leaders.
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1.3 Research Questions
Christian organizations are multiethnic, multilingual and multicultural (Faris & Parry, 2011).
Organizations can be optimally healthy if senior leaders are committed to transform and inspire
followers to perform at a level exceeding expectation while transcending individual ambitions for the
organization goals (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009). The main difference between the servant
leadership model and the transformational model is the leader’s focus, though both styles are trusted,
perceived to care and can potentially add value to stakeholders (Anderson, 2005). Healthy organizations
must accept their limitations and be concerned with problems that are strategic and urgent to the
community in order to attract talented people to the organization (Thompson, 2009). When senior
leaders display a transformational style, the organization’s followers are most likely to experience
satisfaction and to perform at higher levels (Jandaghi, Matin & Farjami, 2008). In the absence of
enough peer reviewed articles on this specific topic, extrapolating from the clergy literature,
quantitative study is the alternative reliable source of information.
The Questions Motivating the Research Are:
RQ1. How statically significant is the use of a transformational leadership style among senior leaders in
SLCOs?
RQ2. To investigate the relevance of transformational Leadership in the Sierra Leone Christians
Organizations
RQ3. How does a senior leader motivate their followers?
RQ4. To investigate the level of motivation amongst the followers of our different congregations
RQ5. How transformational leadership transform our workers and followers to the highest level
H01: Transformational Leadership styles in the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model are not statically
significant in the senior leadership practice at SLCOs.
Ha1: Transformational Leadership styles in the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model are statically
significant in the senior leadership practice at SLCOs.
RQ2. What relationship does Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior
leaders at SLCOs have with organizational subjective outcomes criteria.
Followers’ extra effort, satisfaction with the leaders, and perception of their effectiveness?
1.4 Research Objective or Purpose of the Study
The first purpose of this explanatory quantitative correlational study was to investigate the current
leadership styles of senior leadership in SLCOs as perceived by their followers and volunteers, using Bass
and Avolio’s (2004) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) rater form. The second purpose was to
study what relationship of transformational leadership style full range has with organizational
effectiveness that drives followers in faith-based NPOs to perform effectively (Limsila & Ogunlana,
2008).
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The more transformational environment of SLCOs is expected to be reflexive to the effect of leadership
styles on the willingness of followers to exert extra effort, as well as to their perceptions about leader
effectiveness and to what level they are satisfied with their leaders (EFSL&SSL, 2015). To accomplish this
purpose, the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model used as an instrument and theoretical framework (F.
W. Brown & Reilly, 2009). Rowold (2008) used the MLQ-5X short form to assess the effect of
transformational leadership of pastors in a Protestant church in England and Germany, stating that:
It should be noted that prior research demonstrated virtually no differences between England and
German leadership behaviors and other western cultures. Nevertheless, the results of the present study
should be replicated in other nations before the results can be generalized (p. 12).
Further, he recommended that other contexts such as the Anglicans, Roman Catholic and/or other
additional religious denominations should be the focus of future research (Rowold, 2008).
Quantitative study with descriptive and inferential statistical analysis used to investigate the leadership
style of senior leaders (BODs and Pastors) at the top Twenty SLCOs in the North, South, East and West.
These top Twenty organizations are affiliated with one national organization, which is known as Council
of Churches of Sierra Leone (CCSL), with headquarters in 4A King Harman Road, Brookfield’s Freetown,
Sierra Leone. Selection of these organizations was based on their significance and role in shaping the
activities of most SLCOs, not only in Sierra Leone, but throughout the nation. SLCO is the main moral
guarantor and provider of Peace, educational curriculum, dispute resolution services and the Christian
RPISL paper 2016 a study of Religion and Peace-making in Sierra Leone focusing on Christian businesses
and organizations throughout the Republic of Sierra Leone. These top twenty organizations are fully
matured and enjoy viable structures, such as Churches, schools and Universities and community centers,
along with full-time Pastors, functional board of directors and significantly sizable congregations (CCSL,
2009; EFSL, 2008)
Overview Research Methodology
This explanatory quantitative study was based on a recent study on the effects of transformational
leadership of pastors conducted in Germany by Rowold (2008) and on his recommendation. This study
was a further application in a different context.
The transformational leadership style (FRL) model of senior leaders in SLCOs is the independent variable
and the organizational subjective outcomes criteria are the dependent variables (Bennett, 2009; Brown
& Reilly, 2009).
The Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model consists of seven independent variables (IA: idealized
influence, IM: inspirational motivation, IS: intellectual stimulation, IC: individual consecration, CR:
contingent reward, MEX: active/passive management by exception, and LF: laissez-faire) and three
dependent variables (EE: extra effort, SAT: job satisfaction, and EF: effectiveness). The instrument is
designed to predict the effect of the nine independent variables on each dependent variable (Failla &
Stichler, 2008)
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This study utilized the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire version 5 (MLQ-5X) to assess the effect of
transformational and transactional leadership behaviors of the senior leadership (board of directors and
imams) in SLCOs (Yavus, 2009).
Taking into consideration the organizational subjective outcomes criteria, which were used in the study
by Rowold (2008) to address the effect of transformational leadership styles of pastors in the Evangelical
Church in Germany, a survey (MLQ_5X_short) was administered to the members of the top ten major
SLCOs in Sierra Leone to collect descriptive data. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS_19 to
test the above stated hypotheses in order to answer the research questions. The targeted population
consisted of members of the congregations of top twenty SLCOs in Sierra Leone that are affiliated with
CCSL.
1.5 Hypotheses (Premises) of The Study
Many previous studies, such as that of Gaston (2005), on transformational leadership involving religious
organizations focused on pastors’ leadership in a Christian centric context. Gaston analyzed the
leadership styles of pastors of growing ethnic churches of the Florida Baptist Convention, and his
findings have provided strong support that transformational leadership works well within such a
context.
Similar findings were consistently supportive to Gaston’s study (Carter, 2009; Cohall & Cooper, 2010;
Dean, 2009; Gathere, May 2009; Mundey, 2008; Rowold, 2008).
This study explored the applicability of such a model in the context of the senior leadership of SLCOs
((Analoui, Ahmed, & Kakabadse, 2010; Faris & Parry, 2011).
Few studies on leadership in a Christian context such as Myle (2006), a study of Christian leadership
theory and practice in Christian schools in Sierra Leone, exist (EFSL &IRCSL, 2011). Joey (2006)
contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both accountability
and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being ostracized. EFSL (2021)
completed a comparative study of job satisfaction and customer focus of Christian elementary school
teachers in Sierra Leone. Joey (2005) looked at Sierra Leone Christian and Organizational Development
school leadership:
Founders, principal and teacher perspective. Salie (2008) studied servant-minded leadership and work
satisfaction in Sierra Leone organizations; however, this regional study was limited in its scope and
cannot be generalized to other regions or large organizations such those in Sierra Leone. (2008) studied
the effectiveness and leadership of Pastors in Sierra Leone based on their educational differences and
concluded that the need for the development of transformational leadership skills and competency in
the leaders of Christian institutions has never been greater. A few previous studies focused their
investigation on the transformational leadership of principals in Christian schools in local and regional
areas (Mancheno-Smoak, Endres, Polak, & Athanasaw, 2009; Watson, 2009).
The MLQ survey is the instrument used to determine the degree of transformational–transactional
leadership displayed by senior leadership in SLCOs (Limsila & Ogunlana, 2008). The MLQ-5X (FRL) model
consists of nine independent variables, namely factors of full range transformational styles, and three
dependent variables: extra effort, job satisfaction, and perception of leadership effectiveness, which are
known as organizational outcomes s (Analoui, et al., 2010).
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Leadership style is considered a primary motivator or independent variable for organizational outcomes
(Hinkin & Schriesheim, 2008). The word variable, according to Salkind (2003), means either
“changeable” or “unsteady.” A dependent variable is “a variable that is measured to see whether the
treatment or manipulation of the independent variable had any effect” (p. 24). Neuman (2003)
suggested, “A dependent variable takes two or more values” (p. 127).
Neuman (2003) made an important distinction between a variable and an attribute. Job satisfaction, for
instance, consists of several degrees. There is a continuum from extremely satisfied to intolerably
unhappy. Cooper and Schindler (2010) held that the relationship between the variables is what requires
testing. The 102-question survey developed by Chavez (2004) of the University of Arizona and the Pew
and Pulpit survey of Carroll (2006) of Duke School of Divinity provided interesting insights on
congregations, but neither author emphasized continuous improvement in the reform of organizations;
while the MLQ-5X instrument has that emphasis (Rowold, 2008). Further, many of the questions Chavez
(2004) and Carroll (2006) used in their separate studies do not apply to Christian organizations. The
(MLQ-5X- short) instrument is very generic and may diagnose and provide remedies for less healthy
Christian organizations (Hinkin & Schriesheim, 2008). Drawing from the experience of writers like Shakir
(2003), Abdullah (2006) and Emerick (2009), this study attempted to fill in some deficiencies in the
literature (Faris & Parry, 2011).
The null hypotheses are as follows:
H02: Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior leaders in SLCOs has no
significant relationship with organizational subjective outcomes criteria: extra effort, satisfaction, and
effectiveness.
The alternative hypothesis is:
H a2: Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior leaders in SLCOs has a
significant relationship with organizational subjective outcomes criteria: followers’ extra effort, job
satisfaction, and perception of effectiveness
Sampling
Gays’ (1996) sampling formula is used to select the sample size. Gays’ (1996) guidelines indicated that
for small populations where N is less than 100, surveying the entire population is appropriate and no
reason for sampling. A 50% of the targeted population should be sampled if the population size is
around 500, and 20% should be sampled if the population is around 1,500. If N is approximately 5000 or
more, the population size is almost irrelevant, and a sample size of 500 will be adequate.
In Sierra Leone, there are 50 SLCO, serving a population of 7.500 million, listed in Christian as 21%
business directory (, 2015). Therefore, according to Gays’ formula, a sample of 520 is an adequate
sample. There is no updated list of all Christian organizations in Sierra Leone; thus, it is not possible to
have an exact sampling frame of organizations and community centers for use in random sampling.
Therefore, non-probability sampling was adapted in selecting qualified organizations and respondents
(Creswell, 2008). Selecting the top twenty organizations with viable organizational structure was the
target of this study. Organizational structure that is considered viable consists of having a BOD, Pastors,
executive committee and an average weekly congregation of 500 for Sunday’ Services and an average
daily congregation of 100. Surveying the 100 congregants per center assuming a 50% expected return,
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
the congregation sample is 500. Surveying twenty Pastors and 50 board members assuming 70% return,
the total sample would be 500+50=550. The followers were given the MLQ followers’ rater form
(observer-raters), the board members and Pastors were given the self-rating form.
1.6 Significance of The Study
Transformational leadership study dominates the field of leadership study, with researchers primarily
covering its application in business, military, political and educational environments (Arnold, Turner,
Barling, Kellaway, & McKee, 2007).
But knowledge concerning transformational leadership in religion-based organizations, in clergy
leadership styles in general, and specifically in SLCOs is lagging behind (Boseman, 2008; Cohall & Cooper,
2010; Dean, 2009). This study was an attempt to determine whether there is a specific leadership style
that can be identified on a continuum between transactional leadership and transformational leadership
that most positively affects the growth of an individual SLCO (Analoui, et al., 2010).
Additionally, are transformational leadership elements compatible with the worldview of those in
SLCOs and their affiliated Churches, where absolutes, values, service, gifted leadership, character and
ultimate authority is taught and believed to be similar to that of pastors in churches (Kienel, 2005)? .
Briefly, the significance of this study lays in finding answers to the above-mentioned two questions:
is there specific leadership style can be identified on a continuum between transformational and
transactional leadership styles that significantly affect the performance of SLCOs and how congruent is
the transformational leadership theory with values of SLCOs’?
The theory transformational leadership has been validated in a wide range of for profit and nonprofit
organizations, including the pastoral context (Rowold, 2008). In order to increase the general
understanding of leadership, it is important to study the transformational leadership of Pastors and
board of directors in SLCOs (Joey, 2008). As a theoretical concept, transformational leadership and its
ability to affect critical organization outcomes are well validated (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1985; Bass &
Avolio, 1993, 1993; Lowe & Galen Kroek, 1996).
Many studies have found convincing evidence that transformational leaders have a significant positive
effect on the outcomes of an organization, such as followers’ satisfaction and motivation, as well
asorganizational effectiveness (Cummings et al., 2010; Herold, Fedor, Caldwell, & Yi, 2008; Hinduan,
Wilson-Evered, Moss, & Scannell, 2009; Kearney & Gebert, 2009; Limsila & Ogunlana, 2008; Robinson,
Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008; Wolfram & Mohr, 2009).
