Published on

1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. The Communicative Approach emerged in theearly 1970s as a result of the work of theCouncil of Europe experts. However, it can betraced to the work of Chomsky in the 1960s,when he advanced the two notions ofcompetence and performance as a reactionagainst the prevalent audio-lingual methodand its views.
  2. 2. These two concepts were developed later onby Hymes, into a communicative competencewhich refers to the psychological, cultural andsocial rules which discipline the use of speech.Hymes, as a sociolinguist, was concerned withthe social and cultural knowledge whichspeakers need in order to understand and uselinguistic forms. His view, therefore,encompassed not only knowledge but alsoability to put that knowledge into use incommunication.
  3. 3. • Does communicative language teaching, mean teaching conversation, an absence of grammar in a course, or an emphasis on open- ended discussion activities as the main features of a course?• What do you understand by Communicative Language Teaching?
  4. 4. Communicative language teaching can be understood as a set of principlesabout the goals of language teaching, how learners learn a language, the kinds of classroom activities that best facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom.
  5. 5. • The theory of language teaching underlying the Communicative Approach is holistic rather than behavioristic. It starts from a theory of language as communication which implies knowledge of the grammatical system as well as performance. In other words, such competence includes both the usage and use of the language. (Widdowson, 1984).
  6. 6. Unlike the audiolingual method, theCommunicative Approach gives priority to thesemantic content of language learning. Thatis, learners learn the grammatical formthrough meaning not the other way around.Thus, "learning activities are selectedaccording to how well they engage the learnerin meaningful and authentic language use(rather than merely mechanical practice oflanguage patterns)" (Richards & Rogers, 1986:72).
  7. 7. Since the primary aim of the approach is to prepare learners for meaningful communication, errors are tolerated. The range of exercise types and activitiescompatible with a communicative approach is unlimited.
  8. 8. The type of classroom proposed in CLT implied new roles forteachers and learners. Learners now had to participate inclassroom activities that were based on a cooperative ratherthan individualistic approach to learning. Students had tobecome comfortable with listening to their peers in groupwork or pair work tasks, rather than relying on the teacher fora model. Teachers now had to assume the role of facilitatorand monitor, rather than being a model for correct speechand writing and one with the primary responsibility of makingstudents produce plenty of error-free sentences, the teacherhad to develop a different view of learners’ errors and ofher/his own role in facilitating language learning.
  9. 9. • 1) The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations, or the functional aspects of language, and less on the formal structures. However, critics believe that there needs to be some sort of "bridge" between the two in order for effective language learning.• 2) The approach relies extensively on the functional- notational syllabus which places heavy demands on the learners.• 3) The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematically graded like the structures of the language.• 4) A major premise underlying this approach is its emphasis on learners needs and interests. This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to correspond with the needs of the learners.
  10. 10. • Richards, J. C. & Rogers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching: A description and analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.• Rogers, T. (2001) Language teaching methodology, online resource (, Sep. 2001.• Widdowson, H .G .(1984) Explorations in Applied Linguistics 2, Oxford OU.P .• Richards, Jack C., and Theodore Rodgers (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Second Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.