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The audiolingual method


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The audiolingual method

  1. 1. From “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” By J.C. Richards and T.S. Rodgers.
  2. 2. Background  Before World War II, there were three methods: a) A modified Direct Method Approach b) A Reading Approach. c) A Reading-Oral Approach.
  3. 3.  Problems with these three methods: 1. They lacked standardization of vocabulary and grammar. 2. No one could agree what was important to teach for beginning, intermediate or advanced learners. 3. They basically, lacked “STRUCTURE”
  4. 4. The Army Specialized Training Program  The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was started in 1942.  Native speakers acted as an informant of the language and as a linguist, as in the Direct Method.  Students and informants gradually language, ten hours a day for six days a week. learned a
  5. 5.  The ASTP continued for two years and by the 1950s, as a result of many factors Audiolingualism became a standardized way of teaching a language.
  6. 6.  It changed everything again: a) It made the U.S. Government realize the need for new and more intensive foreign language teaching methodology. b) The National Defence Education Act (1958) provided money for training of teachers, the development of teaching materials and for the study and analysis of modern languages.
  7. 7.  The term “Audiolingualism” was coined by Professor Nelson Brooks (1964). In the 1960’s, Audiolingualism began to lose its popularity, but this method is still used today.
  8. 8. Approach Theory of Language: Structuralism  Structural linguistics influenced Audiolingualism.  Elements in a language are Phonology Morphology linearly produced in a rule- governed way. Phrases  Linguistic levels are pyramidally structured. Sentences
  9. 9. Approach Theory of Learning: Behaviourism  Behavioural psychology influenced Audiolingualism. Behaviourists believe that humans are organisms capable of learning many behaviours. It depends on three elements: 1. Stimulus: Bring out behaviour. 2. Response: Triggered by stimulus. 3. Reinforcement: Marks the response as being appropriate or not and encourages repetition which is vital in the learning process.
  10. 10. Behaviourism Learning Behaviour  Organism  Learner.  Behaviour  Language behaviour.  Stimulus  Content.  Response  Learner’s response.  Reinforcement  Reaction intrinsic/extrinsic approval.
  11. 11. Approach - Conclusions  Foreign language learning is a process of mechanical habit formation.  Language skills are learned more effectively if they are learned in spoken form (drills) rather than written form.  Language must be learned in context of the linguistics and culture.
  12. 12. Design - Objectives Short-term Objectives Long-term Objectives  Listening comprehension.  Language as the native  Accurate pronunciation.  Recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs.  The ability to reproduce these symbols in writing. speaker uses it.
  13. 13. Design – The Syllabus  Based on a linguistic or structure-based approach to language teaching. Built on: 1. Step by step linguistic syllabus, which contains:  Phonology.  Morphology.  Syntax. 2. Lexical syllabus of basic vocabulary.
  14. 14. Design – Types of learning and teaching activities. Drills Dialogues  Distinctive feature of this method.  Contextualize key structures.  Illustrate situations.  Used for repetition and memorization. 7. Expansion. 8. Contraction. 9. Transformation 1. Repetition. 2. Inflection. 3. Replacement. 10. Integration. 4. Restatement. 11. Rejoinder. 5. Completion. 12. Restoration. 6. Transposition. .
  15. 15. Design - Roles 1.     Learner roles: They can be directed by skilled training techniques. External displays. Reactive role. They do not initiate interaction. 2. Teacher roles: 3. The role of     Central and active.  Model of the target language.  Controls the process of learning. Monitors and controls the learner’s performance. instructional materials: Teacheroriented. Tape recorders, a language laboratory and audiovisual equipment are important.
  16. 16. Procedure  Extensive oral instruction is required where the target language is used. Typical procedures: 1. Model dialogue. Repeat. Correction of mistakes. Memorize. 2. Dialogues are adapted and then acted out. 3. Key structures are selected and used for pattern drills. 4. Textbooks. Follow-up reading, writing activities may be introduced. 5. Follow-up activities in a language laboratory. or vocabulary
  17. 17. The decline of Audiolingualism  It was examined in many ways: 1. Theoretical foundations were considered weak in both language theory and learning theory. 2. Practitioners discovered that the practical results did not meet expectations. 3. Students were not able to transfer skills to communication outside the classroom. 4. Many students found the classes boring and unsatisfying. real
  18. 18. Noam Chomsky  He rejected this approach.  His theory of transformational grammar said that language is creative and generated, not a habit.  Language derives from innate aspects of the mind and from how humans process experience through language.
  19. 19. Final Conclusion...  Audiolingualism holds that language learning is like other forms of learning. That is the reason why, it stresses the mechanistic aspects of language learning and language use.