LaRue Jr (2004), Muhammad (2008) and Rowold (2008) also found the transformational leadership
model to have a significantly positive effect on congregational outcomes when they studied clergy
leadership in Protestant pastors and Pentecostal Pastors. Learning about the effect of this leadership
style in the area of Pastors and board of directors (BODs) in SLCOs is valuable, as it is in the clerical
domain (Eddleston, 2008; Eisenbeiss, van Knippenberg, & Boerner, 2008; Vallejo, 2009; Vecchio, Justin,
& Pearce, 2008).
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Moreover, since it is determined that transformational leadership has a positive effect on Evangelical
church growth in Germany, this study extended that study to Pastors and senior leaders of SLCOs
(Vecchio, et al., 2008), and constructive feedback will be provided to Christian organizations regarding
the proper type of training for their Pastors, clergy and boards to further the growth of the
congregations (Rowold, 2008).
Though leadership issues in SLCOs are mainly perceived as a management problem by followers and
congregations of these organizations, public policy makers are concerned about the consequences of
such issues as antisocial thinking (Abdelhady, 2007). In many European countries, leaders recently
implemented strong programs for immigration integration catered mainly toward Christian
communities, immigrants and their children, after they discovered the danger of total alienation of such
groups on social harmony and assimilation (Halim, 2006; Ahmad, 2006). However, they realized that
alienation reversal at this stage is costly, ineffective and difficult (Huda, 2006; Ramadan, 2007, 9).
For example; the Council of Churches in Sierra Leone (CCSL) compiled an action plan consisting of
recommendations and proposals to the Sierra Leone government that aim to create a more inclusive
Sierra Leonean in which people are less likely to be isolated and marginalized and possibly attracted to
rigid and antisocial thinking that can lead to destructive activity (CCSL, 2008). The potential of such
problems to occur in Sierra Leone is not remote, and public policy makers are well aware of that
potential, as mentioned in the presidential speech in Sierra Leone (P, 2012). Alienation prevention is
easier, cheaper and more effective than alienation reversal, and the findings of this study provided some
tools to preventing of antisocial thinking (Duderija, 2008)
1.7 Scope and Delimitations
This study is limited to members of congregations, the employees, and volunteers of the SLCOs. Each
participant in the sample received a questionnaire via email or hard copy with an explanation letter and
hotlink to the survey to answer. The research tool was a survey using the (MLQ-5x-short) created by
Bass and Avolio (2004).
It is an examination of how prevalent the use of transformational leadership style by the senior
leadership as perceived by the followers of the SLCOs and the effectiveness of the leadership style, job
satisfaction, and extra effort as to the type of leadership exhibited (Brown & Reilly, 2009). The
educational levels of the employees and the leaders are not part of this evaluation. There was no
attempt to compare the results of this study with other religious organizations at this stage. The sample
of the followers was used to determine their types of behavior or possible leadership style.
To comprehend the research questions and test the hypotheses, the exploration of a theory and its
practical application to explain the utility of that theory to Sierra Leone Christian organizations was
included in the study. Transformational leadership theory was tested in the context of SLCOs (Avolio &
Bass, 1999; Bass, (2004)). The variables are limited and the sample size is anticipated to be large enough
to ensure validity of data. Unlike many other religious faith communities, Muslims do not have any
central authority or hierarchy structure. Prior to the research, multiple permissions were sought and
obtained. Each organization was approached separately.
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Limitations
There are several limitations to this study though. Only typical and fully structured organizations in the
Republic of Sierra Leone were used in the study; the success of obtaining accurate and valid data from a
large organization has its own problems.
Obtaining data from member of such organizations using the internet and their membership lists is
obviously convenient; however, motivating participation through text instead of face-to-face is
problematic. Differences in regional attitudes, work ethics, and values might differ from organization to
another and subculture to subculture. Also, the size of the membership in these organizations was
varied but large enough for this study.
Using much larger and much smaller national and local organizations could present different results;
however, SLCOs are very similar across Sierra Leone so it is most likely and highly possible that a
different sample would result in the same findings. The response rate for the survey was expected to be
high; however, the response to online survey was less than 20% because of suspicious attitude and lack
of trust toward such method. Hard copy of the survey was ready to be administered through 45
questions took more time to answer than expected.
Summary
Transformational leaders as Pastors in SLCOs changes the basic values, beliefs, and awareness of
followers, thus raising their consciousness regarding the importance of specific and idealized goals,
addressing their higher-level self-actualization needs, and transcending their self-interests for the good
of the organization (Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; House, 1971; Northouse, 2008). One of the significant
areas where transformational leadership theory has had limited study is in religious-based organizations
such as churches and American Muslim organizations (Gaston, 2005; Beck, Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-
Hall, 2008).
Chapter 1 outlined the introduction to the study. SLCOs are relatively new and enfranchised. Immigrants
with global mix-values and cultures established those organizations. The essence of their mission,
besides providing communities with means to fulfill the religious and culture’s needs, is identity
formation and preservation, chartering the course of assimilation as opposed to alienation, effectively
leading and Sierra Leone Christian Communities to shoulder their share in building better Sierra Leone
for all (Esposito, 2010). The perceived and hypothesized leadership structure is based on two principles;
the effect of both transformation and transactional leadership styles as created by Bass and Avolio
(2004) is additive resulting in performance beyond expectation. The second principle is that board in
these organizations mainly has practices-- management-by-exception and contingent reward-- while the
imam performs transformational leadership style. Research questions of this study are to test MLQ_5X
model in such context.
Chapter 2 consists of a relevant leadership literature review focusing on transformational leadership
theory FR and its relationship with organizational soft outcomes in SLCOs. Relating literature on
leadership to the hypotheses and research questions outlined in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will include the
development of the subject of leadership and organizational theories as pertains to on profit, human
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services and religious organizations as well as prepositions and conclusions of the theorists,
practitioners, and researchers.
1.8 Organization of Works Nature of the Study
The nature of this study is explanatory quantitative, using descriptive and inferential statistics to
describe what the data show without reaching conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data
alone. Specifically, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to illustrate (a) the demographic
characteristics of the study sample, (b) the leadership and outcomes factor scales of the MLQ (5x-Short)
Rater form, (c) inter-correlations between leadership factor scales and determination of composite
leadership styles, and (d) zero-order correlations between the leadership factor—both styles and
behaviors—and outcomes factor scales (Brown, & Reilly, 2009).
The study focused on the attitudes of Christian organizations toward establishing effective
transformational leadership by studying the additive effect of senior leadership in SLCOs (Lindgreen,
Palmer, Wetzels, & Antioco, 2009). This study produced a model that organizations can consider using to
provide senior leaders with information relating to how they may address or mitigate factors
contributing to congregation, volunteer and employee turnover (Bennett, 2009). The quantitative
method provides added confidence to the generalization of results and the possibility of testing theories
(Creswell, 2008; Neuman, 2003). The large population sampled warrants the use of a survey instrument
(Brown & Reilly, 2009). A heuristic study, more prone to subjectivity and personal bias, or a case study,
which is often less generalizable, were not the preferred methods for this study.
Composite effect of shared transformational leadership:
The case of Sierra Leone Christian organizations
Transformational Leadership (Pastor):
Empowerment
Transactional Leadership (Board):
Contingent Reward
Expected Performance + Outcomes Beyond Expectation Management-By-Exception
Figure 1. Additive effect of shared transformational leadership:
The case of Sierra Leone Christian organizations (Adapted by researcher).
1. Idealized influence: a. Strong role model b. Makes others want to follow his vision
S e n i o r L e a d e r s h i p Pastor Idealized Inspirational Intellectual Individualizes
Influence + Motivation + Stimulation + Consideration
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
2. Inspirational motivation a. Communicates high expectations b. Uses emotional appeal
3. Intellectual stimulation a. Challenges followers to develop innovative ways to solve problems
b. Facilitates personal learning and development
4. Individualized consideration a. Pays attention to individual’s needs b. Assigns meaningful projects to
help followers grow personally and professionally- Empowerment-Augmentative Effect Contingent
Reward Active Management-By-Exception Passive Management-By-Exception
Pastor Board Empowerment Power Results beyond Expectation
Empowerment Power Expected Results Augmentative Effect Additive Effect P + E
Figure 1: Composite effect of shared transformational leadership
Optimized effectiveness Ineffective Leadership
Leadership in Sierra Leone
Christian organizations (SLCOs)
Leadership in Sierra Leone Christian
organizations (SLCOs)
Board of
directors
Bishop (Christian
Pastor)
Board of directors Bishop (Christian
Pastor)
Common Traits and vision Authoritarian Board or Pastor
Transactional
Leadership
Transformatio
nal Leadership
Transformatio
nal Leadership
Transformational
Leadership
Active
Management by
Exception
+
Passive
management by
Exception
+
Contingent
Reward
Idealized Influence
+
Individualized
Consideration
+
Inspirational Motivation
+
Intellectual Stimulation
Active Management by
Exception
+
Passive management by
Exception
+
Contingent Reward
Active Management by
Exception
+
Passive management by
Exception
+
Contingent Reward
Expected
Outcomes
Unexpected Results
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Figure 2: The perceived and hypothesized theoretical model
1.9 Definitions of Terms
To gain a clear understanding of the concepts used through this study, the followings are terms
definitions:
SLCOs: Sierra Leone Christian Organizations
CCSL: Council of Churches in Sierra Leone
EFSL: Evangelical Fellowship of Sierra Leone
TECT: The Evangelical College of Theology
SL PF: Sierra Leone Pentecostal Fellowship
Senior leaders: board of directors or trustees and Pastors
Pastors: The Pastoral Council of Ordained Ministers
Community. The Church is a place of congregation for Christians where they can come together to share
a spiritual experience and socialize (EFSL, 1987).
BOD: Board of director
FRL: Full Range Leadership model
MLQ: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ): A survey to determine the leadership styles or
behaviors and leadership outcomes that are identified in the FRL Model (Bass & Avolio, 2004).
Contingent Reward (CR): The constructive form of transactional leadership in which the leader clarifies
the expectations for the followers and provides rewards when they meet the organization’s
expectations (Avolio & Bass, 2004).
Extra Effort: One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the willingness of followers to
exert extra effort to do more than they are expected, to try harder, and to desire to succeed as a result
the leader’s behavior (Bass & Avolio, 2004).
Synergy
Performance
beyond
Expectations
Impediment
Poor performance
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(Dependent variable)Full Range of Leadership (FRL) Model: A theoretical model that explains the
effectiveness of leadership styles (transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership) on
leadership outcomes (extra effort, leader effectiveness and satisfaction) (Bass & Avolio, 2004).
Idealized Influence (Attributed) (IA): Idealized influence refers to the charismatic side of
transformational leadership in which followers respect, trust, and have confidence in their leader (Bass,
(2004)).
Idealized Influence (Behavioral) (IB): A transformational leadership behavior in which the leader serves
as a role model by demonstrating high standards of ethical and moral conduct (Avolio & Bass, 1999).
Inspirational Motivation (IM): A transformational leadership behavior in which the leader motivates the
followers by providing them with meaningful and challenging work (Avolio & Bass, 1999).
Intellectual Stimulation (IS): A transformational leadership behavior in which the Leader Effectiveness:
One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the perception of followers regarding the
effectiveness of four leader behaviors (Bass & Avolio, 2004). (Dependent variable)
leader stimulates the efforts of followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions,
reframing problems and approaching old situations in new ways (Avolio & Bass, 1999).
Individualized Consideration (IC): The leader recognizes the differences in followers and treats them as
individuals by considering each one as having different needs and abilities (Avolio & Bass, 1999).
Leader Effectiveness: One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the perception of
followers regarding the effectiveness of four leader behaviors (Bass & Avolio, 2004). (Dependent
variable)
Laissez-faire (LF): A passive/avoidant leadership behavior that represents the absence of leadership, in
other words, “non-leadership.” (Avolio & Bass, 1999)
Leadership: The ability to influence followers’ values, attitudes, abilities and beliefs in order to make
then exert their utmost effort toward the achievement of goals (e.g., Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; House,
1971; Kouzes & Posner, 2007; Stogdill, 1974).
Management-by-exception (active) (MBEA): The corrective form of transactional leadership in which the
leader monitors the followers’ mistakes, errors and deviance from organizational standards and then
takes corrective action as quickly as possible when they occur (Bass & Avolio, 2004).
Management-by-exception (passive) (MBEP): A passive avoidant leadership behavior in which the leader
passively waits for mistakes to occur and then takes corrective action (Bass & Avolio, 2004).
Assumptions
The study is useful to Christian communities and the Sierra Leone Christian organizations throughout the
Republic of Sierra Leone as well as those overseas that are similar in nature to those organizations
working in Sierra Leone. Further, in using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, the following
assumptions are relevant: (a) Each responding member has one immediate leader, either Pastor or BOD,
and rated the frequency of leadership behaviors of that individual or entity; (b) The Multifactor
Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) adequately measures the leadership styles of senior leaders and
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POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020
leadership outcomes; (c) The demographic characteristics of the respondents to the MLQ are
representative of the population; (d) The participants will respond to the questionnaire (MLQ)
accurately and honestly; and (e) The participants understand the vocabulary and concepts used in the
study.
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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
The concept of leadership is complex because it deals with so many variables andevery
argument of leadership depends on specific assumptions (Boseman, 2008;Margolin, 2007;
McInnes, 2009). The essence of leadership is presumed to be the task of optimizing collective
efforts, uniting people, fostering organizational reliability and sustainability, and solving all
inherited problems of collectivism (Cole, Bruch, &Shamir, 2009; Kearney & Gebert, 2009;
Lemay, 2009; Schaubroeck, Lam, & Cha, 2007; Thépot, 2008).
Leadership is a human phenomenon which occurs in all groups, societies, and organizations
regardless of religiosity or secularism (Kearney & Gebert, 2009). Effective leadership can create
shared beliefs, values, and be the difference between success and failure (Herold, Fedor,
Caldwell & Liu, 2008). Chapter 2 focuses on peer reviewed literature and pivotal materials
pertaining leadership theory and practice. This chapter covers the following: 1) Evolution of
leadership theories since the “Great Man” theory to the current ones; 2) Effect of leadership on
performance, outcomes, and fate of an organization; 3) The nature of leadership in nonprofit
organizations in comparison to for-profit ones; 4) The BOD as governing body for NPOs; and
Pastoral ethics) Pastors in SLCOs as coleaders to build the case for the use of transformational
leadership theories as the most fit for this study.
2.1 Definition of instructional supervision
Conceptual Leadership and Theories Overview
In my review of Literature have the relevance of many studies on this work for Decades of effort
dedicated to studying leadership have failed to produce a universally accepted definition of leadership
or method for how best to measure it Current trends:
“Leadership as a concept has dissolved into small and discrete meanings, with more than 130 different
definitions” (Burns, 1978, p. 2). For example, Northouse (2008), in his study of leadership effectiveness,
offered at least five categories of leadership. Viewing leadership as a group process, he discussed
leadership through the role of the leader and the effect on the group’s activities and effectiveness
(Erkutlu, 2008). From a personality perspective, Northouse described leadership through traits, skills and
characteristics of the individual as an explanation of how leadership works to motivate others to get
things done (Chung-Kai & Chia-Hung, 2009). Other categories used by Northouse included power
relationships between leaders and followers, exchange and transactional theoriesand instruments of
goal achievement (Herold, et al., 2008).
The review of the literature indicated that even with varying perspectives, definitions of leadership do
have some core elements. Central to these elements is that leadership is a process, and it involves
directing and influencing others (Northouse, 2008). In addition, those responsible for leadership (the
leader) will deal with the same issues that have been at the foundation of leadership responsibility for
more than 3,000 years: motivation, inspiration, sensitivity and communication (F. W. Brown & Reilly,
2009). Even with these basic components, the universal definition of leadership continues to be evasive,
but Clements and Meyer do provide a framework to analyze the potential thoroughness of any
leadership theory or approach (Clemens, & Mayer, 1999; F. W. Brown & Reilly, 2009).
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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 11 AND ORGANIZATIONAL (1).pdf

  • 1. RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (RKUC) In collaboration With The Global Interfaith University Recognized by California University-USA A fixable distance Education tailored to your need Website address: www.gibuniversity.org www.gibu.education www.rkuniversty.us www.iace-accreditation.info www.gajst.org.https://www.globalinterfaithuniversity.net.https: //www.universityofcalifornia.edu Email; gracecollege578@gmail.com.com rkuinfo77@gmail.com What Sapp# +231-555-87-83-58/ 778-50-64-62 RKUC, GIU AND CU Name of University: Rudolph Kwanue University College (RKUC) Name of Student: Paul Allieu Kamara Student's identification number: RKUC = LOD.00-2005 Degree Program: Leadership and Organization Development Thesis Approved Topic: Transformational Leadership and Organizational Development Effectiveness: A Predictive case study at the Sierra Leone Christian Organizations. Faculty Advisor's Name: Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue Faculty Advisor's Email ID: rkuinfo77@gmail.com Date of writing: 5th June, 2020. Expected End Date: November, 2020. Your Address: Winners Chapel International, 9PWD Pademba Road, Freetown, Sierra Leone West Africa. Bishop. Dr. Rudolph Q. Kwanue, Sr. AA, B.Th., B.MIN., MM, H.D. PhD. Founder, Chancellor, International Director - Director Founder and Presiding Bishop CLC Liberia (+231) 777-260959 WhatsApp # +231-555-87-83-58
  • 2. 2 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS: A PREDICTIVECASE STUDY AT THE SIERRA LEONE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS BY PAUL ALLIEU KAMARA A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Post Degree Doctor of Education in Leadership Organizational Development and Leadership RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE November, 2022 © 2020 by Paul Allieu Kamara ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  • 3. 3 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS: A PREDICTIVE CASE STUDY AT THE SIERRA LEONE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS by Paul Allieu Kamara June 5, 2020 Approved: Prof. Rwamakuba Zephanie, DBA, Mentor Oscar Ebanja, PHD, Committee Member Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue Sr., PHD, Supervisor Accepted and Signed: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date Rwamakuba Zephanie Accepted and Signed: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date Oscar Ebanja Accepted and Signed: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rudolph Q. Kwanue Date Rwamakuba Zephanie Date Dean, School of Advanced Studies Rudolph Kwanue University College
  • 4. 4 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 CERTIFICATION This is to certify that the Student with Candidate number 002005 and name Paul Allieu Kamara has successfully completed Thesis/Dissertation under my supervision. I read his research proposal and accepted him to carry out original research under my support. I supervised him from chapter one to the last chapter. I do hereby authorize him for the final defense of his Doctoral work. First supervisor Prof. Rudolph Q. Kwanue Date of acceptance 5th June 2020 Second supervisor Prof. Rwamakuba Zephanie Date 10th June 2020 External Reviewer Dr. Oscar Ebanja Date 15th June 2020
  • 5. 5 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 DECLARATION I Paul Allieu Kamara, declare that this Thesis is my original research work, ideas, review of related literature, research design, data collection, data presentation and analysis, and the policy recommendations of this study, are my independent thoughts and reflection. Signature of Candidate Paul Allieu Kamara Date 5th June 2020
  • 6. 6 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 ABSTRACT The study of leadership in wide range of organizational settings has demonstrated the advantage the Full Range Leadership (FRL) of transformational leadership approach over other leadership styles in predicting organizational performance and other outcomes. Research has found that leadership is one of the most significant contributors to organizational performance. However, very little research has been completed on the link between FRL and organizational performance at the Sierra Leone Christian Organizations (SLCO). This lack of empirical research, the increase use of FRL in assessing pastoral leadership (, 1898), and its positive and strong association with effective organizations as shown in literature were the primary motivators for this study was born. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X), a proven leadership assessment test, was administered to 520 congregants at 50 SLCOs in the greater Freetown area, Makeni, Bo and Kenema in Sierra Leone to determine preferred leadership styles and whether there is a significant correlational relationship between senior leadership styles and organization performance. Created and updated by the Global Academia in Science and Theology (2022), the questionnaire measure three objective indicators of organizational performance: congregants’ satisfaction with leadership, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Results of descriptive analysis showed that senior leaders at SLCOs scored relatively high in the average of all responses and in six of the nine leadership factors, suggesting that Full Range Transformational Leadership and organizational Development Model (FRLM) was the style practiced by senior leaders at targeted organizations. The results of multiple regression analysis of aggregated leadership factors scores revealed that blended specific elements of the (FRLM) led to higher satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort and perceived leadership effectiveness among congregants. Multiple regression analysis for separate leadership factors scores revealed the following findings: (1) Contingent Reward leadership style (CR), which requires performance measurements to reward achievement beyond meeting standards, is inextricably linked with the Transformational leadership style. (2) FRLM consisted of nine hierarchal factors on a continuum basis and strongly proffered as the most effective leadership approach at the studied context. (3) Idealized influence, attribute and behavior, did not reach significance, suggesting that SLCOs are shifting from religious leadership to secular one. (4) Intellectual stimulation did not reach significance either, suggesting that leadership at SLCOs does not empower followers nor facilitate creativity and independent thinking among them. Factor analysis findings (FAF) suggested that the nine factors of FRLM can be represented by three main factors to explain 75.4 of the variability in the original data. The findings of this study provided strong support for FRLM to work well with the senior leadership at SLCOs. Discussion of the implications and recommendations was provided.
  • 7. 7 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 DEDICATION To those who make the life of others a reality of fulfillments To those who are dedicated to empowering individuals with inspiration to Transform the challenges of life into defining moments of positive growth and change in the Christian Community of Sierra Leone.
  • 8. 8 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to many individuals who provided me with love, support, and guidance. I am indebted to Dr. Rwamakuba Zephanie my committee chair and mentor, who accepted my invitation to serve in the dissertation committee. Since then, I have been receiving his gracious response, warm support, practical guidance, and encouragement. I would like to thank Dr. Oscar and Dr. Rudolph Q. Kwanue who served as committee supervisor. I was inspired by the challenging, intriguing questions they offered. They exemplified the quality of research and asked me tough questions, which enabled me to become a stronger and resilient doctoral learner. To the professors who taught me in this doctoral program at Rudolph Kwanue University College, I am very appreciative of their wisdom embedded in the lecture notes, scholarly comments, and feedback. Their teaching and leadership were indeed exemplary. From my perspective, they transcend the rigorous requirements of the doctoral program. My special thanks go to Dr. Joeys, Dr. Fordouge, Dr. Bonsu, and Dr. Kwanue. The completion of this dissertation was not possible without great assistance I received from my classmates, colleagues, friends, and business partners. I am thankful for the time and effort of the leaders of the 50 organizations who responded to my invitation e-mail and direct paper survey. Words cannot express my gratitude to Pastor Martin, Pastor Emmanuel, Charles, and the 520 people who accepted my invitation graciously and completed the survey successfully.
  • 9. 9 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Table of Contents Chapter One………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.1. Historical background of the study…………………………………………………………………………………… 1.1.2 Conceptual (Abstract) background……………………………………………………………………………….... 1.1.3 Theoretical background of the study……………………………………………………………………………… 1.1.4 Contextual background………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.2 Statement of the problem………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.3 Research questions………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.4 Research Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.5 Hypotheses (premises) of the study……………………………………………………………………………….. 1.6 Significance of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.7 Scope of the study (Significance) …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.8 Organization of work………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.9 Definition of terms…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Chapter TWO. Literature review……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.1 Conceptual review…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.1 Definition of instructional supervision…………………………………………………………………………….. 2.12 Types of Supervision of instructions………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.3 How is supervision of instruction done………………………………………………………………………... 2.1.4 Approaches to Clinical supervision………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.5 Classroom visitation …………………………………………………………………………………………………... 2.1.6 Walk through………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.7 Holding of Conferences………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.8 In-service training ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 10. 10 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 2.1.9 Learning training ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.10 feedbacks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.11 Theoretical framework………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.12 Empirical literature…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.13. Contextual review……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Chapter Three. Research methodology …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.1 Research design…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3.2 Sampling technique…………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 3.3 data collection…….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.4 data presentation………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3.5 Validity of data………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.6 Data analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Chapter 4. Data presentation and findings………………………………………………………………………………………. 4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4.2 Data presentation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.3 Data analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Chapter five. Summary, conclusion and policy Recommendation…………………………………………………. 5.1 Summary of study…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5.3 Policy recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
  • 11. 11 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 CHAPTER ONE: 1.0 Introduction The identification of effective leadership has been a longstanding unsettled issue among leadership theorists and practitioners (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Majority of research on leadership and Organizational Development supports the theory that effective leadership is vital to the creation of a successful organization (Bandsuch, Pate, & Thies, 2008). Defining and identifying skills that encompass visionary, effective and successful leadership, resulting in optimized organizational performance, is crucial to serve the interests of all stakeholders (Ayman & Korabik, 2010). Skilled leaders are, indeed, the key elements in influencing overall organizational effectiveness (Davis, 2003; Babcock Roberson, & Strickland, 2010). “Leadership is often regarded as the single most critical factor in the success or failure of institutions and despite the skepticism about the reality and importance of leadership, all social and political movements require leaders to begin them” (Bass, 2008, p. 9).Successful and effective leadership starts with having a vision that is reflective of the common goals among all stakeholders of an organization (Baronien, Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008; Kouzes & Posner, 2007). Leaders with the ability to craft a transforming vision and effectively express it as an idealized picture of the future of the organization, gaining the commitment of their followers, as well as the support of all key players to their vision, are transformational leaders (Herold, Fedor, Caldwell, & Yi, 2008; Howarth & Rafferty, 2009). Transformational leaders perform through collectivism and build synergy among followers so that they successfully influence one another to assimilate transforming change that is based on trust and teamwork (Barroso, Villegas, & Casillas, 2008). Researchers have concurred that effective leadership is the ability to influence and align followers’ attitudes, motives and beliefs towards achievement of organizational goals (Spatig, 2009). Leadership literature also holds that effective stakeholders in the nonprofit sector, such as congregations in religious communities, are committed to a mission and vision of its institution (Beinecke, 2009). Effective leaders affect the direction a person, a group, an organization, a community or a nation will take (Ather, & Sobhani, 2008), and all organizations, whether profit or nonprofit, require highly effective leadership for their success, growth and fulfillment of the organizational mission (Boseman, 2008). 1.1.1. Historical Background of the Problem Study Leadership has been extensively researched and written about for many years (Avolio, et al., 2009). Leadership literature primarily covers its content and application in diverse contexts, such as business, politics, military, nonprofit and educational environments. Studies on leadership implicitly assume that leadership content is like a golden coin: it will have its value everywhere and in any contextual environment (Young, 2001). Hence, the leadership criteria in educational, healthcare, business, nonprofit and religion-based organizations are transferable (Boseman, 2008). In contrast, a review of NPOs literature exposes two contradictory concepts. Firstly, the many tools, practices and management solutions developed in private business would significantly benefit NPOs
  • 12. 12 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 when imported and adapted (Beck, LengnickHall, & Lengnick-Hall, 2008). However, such management practices and tools can be either inapplicable or difficult to adopt due to the fact that NPOs, in their essential aspects, are limited in resources and training (Zimmermann, Stevens, Thames, Sieverdes & Powell, 2003). In addition to the basic differences in cultural and institutional architecture between typical business firms and these organizations, adaptation could be infeasible (Lewis, 2002). Findings of a previous study conducted to examine the conditions under which NPOs need to utilize a governance plan and management practices generated by corporations recommend careful adaptation to such practices. Because such management practices are either limitedly relevant applications or merely ideal solutions to the challenges facing many NPOs (Beck, et al., 2008; Beinecke, 2009). Despite the pressure on these organizations to become more business-like in their management practice, the measure of success developed in private business may be either inapplicable or extremely difficult to adapt because of limited resources (Herman & Renz, 2008; Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009; Todorovich & Schlosser, 2007). The primary mission of nonprofit and religious organizations is varied, depending on the nature of the organization (James, 2003; Schmid, 2004). When viewed in terms of SLCOs, leadership is focused on community-building efforts (Aabed, 2006; Abdullah, 2006). The most pressing dimensions are infrastructure, organizational, and human developments (Afridi, 2001; Ather, 2006; Ather, & Sobhani, 2008; Ahmad, 2006; Esposito, 2010). Dominating those efforts, among other things, are issues of providing services that meet religious needs and spiritual growth, educational and social opportunities, and benevolent assistance (Ahmad, 2007; Asgari, Silong, Ahmad, & Samah, 2008). The destiny of Sierra Leone Christians’ organizations, institutions and communities depend on the leadership’s ability to demonstrate the significance of their values to Sierra Leone society (Esposito, 2010; Khan, 2009). Facing all these challenges mandates the need for competent leadership (Calloway, & Awadzi, 2008; Ramadan, 2007). CCSL and EFSL (2006) describe leadership from a Christian’s perspective as having two primary roles: the servant-guardian leader; and the charismatic, strong role model leader. Servant leaders serve their followers, seek their welfare, and guide them toward what is good. Concurrently, the focus of a transformative guardian leader is on the achievement of organizational objectives as followers’ outcomes (Aabed, 2006; Beekun & Badawi, 2006; Kuhn, 2007; Ramadan, 2007). Accordingly, in SLCOs, transformational leadership in Organizational Development theory resonates with the concept of leadership in Christianity (CCSL&EFSL, 2006). Leaders with the charismatic dimension of transformational leadership build a sense of shared vision around organizational values and enlist the highest commitment of their followers (Paulsen, Maldonado, Callan, & Ayoko, 2009). The largest SLCO, known as the Christians Society of Sierra Leone (CCSL), has indicated that its vision is to be exemplary and unifying Christian organizations in Sierra Leone that contributes to the betterment of the Christian community and society. As an association of Christian organizations and individuals, CCSL’s mission ensures a common platform for representing Christians, for supporting Christian communities, for developing educational, social and outreach programs and for fostering good relations with other religious communities and with civic and service organizations. Furthermore, the mission of the Christians Sierra Leone Society Council of Christians Schools (EFSL, 1992 in the Republic of Sierra Leone is to establish a Christian school’s system in Sierra Leone that nurtures a balanced Christian personality that seeks to excel in every field of endeavor. EFSL aims to be an effective source of
  • 13. 13 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 educational leadership and resources for Christianity schools. EFSL’ mission is to empower SLCOs through civic education, social participation, and coalition building ensuring liberties for all Sierra Leoneans. EFSL has adopted certain strategic goals to train and develop the senior leadership, e.g., Apostles (Pastors, Teachers, Evangelist and other religious leaders) and boards of directors, of Christian organizations and governing bodies. The intended outcomes involve the youth in the formation process of the Christian Youth Fellowship identity and to build a sound financial base for Christian projects. In fact, one of EFSL’s strategic goals is forming a coalition in order to build cohesiveness in the community at large and to build on that social cohesion, harmony and security (http://www.efsl.evang.org(1978). One of the most researched leadership theories, and a potentially highly effective model for NPOs, is transformational leadership (Chung-Kai & Chia-Hung, 2009). Since Burns (1978) introduced transformational leadership theory, it has become the most studied leadership theory and has garnered substantial support (Cole, Bruch, &Shamir, 2009). In fact, Osborn and Marion (2009) claimed that transformational leadership is one of the most effective forms of leadership. Often the success or failure of maintaining the confidence of stakeholders in NPOs is directly linked to its strategic leadership and management (Herman & Renz, 2008). Since many NPOs follow models and solutions developed in the private sector, the responsibility is placed on the senior leaders to both lead and manage the strategic and operational functions of the organization (Beck, Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, 2008). Thus, the focus of this study was to explore the relationship of transformational leadership at SLCOs with followers’ satisfaction, organizational health, and effectiveness. There are many reasons for the successes and failures of SLCOs, including marginalization, isolation, polarization, identity formation and contextualization (Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). Can effective leadership, as conceptualized in the transformational leadership theory by Bass and Avolio (2004) be contextualized in SLCOs? How do the practices of such leadership style relate to the success of SLCOs in meeting complex challenges? These questions are the focus of this research because great leaders usually lead great organizations (Erkutlu, 2008). The leadership literature suggests that the leadership of Christian communities and organizations faces complex challenges, such as negative stereotyping and globalization (Henslin, 2007), alienation as opposed to assimilation and identity formation (Van Amersfoort, 2007), language and religious preservation (Steven & Ortman, 2007) and ethnocentrism (Barrett, 2007). Examining those issues through research might provide the leadership with the tools to understand these challenges and related issues and to mitigate them (Baronien,Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008). Transformational leaders display a different set of behaviors from those of the transactional leader, but both styles of leadership are assessed by the instrument most often used for this determination, which is known as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X), which was created by Bass and Avolio in 1992. This instrument helps to determine not only the existence of such behaviors, but it also determines the strengths and weaknesses of transformational leadership (Hinkin, & Schriesheim, 2008). A meta-analysis conducted by Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubrahmaniam(1996) indicated that transformational leadership is a good predictor of both subjective and objective outcomes across a wide range of organizational settings (Rowold, 2008).
  • 14. 14 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Followers’ satisfaction and commitment are considered as subjective indicators, while profit is considered as an objective indicator. However, both subjective and objective outcomes are considered to be indicators of leaders’ effectiveness (Hinduan, Wilson Evered, Moss, & Scannell, 2009; Rubin, Dierdorff, Bommer, & Baldwin, 2009). In NPOs, effective leadership can be defined as the power to influence followers so that they will make every effort, willingly and enthusiastically, toward the fulfillment of common goals (Burns, 1978; Bass, 1985; Adams, & Adams, 2009; Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009). Therefore, transformational leadership motivates followers, raises their consciousness, transforms their attitudes, beliefs and values and moves them to achieve aligned personal and organizational goals (Bass, 1985; Avolio, Walumbwa, &Weber, 2009). This particular leadership paradigm has been embraced by practitioners, researchers and scholars alike as one approach to engage followers to perform beyond expectations and is associated with creating and inspiring a shared, idealized picture of the future that is reflective of the organization values (Avolio, 1999; Kouzes &Posner, 2003; Walumbwa, Avolio, Zhu, 2008). In contrast to transformational leadership, transactional leaders lead through the use of specific incentives and motives via a simple trade-off, such as rewards for employee compliance (Bass, 1990; Flynn, 2009).Transactional leaders do not take into consideration the conflict between the needs and interests of the employees and the needs and the interests of the organization, nor are they concerned about creating enduring relationship with followers (Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009). However, lasting change and enduring relationship are key elements in transformational style (Laohavichien, Fredendall, & Cantrell, 2009). Bass (1985) affirms that transformational leadership has been associated with having a positive effect on various aspects of achievement and performance and on followers’ satisfaction. In addition, findings from previous studies have consistently shown that transformational leadership leads to envisage outcomes superior to those of transactional leadership (Carter, Jones-farmer, Armenakis, Field, & Svyantek, 2009). This expanded effect has been verified in a diversity of corporate settings and is considered a basic element of the external validity of transformational leadership (Cole, Bruch, & Shamir, 2009; Rowold, 2008). Thus, the objective of this research was to determine whether the healthy conditions of SLCOs could be the result of having a leadership style that is more of a transformational, or more of a transactional, or composite styles of both. By drawing parallels between the leadership styles of pastors and the senior leadership in SLCOs, represented by the board of directors and founders, this study assessed the relationship of leadership behaviors with the subjective performance indicators for SLCOs. Just as pastors of congregations in Protestant churches are considered the most senior leaders, board of directors and Pastors in Sierra Leone Christian organizations is the most senior leaders. They have significant leadership roles in SLCOs (CCSL, 2008; EFSL, 2009). By displaying certain behavioral aspects, the board of directors and Pastors, in a shared leadership configuration with additive effect, ensures the motivation and satisfaction of their congregation and members, thereby highlighting the importance of their leadership roles (CCSL, 2009; EFSL, 2008). Nevertheless, SLCOs are nonprofit, human service
  • 15. 15 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 organizations; they face unique environmental and operational challenges that signify the practical importance of exploring leadership styles in such settings. However, the role of leadership style within congregations has received limited attention, specifically within the congregations of the Christian faith (CCSL&EFSL, 1990). Thus, the present study aimed at extending the understanding of an effective leadership in boards of directors (BODs) and imams in AMOs (Salie, 2008). The congregation, members and followers of SLCOs were used as subjects to determine if Bass’s model of leadership is applicable across all sectors. However, the relationship of the BODs and the Pastors within the congregation is different from the relationship of employees and employer, and there is a lack of research concerning transformational leadership in SLCOs (Faris & Parry, 2011). Studies on pastoral leadership such as (Rowold, 2008; Barton, 2009; Carroll, 2006) are the bases of this study on transformational leadership of senior leaders in Sierra Leone Christian Organizations. 1.1.2 Conceptual (Abstract) Background Role of The NPOs Nonprofit human service organizations, including Sierra Leone Christian Organizations are critical to Sierra Leone society as they provide many important services which private corporations and government agencies cannot provide (SSL 2015). NPOs in human service sectors also directly affect the quality of life of millions of Sierras Leoneans. They contribute to 71.9% of the national income and 19.3% of the working population of Agriculture (SSL, 2015). SLCOs provide multifaceted services to meet the needs of this population, whether these needs are educational, welfare, emotional well-being or religious (SSL, 2013). These organizations act as moral change agents (Drucker, 1990). Their product is a changed person, a cured patient, an educated child or a self-respecting man or woman who contributes to society (Drucker, 1990; Hasenfeld, 1983). In a globalized society, however, the Christian minority in the Republic of Sierra Leone cannot be shielded from the effect of globalization, nor can they be secluded from the development of their environment (Hassan, 2007). The Sierra Leone Christian communities and organizations create, through their growing and enfranchised community centers and Churches, a meeting point between East, South, North and West and between past and present (Khan, 2006). In that context, Sierra Leones’ reactions and interactions are varied. While some Christians resort to assimilation in order to avoid the Christian- phobia in their environment, some others call for seclusion in order to protect themselves from the non- Christians environment (TRC, 2007, 9), believing that seclusion is the best way to ensure identity preservation and common cultural value retention. The isolationists reject any attempt to integrate Christians with other communities and accept no rationale for not understanding the comprehensiveness of Christian (TRC, 2007, 9). A comparative study exploring issues with regard to the range of values held by Christians in the Republic of Sierra Leone suggests that a high percentage of Christian youth are becoming alienated from or are overly copying, instead of simply being assimilated into, Sierra Leone society, to an extent whereby their practice of Christian and their Christian identity are seriously influenced (Haddad & Lumis, 1987; Ramadan, 2007). This attitude could not only pose a social problem, but could definitely polarize
  • 16. 16 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 the Christian community (S. J. A. Shah, 2010). A secluded and polarized community will not contribute toward harmonious and peaceful coexistence between Christians and non-Christians, which is not only important for the Christians’ social well-being, but is critical for the success of sharing the strengths of each community (S. Shah, 2008; Tatari, 2006; Yaghi, 2007). This research might help this segment of society in placing the idea of identity preservation in perspective and in adapting to the reality in which they live (Yaghi, 2008). The assumption here is that the leadership in SLCOs will play a vital role in achieving a community, as well as an organizational transformation (Avolio & Bass, 2002; Bass & Riggio, 2006; Rowold, 2008). Leadership effect is critical in contextualizing the identity preservation and value retention for Christians as a minority living in Sierra Leone (A. Khan, 2010). Moreover, exploring leadership skills and style may provide futurists and strategists with some insights and predictions of the social problems that might result from subscribing to either point of view: seclusion or assimilation (Halim, 2006; Huda, 2006). Another important issue is that in order for the leadership of Sierra Leone Christian organizations to fulfill their missions, they must have the people and the funds necessary to accomplish good work (Spinosa, Glennon, & Sota, 2008). Growth in attendance for their congregations and activities would provide more people and would most likely translate to more revenue, making it more feasible that there would be a positive influence on the SLCOs internal and external community (Senge, Scharmer, Jaworski, & Flowers, 2008). However, most leadership studies have addressed only leadership styles from a singular culture such as Latino/Hispanic, African and European perspectives (Jung, et al., 2009; Warneke, 2008). The Christian population in Sierra Leone is significant, estimated to be the second most populous religion-based community, and this number is expected to grow due to migration, reproduction and other factors (CCSL, 2009; EFSL, 2008). Christian organizations in Sierra Leone are strategic targets for many peripheral influences and identity manipulation in the light of perceived common discrimination against minority groups in Sierra Leone (Bowen, 2009; L. Brown, 2009; Duderija, 2008). In addition, SLCOs are living in different contexts and realities, which offer them an excellent opportunity to be empowered and integrated within mainstream society, making them an exemplary model for all Christian minorities in the non-Christian countries where they live (Aguayo, 2009; Gurbuz& Gurbuz- Kucuksari, 2009). The second and third generation of Christians in Sierra Leone, most of whom are the children or grandchildren of immigrants and which will soon become the majority of the Christian population in Sierra Leone, are increasingly making headway to model the integration of Eastern, Northern Southern and Western civilizations that for centuries were in a state of conflict (Duderija, 2008; Khan, 2009). This process of modeling is based on the strengths of both civilizations integrating in a natural, peaceful and most harmonious way (Bloul, 2008; Halim, 2006). In addition, the American Muslim community as a religious minority is uniquely positioned to foster a new model of the civilization’s integration and cultural accommodation, on the one hand, and to expose the limits of modernity in Sierra Leone-centric conceptions of religious harmony, on the other (Peña, 2007; Sahin & Altuntas, 2009). Thus, the role of the Sierra Leone Christian community is a determining factor in reshaping this relationship and must not simply stumble over past experiences (Anwar, 2008; Argon, 2009). Envisioning a bright future and creating lasting change based on organizational values is the work of transformational leadership (Osborn, & Marion, 2009; Omar, Zainal, Omar, & Khairudin, 2009). The responsibility of leading for
  • 17. 17 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 success is enormous and complex. Some organizations, in all sectors of the economy, appear to be on the decline under ineffective leadership (S. N. Khan, 2010). The result is that organizational leaders simply employ whatever leadership style suits their leadership circumstances, and SLCO are no different (Omar, Zainal, Omar, & Khairudin, 2009). Leaders not only do make a difference, but they also establish systems for empowering others, as leaders are a necessary ingredient in the startup of both political and social movements, and the organizations’ success or failure is highly dependent on that leadership (Baronien, Šaparnien, & Sapiegien, 2008; Bass, 1990). While some leaders are effective, inspirational and influential, others provide ineffective and passive leadership, which very often leads to organizational failure (Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). A leadership theory that encourages effective, ethical, supportive and responsible leadership and creates an enabling environment for followers to attain their highest potentials will be the framework of this study (Al Sawee, 2006; Vecchio, Justin, & Pearce, 2008). Transformational leadership theory, in particular, is congruent with the theory and practice of the leadership concept in Christian (Myles, 1994). 1.1.3 Theoretical Background of the Study Measuring Nonprofit Effectiveness Researchers have spent years studying different models and methods to measure a NPO’s effectiveness through its board’s performance (Fenton & Inglis, 2007). However, efforts have thus far defied any agreement on a universal definition of NPO effectiveness or how best to measure it (Hendricks, Plantz, & Pritchard, 2008). A common theme of the studies is that measuring NPOs’ effectiveness is complicated because they have many stakeholders and often just as many intangible goals and societal values attached to their missions. However, the reality is that no organization, whether nonprofit or for-profit, can survive without financial support (Yehuda, 2006). How effective an organization is at securing funds and perceptions of how efficiently the resources are used will always be at least two of the indicators that need to be monitored and evaluated as a measure of viability and survivability (Hendricks, et al., 2008). Most studies indicate that the difficulty in assessing effectiveness and efficiency lies in varying societal values placed on the intangible benefits of the mission of the organization (Fontannaz & Oosthuizen, 2007). Other issues include the laws and the legal status under which a nonprofit operates (Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009). Following an extensive review of the literature on organizational effectiveness, four basic dimensions appear to be pivotal in order to assess effectiveness in NPOs (Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009). First, the outcomes results can be conceptualized as subjective indicators of effectiveness and measured through the extent to which the organization meets the needs of its constituents through outputs such as the actual products, services, and delivery system (Boehm & Yoels, 2009; French, Peevely, & Stanley, 2008; Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls, 2009). Second is the organization’s ability to obtain resources from the environment to meet its needs (Aldrich, 2009). Third is how the organization secures and maintains legitimacy in its environment (Scott, 2009). Fourth are senior leadership behaviors reflective of the organizational core values, including: a mission orientation, management strategy and practice, and the use of volunteers (Aldrich, 2009; Analoui, Ahmed, & Kakabadse, 2010; Boehm & Yoels, 2009; Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service, 2009; French, et al., 2008; Hendricks, et al., 2008; Huehls,
  • 18. 18 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 2009). This study is a ground breaking and will be the first to explore the relationship between the first dimension, which is outcomes results, and the fourth dimension, which is the leadership style in the context of SLCOs. Theoretical Framework The governing system of SLCOs is different than the common systems used for NPOs, other religious institutions, churches and private corporations (Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service, 2009). SLCs have a BOD similar to that in private business and a hired imam (contractor) who holds a position similar to a pastoral position in a church (Hendricks, et al., 2008). As documented by SLCOs (2008), board of directors, trustees or executives are elected by the general body of the members for staggered terms to ensure continuity. One of a board’s essential jobs is to hire and dismiss spiritual Christian leaders, usually called a Pastors, for the organization and the Churches, (J. Patrick, G. Scrase, A. Ahmed, & M. Tombs, 2009). The Pastor’s role is that of a pastor, bishop, preacher, rabbi and father, but without management authority (French, et al., 2008). The imam is the most influential person in the congregation and the community at large (Plante, 2008). His power is based on respect, trust and reverence. However, even though he has ultimate authority in Christian affairs, he is no more than an employee who can be promoted, demoted, dismissed or replaced at any time by the board alone, in contrast to the pastor, where the congregation is significantly involved (Dean, 2009). According to the research conducted by Joeys (2008), in only a small percentage of Christian organizations do Pastors combine Church and administrative authorities. In contrast, a small percentage of other Christian organizations have no Pastor at all. In such cases, the board holds both two authorities, administrative and Church Authority (BCC, 2007). However, a majority (81%) of Christian organizations have hired a qualified full-time Pastors in the primary leadership position (CCSL, 2008). A Pastor is responsible for the spiritual fulfillment and growth of the congregation (EFSL, 2008; Chr. J, 2008; Stelmokien & Endriulaitien, 2009). Northouse (2008) suggested the additive effect of both leadership styles, transactional and transformational, is the key to performance beyond expectation. He assumes, as Burn argued before, that these two styles are exhibited by one leader. However, in SLCOs, transformational leadership style is assumed to be exhibited by the Pastors while transactional leadership styles are assumed to be exhibited by BODs (Joey, 2008). Thus, the following model is the best fit for the primary leadership role of both elements of Pastors and board in SLCOs (EFSL, 2008; CCSL, 2008; Stelmokien & Endriulaitien, 2009).
  • 19. 19 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 1.1.4 Contextual Background Nonprofit Leadership Effectiveness Nonprofit leadership effectiveness has historically started with the BODs and the governance process because this is where the legal and moral responsibility for mission and direction lies (Barros & Nunes, 2007). Central to the governance process is visionary leadership that strategically guides the mission through establishing and evaluating objective goal attainment, raising funds to ensure the survivability of the organization and making tough decisions about allocation of resources to support the customers that utilize the services (Auteri & Wagner, 2007). Unfortunately, research on nonprofit effectiveness, according to Greenlee (2000), continues to be either survey-based analysis of what respondents say they do or normative on what nonprofits should do (Herman & Renz, 2008). In addition, findings from other studies usually point to the failure of most board of directors to fulfill their role effectively (William A. Brown, 2005; W. A. Brown, 2007; Cargo, 2010a, 2010b). In response to this lack of effective leadership from board members, many nonprofits turn to the senior leader or chief executive officer for strategic leadership and management (Lecovich & Bar-Mor, 2007; Magaliff & Miller, 2010). Yet, Brown (2005) was among those who found NPOs continue to use board performance as a barometer of organization effectiveness as a way to answer the question of how good these organizations are in doing good (Barman, 2007). Brown (2005) supported this notion that organizational effectiveness is linked directly to the performance of the board. According to Jobome (2006) efforts to focus the responsibility for the effectiveness of the nonprofit on the senior leadership or chief executive officer are not new. Herman and He imovics (1991) posited that the success and ultimate survivability of the nonprofit is the responsibility of the chief executive officer. They based their findings on years of research that led to their challenge to the traditional board-led hierarchical model of leadership, as findings from Jobome, et al (2006) indicated that board members and the staff of effective NPOs look to the chief executive officer for success, and at the same time, the chief executive officer assumes those responsibilities (Center for Nonprofit Leadership and Service, 2009). Herman and Heimovics (1991) offered support for their alternative model of nonprofit leadership through the works of Young (1987). Young, who also studied nonprofit chief executive officers, described them as entrepreneurs, placing the responsibility on the chief executive officer for evaluating the environment in which the NPO existed, for ensuring that changes did not affect existing relationships and for creating new funding streams based on that evaluation (Colbert, Kristof-Brown, Bradley, & Barrick, 2008; Ling, Simsek, Lubatkin, & Veiga, 2008; Resick, Weingarden, Whitman, & Hiller, 2009; Song, Tsui, & Law, 2009; Yan, Simsek, Lubatkin, & Veiga, 2008) Researchers and practitioners continue to assess effectiveness and efficiency through evaluating the actions or inactions of the BODs, using methods such as goal attainment, system resource, multidimensional, multiple constituency, and the balanced score card (Song, et al., 2009; Yan, et al., 2008). If it is true, as posited by Taylor, Chait and Holland (1996), that nonprofit board of directors routinely do not fulfill their responsibilities, it is illogical to continue assessing something that may only provide data on to what extent nonprofit board leadership does or does not exist (Hayden, 2006). In addition, the instruments used in these efforts, e.g., Board Self-Assessment Questionnaire (BASQ), the National Center for Nonprofit Boards Questionnaire, the Drucker Foundation Self-Assessment and the Governance Self-Assessment Checklist (GSAC), assess only board performance collectively. They do not
  • 20. 20 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 differentiate the leadership role or the effect of the senior leader, even though there is a legal and expected separation of responsibilities (Iecovich & Hadara, 2007). Research focusing specifically on the nonprofit senior leadership style is limited, and most of what is available is seen in dissertation topics, with almost universal recommendation for the need for additional research (Sawhill & Williamson, 2001; Schippers, Den Hartog, Koopman, & van Knippenberg, 2008; Toor & Ofori, 2009; Wells, Feinberg, Alexander, & Ward, 2009) . The growing trend toward a strategic executive director-led nonprofit model fuels the need for additional empirical research to monitor this movement and assess the effects the executive director’s leadership style has on organization performance (Rowold & Rohmann, 2009). There is a precedent for studying the relationship of leadership style and organization performance, even though most of the studies were carried out in the for-profit sector (Barros & Nunes, 2007; Ozaralli, 2003). 1.2. Statement of The Research Problem The number of Sierra Leone Christian organizations, as nonprofit organizations, has grown rapidly over the past two decades. In fact, Christian nonprofits have grown in the Western Area at a faster rate than the three regions (EFSL, 2011). Rapid growth has not always resulted in “smart” growth, due to the fact that new organizations often start without leaders who possess the necessary skills to effectively manage resources, let alone, to optimize organizational structure and processes (Yaghi, 2008; Zimmermann & Stevens, 2008). In working with nonprofit startup organizations, key organizational elements were found that provoke frequent discussion: the role of the board in organizational management, the organizational structure and process alignment, and the construct of organizational mission and vision statements (Herman & Renz, 2008; Yaghi, 2009; Zimmermann & Stevens, 2008). Sierra Leone Christian Organizations face many leadership challenges due to the internal and external contexts, rapid growth, and lack of skillful leadership (Faris & Parry, 2011). Many organizational leadership challenges arise from the social, cultural, structural as well as legal and political challenges, yet some of these leadership challenges are those that any organization is likely to face, whether or not they are Christians (TECT 2002). As for any organization, these leadership challenges have heightened the need for strong and effective organizational leadership (Faris & Parry, 2011). In particular, one of the challenges to all organizations is the difficulty in determining which type of leadership approach is effective (A. Yaghi, 2007). The relative paucity of research into leadership within Christian organizations in Western societies, suggests a research need that can be fulfilled (Faris & Parry, 2011; Herman & Renz, 2008). The general aim of this research is to develop better understanding of the leadership styles of Sierra Leone Christian organizations, including the role of foundersand Pastors and board of directors on the generation of effective outcomes for those organizations (Brown, 2005; W. A. Brown, 2007; William A. Brown, 2007). Christian organizations, founded mainly by Colonial Masters, concern themselves with the preservation of identity, but often exclude many talented members and have leadership style issues (Afridi, 2001; Ather, 2006; Ather, & Sobhani, 2008; Ahmad, 2006; Esposito, 2010). SLCOs, such as Christian’s community centers which usually include Churches, activity halls, and schools, are not optimally healthy (Manji, 2003; Rehman, 2004; Shakir, 2003; Siraji, 2003). Haddad (2006) observed that Sierra Leone Christianshave a leadership crisis. Safi (2005) was convinced that the leadership crisis stemmed from poor organizational and crystallization skills. The literature on the performance of NPOs suggests a gap
  • 21. 21 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 in research: hardly any studies have measured the level of health of SLCOs, whether national or local ones and only a few studies have measured the level of health of Christian schools in the Republic of Sierra Leone (EFSL, 2006; Abdullah, 2006). The literature covering the link between Christianity and leadership has been sparse in spite of a renewed interest in studying the relationship between religious morality and leadership theory and practice, ((Currie & Lockett, 2007; Jamaludin, Rahman, Makhbul, & Idris, 2011). This is perceived as a management problem by a wide range of participants engaged in religious nonprofit Christian entities. Perceived problems of this nature rely on reflexivity (Faris & Parry, 2011). As a result, the perceptions may be biased toward culture, socio-economic status and/or context (Hibbert, Sillince, & Diefenbach, 2009). Subsequently, problems that may appear obvious to this subgroup may not be perceived at all for those who operate outside of the Christian context (Idris & Ali, 2008). Consequently, the saliency of such issues has seemingly escaped the interest of the mainstream management literature, and the significance of sub-group related management problems has been obscured (Faris & Parry, 2011). Rehman (2004), based on the results of interviews with a small sample, alluded to a lack of professionalism as the reason for the attrition of volunteers at Christian institutes (Mahalinga, Shiva & Roy, 2008). Shakir (2003) lamented the flight from Church in cases where excessive arguing, uninspiring programs and administrative and managerial ineptitude try the patience of many individuals. Abdullah (2006) contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both accountability and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being ostracized. Emerick (2009) also reproached professional leaders of Christian centers founded by Christian Aid Organizations for their lack of professionalism. Alhaji (2003), a convert to Christian, postulated that men who excluded women from Christian centers excluded more than 50% of the community because they also tended to exclude children. Women have voices, but they often do not find the ideal environment in which to grow in many Islamic centers (Failla & Stichler, 2008; Madsen, 2010). The Christian Center of Greater Toledo, Ohio (ICGT), where women have prime space and leadership opportunities, is an example of the exception rather than the rule. Sermons in foreign languages and segregated space cause female converts to feel out of place (Haddad, 2006). Born Christians also feel excluded (Manji, 2003), with women and young people being assigned menial tasks building those feelings of exclusion (Abdullah, 2006). Authoritarianism is not an ideal in Christianity because Christian’s Lord, Jesus Christ as Myles (2006) indicated, was a servant leader. An appropriate leadership style, based on the teachings of the Lord Jesus, may contribute to satisfaction within Christian organizations (Faris & Parry, 2011). Rehman (2004), based on the results of interviews with a small sample, alluded to a lack of professionalism as the reason for the attrition of volunteers at Christian institutes (Pentecostal, 2008). Shakir (2003) lamented the flight from Churches in cases where excessive arguing, uninspiring programs and administrative and managerial ineptitude try the patience of many individuals. Joeys (2006) contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both accountability and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being ostracized. Emerick
  • 22. 22 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 (2009) also reproached professional leaders of Christian centers founded by Christian Organizations’ leaders for their lack of professionalism. Siraji (2003), a convert to Islam, postulated that men who excluded women from Christian centers excluded more than 50% of the community because they also tended to exclude children. Women have voices, but they often do not find the ideal environment in which to grow in many Islamic centers (EFSL, 2008; CCSL, 2010). The Christian Center of the Regions (North, East, West and South), where women have prime space and leadership opportunities, is an example of the exception rather than the rule. Sermons in foreign languages and segregated space cause female converts to feel out of place (Haddad, 2006). Born Christians also feel excluded (Manji, 2003), with women and young people being assigned menial tasks building those feelings of exclusion (Joeys, 2006). Authoritarianism is not an ideal in Christian because Christian’s Biblical Teachings, as CCSL (2006) indicated, was a servant leader. An appropriate leadership style, based on the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ, studies have been conducted about Christian leaders or Pastors and employees at Christian organizations and their job satisfaction (CCSL, 2000). EFSL (2009) indicated that churches and synagogues provide services from which some institutions need to learn. TECT (2007) declared that Sierra Leone is in need of a rare breed of Pastors who are relevant. EFSL (2000) admitted that employees are not always completely satisfied or dissatisfied and cited sufficient evidence to link needs satisfaction, rewards and attitudes to job satisfaction contribute to satisfaction within the Christian organizations (EFSL, 2011). Although several dissertations about Christian schools were accessed with the literature search, few focused on leadership (CU, 2012; GIBU, 2016; GIBU 2018). No studies looked specifically at leadership styles and organizational effectiveness at national organizations such as CCSL and the Christian Student Association (CSA) (CYA, 2010). Few regional studies have been undertaken, and only limited studies were found to be conducted on local organizations such as Churches and schools. This study is an attempt to bridge the literature gap and to contribute to the field of leadership providing Sierra Leone Christian organizations with tools and techniques to cultivate organizational health. A moral agent, servant, and charismatic leadership model such as the transformational style could potentially reduce employee and member turnover at Christian organizations (Faris & Parry, 2011). Christian’s legal link, or consultative management style, made mandatory by the Bible and Jesus’s precedent, must ensure at all times that no employee, team, volunteer or manager feels disrespected or abused (CCSL, 2007; EFSL, 2007). “The relevance of transformational and transactional leadership becomes apparent when empirical results focusing on the relationships between these leadership styles and organizational outcomes s are considered” (EFSL Rep., 2008, p. 31). Modern leadership theories, including the transformational leadership model, aim to foster leader– follower harmony (Bass, 1990; Barros & Nunes, 2007). Transformational leadership promotes learning, growth and autonomy for follower. Job satisfaction is a sign of the harmony between employers and the employed. Thus, transformational leadership leads to higher job satisfaction (Thompson, 2009) and has the potential to create better employer–employee relationships in Christian institutions. Ultimately, leadership effect is critical in contextualizing the identity preservation and values retention for Christians as a minority living in Sierra Leone (EFSL, 2012).
  • 23. 23 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 In studies designed to examine the validity of the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model in Organizational Development in educational institutions, private corporations, industrial organizations and the military (Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Spinelli, 2006; Trottier, Van Wart, & Wang, 2008), a majority revealed that transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent reward are effective in enhancing the performance, effort, commitment and satisfaction of followers. Findings from a survey, using The MLQ (5x-Short) Rater form instrument, that is designed to collect and analyze data about the level of health of SLCOs may suggest possible remedies for organizations with less-than-optimal health. Findings may also be of benefit to future Christian leaders of national organizations such as CCSL, as well as for local organizations such as Churches and private Church schools. The MLQ (5x-Short) Rater form survey includes essential elements of leadership behaviors that transform and inspire followers to perform at a level that exceeds expectations, while at the same time transcending individual ambitions for the organizational mission (Bass & Avolio, 2000). Leaders require a number of traits to be effective, and Christian managers and administrators are no exception (Burgenhagen, 2006; O’Connell, 2006; Barton, 2009; Thoman, 2009; Phipps, 2009). The distilled leadership traits are consultation, respect, empowerment, employee advocacy, fostering a team spirit, empathy, emotional intelligence, assertive listening, embracing innovation and effective communication (TECT, 2007; CCSL, 2007). Christian leaders submit that these are traits that every Christian should possess (LFC &WCI, 2006). The Christian concept of leadership is very similar to the mainstream notions of leadership that exist in the literature. Differences in the leadership practices are most likely to come from the organizational context such as external and internal environment (Faris & Parry, 2011). In brevity, based upon the above assessment, the research problem statement is three-fold. First: The leadership challenges of Christian organizations in Sierra Leone have not yet been researched in any profundity. This study attempts to take one step further to bridge that gap and reduce such shortfall. Second: Transformational leadership theory as measured by MLQ-survey and postulated by Bass and Avolio (Avolio & Bass, 1999) has not yet been tested quantitatively in Sierra Leone Christian organizations, though; this theory has been researched extensively in wide range of contexts (Rowold, 2008). This study attempts to test transformational leadership theory quantitatively within the context of SLCOs. Third: Convergence between modern leadership theories and Christian perspective on leadership is not yet studied. This research is a ground breaking to further clarify that convergence providing SLCOs with needed background to develop effective and authentic leaders.
  • 24. 24 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 1.3 Research Questions Christian organizations are multiethnic, multilingual and multicultural (Faris & Parry, 2011). Organizations can be optimally healthy if senior leaders are committed to transform and inspire followers to perform at a level exceeding expectation while transcending individual ambitions for the organization goals (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009). The main difference between the servant leadership model and the transformational model is the leader’s focus, though both styles are trusted, perceived to care and can potentially add value to stakeholders (Anderson, 2005). Healthy organizations must accept their limitations and be concerned with problems that are strategic and urgent to the community in order to attract talented people to the organization (Thompson, 2009). When senior leaders display a transformational style, the organization’s followers are most likely to experience satisfaction and to perform at higher levels (Jandaghi, Matin & Farjami, 2008). In the absence of enough peer reviewed articles on this specific topic, extrapolating from the clergy literature, quantitative study is the alternative reliable source of information. The Questions Motivating the Research Are: RQ1. How statically significant is the use of a transformational leadership style among senior leaders in SLCOs? RQ2. To investigate the relevance of transformational Leadership in the Sierra Leone Christians Organizations RQ3. How does a senior leader motivate their followers? RQ4. To investigate the level of motivation amongst the followers of our different congregations RQ5. How transformational leadership transform our workers and followers to the highest level H01: Transformational Leadership styles in the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model are not statically significant in the senior leadership practice at SLCOs. Ha1: Transformational Leadership styles in the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model are statically significant in the senior leadership practice at SLCOs. RQ2. What relationship does Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior leaders at SLCOs have with organizational subjective outcomes criteria. Followers’ extra effort, satisfaction with the leaders, and perception of their effectiveness? 1.4 Research Objective or Purpose of the Study The first purpose of this explanatory quantitative correlational study was to investigate the current leadership styles of senior leadership in SLCOs as perceived by their followers and volunteers, using Bass and Avolio’s (2004) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) rater form. The second purpose was to study what relationship of transformational leadership style full range has with organizational effectiveness that drives followers in faith-based NPOs to perform effectively (Limsila & Ogunlana, 2008).
  • 25. 25 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 The more transformational environment of SLCOs is expected to be reflexive to the effect of leadership styles on the willingness of followers to exert extra effort, as well as to their perceptions about leader effectiveness and to what level they are satisfied with their leaders (EFSL&SSL, 2015). To accomplish this purpose, the Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model used as an instrument and theoretical framework (F. W. Brown & Reilly, 2009). Rowold (2008) used the MLQ-5X short form to assess the effect of transformational leadership of pastors in a Protestant church in England and Germany, stating that: It should be noted that prior research demonstrated virtually no differences between England and German leadership behaviors and other western cultures. Nevertheless, the results of the present study should be replicated in other nations before the results can be generalized (p. 12). Further, he recommended that other contexts such as the Anglicans, Roman Catholic and/or other additional religious denominations should be the focus of future research (Rowold, 2008). Quantitative study with descriptive and inferential statistical analysis used to investigate the leadership style of senior leaders (BODs and Pastors) at the top Twenty SLCOs in the North, South, East and West. These top Twenty organizations are affiliated with one national organization, which is known as Council of Churches of Sierra Leone (CCSL), with headquarters in 4A King Harman Road, Brookfield’s Freetown, Sierra Leone. Selection of these organizations was based on their significance and role in shaping the activities of most SLCOs, not only in Sierra Leone, but throughout the nation. SLCO is the main moral guarantor and provider of Peace, educational curriculum, dispute resolution services and the Christian RPISL paper 2016 a study of Religion and Peace-making in Sierra Leone focusing on Christian businesses and organizations throughout the Republic of Sierra Leone. These top twenty organizations are fully matured and enjoy viable structures, such as Churches, schools and Universities and community centers, along with full-time Pastors, functional board of directors and significantly sizable congregations (CCSL, 2009; EFSL, 2008) Overview Research Methodology This explanatory quantitative study was based on a recent study on the effects of transformational leadership of pastors conducted in Germany by Rowold (2008) and on his recommendation. This study was a further application in a different context. The transformational leadership style (FRL) model of senior leaders in SLCOs is the independent variable and the organizational subjective outcomes criteria are the dependent variables (Bennett, 2009; Brown & Reilly, 2009). The Full Range of Leadership (FRL) model consists of seven independent variables (IA: idealized influence, IM: inspirational motivation, IS: intellectual stimulation, IC: individual consecration, CR: contingent reward, MEX: active/passive management by exception, and LF: laissez-faire) and three dependent variables (EE: extra effort, SAT: job satisfaction, and EF: effectiveness). The instrument is designed to predict the effect of the nine independent variables on each dependent variable (Failla & Stichler, 2008)
  • 26. 26 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 This study utilized the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire version 5 (MLQ-5X) to assess the effect of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors of the senior leadership (board of directors and imams) in SLCOs (Yavus, 2009). Taking into consideration the organizational subjective outcomes criteria, which were used in the study by Rowold (2008) to address the effect of transformational leadership styles of pastors in the Evangelical Church in Germany, a survey (MLQ_5X_short) was administered to the members of the top ten major SLCOs in Sierra Leone to collect descriptive data. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS_19 to test the above stated hypotheses in order to answer the research questions. The targeted population consisted of members of the congregations of top twenty SLCOs in Sierra Leone that are affiliated with CCSL. 1.5 Hypotheses (Premises) of The Study Many previous studies, such as that of Gaston (2005), on transformational leadership involving religious organizations focused on pastors’ leadership in a Christian centric context. Gaston analyzed the leadership styles of pastors of growing ethnic churches of the Florida Baptist Convention, and his findings have provided strong support that transformational leadership works well within such a context. Similar findings were consistently supportive to Gaston’s study (Carter, 2009; Cohall & Cooper, 2010; Dean, 2009; Gathere, May 2009; Mundey, 2008; Rowold, 2008). This study explored the applicability of such a model in the context of the senior leadership of SLCOs ((Analoui, Ahmed, & Kakabadse, 2010; Faris & Parry, 2011). Few studies on leadership in a Christian context such as Myle (2006), a study of Christian leadership theory and practice in Christian schools in Sierra Leone, exist (EFSL &IRCSL, 2011). Joey (2006) contended that, due to an authoritarian approach, most Christian organizations lack both accountability and transparency, and individuals who seek to question that authority risk being ostracized. EFSL (2021) completed a comparative study of job satisfaction and customer focus of Christian elementary school teachers in Sierra Leone. Joey (2005) looked at Sierra Leone Christian and Organizational Development school leadership: Founders, principal and teacher perspective. Salie (2008) studied servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Sierra Leone organizations; however, this regional study was limited in its scope and cannot be generalized to other regions or large organizations such those in Sierra Leone. (2008) studied the effectiveness and leadership of Pastors in Sierra Leone based on their educational differences and concluded that the need for the development of transformational leadership skills and competency in the leaders of Christian institutions has never been greater. A few previous studies focused their investigation on the transformational leadership of principals in Christian schools in local and regional areas (Mancheno-Smoak, Endres, Polak, & Athanasaw, 2009; Watson, 2009). The MLQ survey is the instrument used to determine the degree of transformational–transactional leadership displayed by senior leadership in SLCOs (Limsila & Ogunlana, 2008). The MLQ-5X (FRL) model consists of nine independent variables, namely factors of full range transformational styles, and three dependent variables: extra effort, job satisfaction, and perception of leadership effectiveness, which are known as organizational outcomes s (Analoui, et al., 2010).
  • 27. 27 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Leadership style is considered a primary motivator or independent variable for organizational outcomes (Hinkin & Schriesheim, 2008). The word variable, according to Salkind (2003), means either “changeable” or “unsteady.” A dependent variable is “a variable that is measured to see whether the treatment or manipulation of the independent variable had any effect” (p. 24). Neuman (2003) suggested, “A dependent variable takes two or more values” (p. 127). Neuman (2003) made an important distinction between a variable and an attribute. Job satisfaction, for instance, consists of several degrees. There is a continuum from extremely satisfied to intolerably unhappy. Cooper and Schindler (2010) held that the relationship between the variables is what requires testing. The 102-question survey developed by Chavez (2004) of the University of Arizona and the Pew and Pulpit survey of Carroll (2006) of Duke School of Divinity provided interesting insights on congregations, but neither author emphasized continuous improvement in the reform of organizations; while the MLQ-5X instrument has that emphasis (Rowold, 2008). Further, many of the questions Chavez (2004) and Carroll (2006) used in their separate studies do not apply to Christian organizations. The (MLQ-5X- short) instrument is very generic and may diagnose and provide remedies for less healthy Christian organizations (Hinkin & Schriesheim, 2008). Drawing from the experience of writers like Shakir (2003), Abdullah (2006) and Emerick (2009), this study attempted to fill in some deficiencies in the literature (Faris & Parry, 2011). The null hypotheses are as follows: H02: Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior leaders in SLCOs has no significant relationship with organizational subjective outcomes criteria: extra effort, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The alternative hypothesis is: H a2: Transformational Leadership Styles Full Range of Leadership (FRL) of senior leaders in SLCOs has a significant relationship with organizational subjective outcomes criteria: followers’ extra effort, job satisfaction, and perception of effectiveness Sampling Gays’ (1996) sampling formula is used to select the sample size. Gays’ (1996) guidelines indicated that for small populations where N is less than 100, surveying the entire population is appropriate and no reason for sampling. A 50% of the targeted population should be sampled if the population size is around 500, and 20% should be sampled if the population is around 1,500. If N is approximately 5000 or more, the population size is almost irrelevant, and a sample size of 500 will be adequate. In Sierra Leone, there are 50 SLCO, serving a population of 7.500 million, listed in Christian as 21% business directory (, 2015). Therefore, according to Gays’ formula, a sample of 520 is an adequate sample. There is no updated list of all Christian organizations in Sierra Leone; thus, it is not possible to have an exact sampling frame of organizations and community centers for use in random sampling. Therefore, non-probability sampling was adapted in selecting qualified organizations and respondents (Creswell, 2008). Selecting the top twenty organizations with viable organizational structure was the target of this study. Organizational structure that is considered viable consists of having a BOD, Pastors, executive committee and an average weekly congregation of 500 for Sunday’ Services and an average daily congregation of 100. Surveying the 100 congregants per center assuming a 50% expected return,
  • 28. 28 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 the congregation sample is 500. Surveying twenty Pastors and 50 board members assuming 70% return, the total sample would be 500+50=550. The followers were given the MLQ followers’ rater form (observer-raters), the board members and Pastors were given the self-rating form. 1.6 Significance of The Study Transformational leadership study dominates the field of leadership study, with researchers primarily covering its application in business, military, political and educational environments (Arnold, Turner, Barling, Kellaway, & McKee, 2007). But knowledge concerning transformational leadership in religion-based organizations, in clergy leadership styles in general, and specifically in SLCOs is lagging behind (Boseman, 2008; Cohall & Cooper, 2010; Dean, 2009). This study was an attempt to determine whether there is a specific leadership style that can be identified on a continuum between transactional leadership and transformational leadership that most positively affects the growth of an individual SLCO (Analoui, et al., 2010). Additionally, are transformational leadership elements compatible with the worldview of those in SLCOs and their affiliated Churches, where absolutes, values, service, gifted leadership, character and ultimate authority is taught and believed to be similar to that of pastors in churches (Kienel, 2005)? . Briefly, the significance of this study lays in finding answers to the above-mentioned two questions: is there specific leadership style can be identified on a continuum between transformational and transactional leadership styles that significantly affect the performance of SLCOs and how congruent is the transformational leadership theory with values of SLCOs’? The theory transformational leadership has been validated in a wide range of for profit and nonprofit organizations, including the pastoral context (Rowold, 2008). In order to increase the general understanding of leadership, it is important to study the transformational leadership of Pastors and board of directors in SLCOs (Joey, 2008). As a theoretical concept, transformational leadership and its ability to affect critical organization outcomes are well validated (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1993, 1993; Lowe & Galen Kroek, 1996). Many studies have found convincing evidence that transformational leaders have a significant positive effect on the outcomes of an organization, such as followers’ satisfaction and motivation, as well asorganizational effectiveness (Cummings et al., 2010; Herold, Fedor, Caldwell, & Yi, 2008; Hinduan, Wilson-Evered, Moss, & Scannell, 2009; Kearney & Gebert, 2009; Limsila & Ogunlana, 2008; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008; Wolfram & Mohr, 2009). LaRue Jr (2004), Muhammad (2008) and Rowold (2008) also found the transformational leadership model to have a significantly positive effect on congregational outcomes when they studied clergy leadership in Protestant pastors and Pentecostal Pastors. Learning about the effect of this leadership style in the area of Pastors and board of directors (BODs) in SLCOs is valuable, as it is in the clerical domain (Eddleston, 2008; Eisenbeiss, van Knippenberg, & Boerner, 2008; Vallejo, 2009; Vecchio, Justin, & Pearce, 2008).
  • 29. 29 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Moreover, since it is determined that transformational leadership has a positive effect on Evangelical church growth in Germany, this study extended that study to Pastors and senior leaders of SLCOs (Vecchio, et al., 2008), and constructive feedback will be provided to Christian organizations regarding the proper type of training for their Pastors, clergy and boards to further the growth of the congregations (Rowold, 2008). Though leadership issues in SLCOs are mainly perceived as a management problem by followers and congregations of these organizations, public policy makers are concerned about the consequences of such issues as antisocial thinking (Abdelhady, 2007). In many European countries, leaders recently implemented strong programs for immigration integration catered mainly toward Christian communities, immigrants and their children, after they discovered the danger of total alienation of such groups on social harmony and assimilation (Halim, 2006; Ahmad, 2006). However, they realized that alienation reversal at this stage is costly, ineffective and difficult (Huda, 2006; Ramadan, 2007, 9). For example; the Council of Churches in Sierra Leone (CCSL) compiled an action plan consisting of recommendations and proposals to the Sierra Leone government that aim to create a more inclusive Sierra Leonean in which people are less likely to be isolated and marginalized and possibly attracted to rigid and antisocial thinking that can lead to destructive activity (CCSL, 2008). The potential of such problems to occur in Sierra Leone is not remote, and public policy makers are well aware of that potential, as mentioned in the presidential speech in Sierra Leone (P, 2012). Alienation prevention is easier, cheaper and more effective than alienation reversal, and the findings of this study provided some tools to preventing of antisocial thinking (Duderija, 2008) 1.7 Scope and Delimitations This study is limited to members of congregations, the employees, and volunteers of the SLCOs. Each participant in the sample received a questionnaire via email or hard copy with an explanation letter and hotlink to the survey to answer. The research tool was a survey using the (MLQ-5x-short) created by Bass and Avolio (2004). It is an examination of how prevalent the use of transformational leadership style by the senior leadership as perceived by the followers of the SLCOs and the effectiveness of the leadership style, job satisfaction, and extra effort as to the type of leadership exhibited (Brown & Reilly, 2009). The educational levels of the employees and the leaders are not part of this evaluation. There was no attempt to compare the results of this study with other religious organizations at this stage. The sample of the followers was used to determine their types of behavior or possible leadership style. To comprehend the research questions and test the hypotheses, the exploration of a theory and its practical application to explain the utility of that theory to Sierra Leone Christian organizations was included in the study. Transformational leadership theory was tested in the context of SLCOs (Avolio & Bass, 1999; Bass, (2004)). The variables are limited and the sample size is anticipated to be large enough to ensure validity of data. Unlike many other religious faith communities, Muslims do not have any central authority or hierarchy structure. Prior to the research, multiple permissions were sought and obtained. Each organization was approached separately.
  • 30. 30 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Limitations There are several limitations to this study though. Only typical and fully structured organizations in the Republic of Sierra Leone were used in the study; the success of obtaining accurate and valid data from a large organization has its own problems. Obtaining data from member of such organizations using the internet and their membership lists is obviously convenient; however, motivating participation through text instead of face-to-face is problematic. Differences in regional attitudes, work ethics, and values might differ from organization to another and subculture to subculture. Also, the size of the membership in these organizations was varied but large enough for this study. Using much larger and much smaller national and local organizations could present different results; however, SLCOs are very similar across Sierra Leone so it is most likely and highly possible that a different sample would result in the same findings. The response rate for the survey was expected to be high; however, the response to online survey was less than 20% because of suspicious attitude and lack of trust toward such method. Hard copy of the survey was ready to be administered through 45 questions took more time to answer than expected. Summary Transformational leaders as Pastors in SLCOs changes the basic values, beliefs, and awareness of followers, thus raising their consciousness regarding the importance of specific and idealized goals, addressing their higher-level self-actualization needs, and transcending their self-interests for the good of the organization (Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; House, 1971; Northouse, 2008). One of the significant areas where transformational leadership theory has had limited study is in religious-based organizations such as churches and American Muslim organizations (Gaston, 2005; Beck, Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick- Hall, 2008). Chapter 1 outlined the introduction to the study. SLCOs are relatively new and enfranchised. Immigrants with global mix-values and cultures established those organizations. The essence of their mission, besides providing communities with means to fulfill the religious and culture’s needs, is identity formation and preservation, chartering the course of assimilation as opposed to alienation, effectively leading and Sierra Leone Christian Communities to shoulder their share in building better Sierra Leone for all (Esposito, 2010). The perceived and hypothesized leadership structure is based on two principles; the effect of both transformation and transactional leadership styles as created by Bass and Avolio (2004) is additive resulting in performance beyond expectation. The second principle is that board in these organizations mainly has practices-- management-by-exception and contingent reward-- while the imam performs transformational leadership style. Research questions of this study are to test MLQ_5X model in such context. Chapter 2 consists of a relevant leadership literature review focusing on transformational leadership theory FR and its relationship with organizational soft outcomes in SLCOs. Relating literature on leadership to the hypotheses and research questions outlined in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will include the development of the subject of leadership and organizational theories as pertains to on profit, human
  • 31. 31 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 services and religious organizations as well as prepositions and conclusions of the theorists, practitioners, and researchers. 1.8 Organization of Works Nature of the Study The nature of this study is explanatory quantitative, using descriptive and inferential statistics to describe what the data show without reaching conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. Specifically, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to illustrate (a) the demographic characteristics of the study sample, (b) the leadership and outcomes factor scales of the MLQ (5x-Short) Rater form, (c) inter-correlations between leadership factor scales and determination of composite leadership styles, and (d) zero-order correlations between the leadership factor—both styles and behaviors—and outcomes factor scales (Brown, & Reilly, 2009). The study focused on the attitudes of Christian organizations toward establishing effective transformational leadership by studying the additive effect of senior leadership in SLCOs (Lindgreen, Palmer, Wetzels, & Antioco, 2009). This study produced a model that organizations can consider using to provide senior leaders with information relating to how they may address or mitigate factors contributing to congregation, volunteer and employee turnover (Bennett, 2009). The quantitative method provides added confidence to the generalization of results and the possibility of testing theories (Creswell, 2008; Neuman, 2003). The large population sampled warrants the use of a survey instrument (Brown & Reilly, 2009). A heuristic study, more prone to subjectivity and personal bias, or a case study, which is often less generalizable, were not the preferred methods for this study. Composite effect of shared transformational leadership: The case of Sierra Leone Christian organizations Transformational Leadership (Pastor): Empowerment Transactional Leadership (Board): Contingent Reward Expected Performance + Outcomes Beyond Expectation Management-By-Exception Figure 1. Additive effect of shared transformational leadership: The case of Sierra Leone Christian organizations (Adapted by researcher). 1. Idealized influence: a. Strong role model b. Makes others want to follow his vision S e n i o r L e a d e r s h i p Pastor Idealized Inspirational Intellectual Individualizes Influence + Motivation + Stimulation + Consideration
  • 32. 32 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 2. Inspirational motivation a. Communicates high expectations b. Uses emotional appeal 3. Intellectual stimulation a. Challenges followers to develop innovative ways to solve problems b. Facilitates personal learning and development 4. Individualized consideration a. Pays attention to individual’s needs b. Assigns meaningful projects to help followers grow personally and professionally- Empowerment-Augmentative Effect Contingent Reward Active Management-By-Exception Passive Management-By-Exception Pastor Board Empowerment Power Results beyond Expectation Empowerment Power Expected Results Augmentative Effect Additive Effect P + E Figure 1: Composite effect of shared transformational leadership Optimized effectiveness Ineffective Leadership Leadership in Sierra Leone Christian organizations (SLCOs) Leadership in Sierra Leone Christian organizations (SLCOs) Board of directors Bishop (Christian Pastor) Board of directors Bishop (Christian Pastor) Common Traits and vision Authoritarian Board or Pastor Transactional Leadership Transformatio nal Leadership Transformatio nal Leadership Transformational Leadership Active Management by Exception + Passive management by Exception + Contingent Reward Idealized Influence + Individualized Consideration + Inspirational Motivation + Intellectual Stimulation Active Management by Exception + Passive management by Exception + Contingent Reward Active Management by Exception + Passive management by Exception + Contingent Reward Expected Outcomes Unexpected Results
  • 33. 33 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 Figure 2: The perceived and hypothesized theoretical model 1.9 Definitions of Terms To gain a clear understanding of the concepts used through this study, the followings are terms definitions: SLCOs: Sierra Leone Christian Organizations CCSL: Council of Churches in Sierra Leone EFSL: Evangelical Fellowship of Sierra Leone TECT: The Evangelical College of Theology SL PF: Sierra Leone Pentecostal Fellowship Senior leaders: board of directors or trustees and Pastors Pastors: The Pastoral Council of Ordained Ministers Community. The Church is a place of congregation for Christians where they can come together to share a spiritual experience and socialize (EFSL, 1987). BOD: Board of director FRL: Full Range Leadership model MLQ: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ): A survey to determine the leadership styles or behaviors and leadership outcomes that are identified in the FRL Model (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Contingent Reward (CR): The constructive form of transactional leadership in which the leader clarifies the expectations for the followers and provides rewards when they meet the organization’s expectations (Avolio & Bass, 2004). Extra Effort: One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the willingness of followers to exert extra effort to do more than they are expected, to try harder, and to desire to succeed as a result the leader’s behavior (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Synergy Performance beyond Expectations Impediment Poor performance
  • 34. 34 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 (Dependent variable)Full Range of Leadership (FRL) Model: A theoretical model that explains the effectiveness of leadership styles (transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership) on leadership outcomes (extra effort, leader effectiveness and satisfaction) (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Idealized Influence (Attributed) (IA): Idealized influence refers to the charismatic side of transformational leadership in which followers respect, trust, and have confidence in their leader (Bass, (2004)). Idealized Influence (Behavioral) (IB): A transformational leadership behavior in which the leader serves as a role model by demonstrating high standards of ethical and moral conduct (Avolio & Bass, 1999). Inspirational Motivation (IM): A transformational leadership behavior in which the leader motivates the followers by providing them with meaningful and challenging work (Avolio & Bass, 1999). Intellectual Stimulation (IS): A transformational leadership behavior in which the Leader Effectiveness: One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the perception of followers regarding the effectiveness of four leader behaviors (Bass & Avolio, 2004). (Dependent variable) leader stimulates the efforts of followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems and approaching old situations in new ways (Avolio & Bass, 1999). Individualized Consideration (IC): The leader recognizes the differences in followers and treats them as individuals by considering each one as having different needs and abilities (Avolio & Bass, 1999). Leader Effectiveness: One of the leadership outcomes in the MLQ that refers to the perception of followers regarding the effectiveness of four leader behaviors (Bass & Avolio, 2004). (Dependent variable) Laissez-faire (LF): A passive/avoidant leadership behavior that represents the absence of leadership, in other words, “non-leadership.” (Avolio & Bass, 1999) Leadership: The ability to influence followers’ values, attitudes, abilities and beliefs in order to make then exert their utmost effort toward the achievement of goals (e.g., Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; House, 1971; Kouzes & Posner, 2007; Stogdill, 1974). Management-by-exception (active) (MBEA): The corrective form of transactional leadership in which the leader monitors the followers’ mistakes, errors and deviance from organizational standards and then takes corrective action as quickly as possible when they occur (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Management-by-exception (passive) (MBEP): A passive avoidant leadership behavior in which the leader passively waits for mistakes to occur and then takes corrective action (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Assumptions The study is useful to Christian communities and the Sierra Leone Christian organizations throughout the Republic of Sierra Leone as well as those overseas that are similar in nature to those organizations working in Sierra Leone. Further, in using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, the following assumptions are relevant: (a) Each responding member has one immediate leader, either Pastor or BOD, and rated the frequency of leadership behaviors of that individual or entity; (b) The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) adequately measures the leadership styles of senior leaders and
  • 35. 35 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 leadership outcomes; (c) The demographic characteristics of the respondents to the MLQ are representative of the population; (d) The participants will respond to the questionnaire (MLQ) accurately and honestly; and (e) The participants understand the vocabulary and concepts used in the study.
  • 36. 36 POST DOCOTRATE RESEARCH OF LOD-RKUC 2020 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction The concept of leadership is complex because it deals with so many variables andevery argument of leadership depends on specific assumptions (Boseman, 2008;Margolin, 2007; McInnes, 2009). The essence of leadership is presumed to be the task of optimizing collective efforts, uniting people, fostering organizational reliability and sustainability, and solving all inherited problems of collectivism (Cole, Bruch, &Shamir, 2009; Kearney & Gebert, 2009; Lemay, 2009; Schaubroeck, Lam, & Cha, 2007; Thépot, 2008). Leadership is a human phenomenon which occurs in all groups, societies, and organizations regardless of religiosity or secularism (Kearney & Gebert, 2009). Effective leadership can create shared beliefs, values, and be the difference between success and failure (Herold, Fedor, Caldwell & Liu, 2008). Chapter 2 focuses on peer reviewed literature and pivotal materials pertaining leadership theory and practice. This chapter covers the following: 1) Evolution of leadership theories since the “Great Man” theory to the current ones; 2) Effect of leadership on performance, outcomes, and fate of an organization; 3) The nature of leadership in nonprofit organizations in comparison to for-profit ones; 4) The BOD as governing body for NPOs; and Pastoral ethics) Pastors in SLCOs as coleaders to build the case for the use of transformational leadership theories as the most fit for this study. 2.1 Definition of instructional supervision Conceptual Leadership and Theories Overview In my review of Literature have the relevance of many studies on this work for Decades of effort dedicated to studying leadership have failed to produce a universally accepted definition of leadership or method for how best to measure it Current trends: “Leadership as a concept has dissolved into small and discrete meanings, with more than 130 different definitions” (Burns, 1978, p. 2). For example, Northouse (2008), in his study of leadership effectiveness, offered at least five categories of leadership. Viewing leadership as a group process, he discussed leadership through the role of the leader and the effect on the group’s activities and effectiveness (Erkutlu, 2008). From a personality perspective, Northouse described leadership through traits, skills and characteristics of the individual as an explanation of how leadership works to motivate others to get things done (Chung-Kai & Chia-Hung, 2009). Other categories used by Northouse included power relationships between leaders and followers, exchange and transactional theoriesand instruments of goal achievement (Herold, et al., 2008). The review of the literature indicated that even with varying perspectives, definitions of leadership do have some core elements. Central to these elements is that leadership is a process, and it involves directing and influencing others (Northouse, 2008). In addition, those responsible for leadership (the leader) will deal with the same issues that have been at the foundation of leadership responsibility for more than 3,000 years: motivation, inspiration, sensitivity and communication (F. W. Brown & Reilly, 2009). Even with these basic components, the universal definition of leadership continues to be evasive, but Clements and Meyer do provide a framework to analyze the potential thoroughness of any leadership theory or approach (Clemens, & Mayer, 1999; F. W. Brown & Reilly, 2009).