Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
A model of counterfactual
attack/defense communication
Patrizia Catellani & Mauro Bertolotti
Aix-en-Provence, 1-4 June 2016
Patrizia Catellani
Time past and time future
What might have been and what has been
Point to one end, which is always pres...
Patrizia Catellani
Overview
• CF Communication
• CF Attack Defense Model (CADM)
• The Effects of CF Attacks
• The Effects ...
Patrizia Catellani
Counterfactual Communication
Catellani & Covelli, JLSP, 2013
Patrizia Catellani
Counterfactual Communication
“If you had taken a firm stance on the situation of the
national budget, t...
Patrizia Catellani
Information
Relation
Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model
(CADM)
Counterfactual
Attack/Defense
Social
Ju...
Patrizia Catellani
CADM
Counterfactual Persuasion
 HP -> Counterfactual attacks/defenses can be
more persuasive than fact...
Patrizia Catellani
Are attacks effective?
• Negativity effect
People devote more attention to negative than
to positive in...
Patrizia Catellani
A Counterfactual Attack…
 HP -> … reduces the backlash effect
The attacking source is perceived as les...
Patrizia Catellani
The Effects of Factual
vs. Counterfactual Attacks
 Can counterfactual attacks be more effective than
f...
Patrizia Catellani
*
Perceived Bias of the Attacking Source
*
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
Factual Counterfactual N...
Patrizia Catellani
*
Evaluation of the Attacked Target
*
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Factual Counterfactual None
A...
Patrizia Catellani
Mediation Effect
Attack Style
Perceived Bias of
the Source
Evaluation of the
Target
-.41*** .32**
(-.11...
Patrizia Catellani
Target Evaluation
after Manipulation of the Source’s Hostility
*
Catellani & Bertolotti, SP, 2014
1.0
1...
Patrizia Catellani
A Counterfactual Attack…
 HP -> … is more effective when it is focused
on a stereotypically relevant p...
Patrizia Catellani
Four Dimensions in Impression Formation
Agency Communion
Warmth MoralityCompetence
Decided
Resolved
Ten...
Patrizia Catellani
The Four Dimensions
in Different Professional Categories
Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted
-2.0
-1.5
-1...
Patrizia Catellani
Journalist: “If you had told the truth on the
financial situation of your party, things would be
better...
Patrizia Catellani
Message Convincingness
*** *
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
Morality Leadership
Attacked Dimen...
Patrizia Catellani
* *
Attacked Target Responsibility
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
Morality Leadership
Attacked Dimension
P...
Patrizia Catellani
* *
Attacked Target Evaluation
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Morality Leadership
Attacked Dimension
Polit...
Patrizia Catellani
Perception of the Event
Perception of the Message
Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model
(CADM) - Attack
C...
Patrizia Catellani
Four Types of Defenses
Responsibility for the outcome
Yes No
Negativityoftheoutcome
Yes
Concession Excu...
Patrizia Catellani
Responsibility for the outcome
Yes No
Negativityoftheoutcome
Yes
Concession Excuse
No
Justification Den...
Patrizia Catellani
Responsibility for the outcome
Yes No
Negativityoftheoutcome
Yes
Concession Excuse
No
If I had insisted...
Patrizia Catellani
Defendant Responsibility
Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014
Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation
Targ...
Patrizia Catellani
*
*
Defense Deceptiveness
Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Self O...
Patrizia Catellani
Mediation effects
Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014
Defendant
Evaluation
-.41***
(.14 ns)
-.58***
Defe...
Patrizia Catellani
**
Defendant Evaluation after Manipulation of the
Defendant’s Trustworthiness
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4...
Patrizia Catellani
Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation
Defense Deceptiveness as a function
of Recipient Sophistication
...
Patrizia Catellani
Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation
Defendant Future Intention as a
function of Recipient Sophistica...
Patrizia Catellani
Perception of the Event
Perception of the Message
Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model
(CADM) - Defense
...
Patrizia Catellani
So what?
o Counterfactual attacks and defences are more
effective than factual attacks and defenses.
o ...
Patrizia Catellani
Patrizia Catellani
http://www.patriziacatellani.com/en/
Mauro Bertolotti
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

A model of conterfactual attack/defense communication (Aix 2016)

260 views

Published on

A model of conterfactual attack/defense communication

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

A model of conterfactual attack/defense communication (Aix 2016)

  1. 1. A model of counterfactual attack/defense communication Patrizia Catellani & Mauro Bertolotti Aix-en-Provence, 1-4 June 2016
  2. 2. Patrizia Catellani Time past and time future What might have been and what has been Point to one end, which is always present. T.S. Eliot Burnt Norton, Four Quartets
  3. 3. Patrizia Catellani Overview • CF Communication • CF Attack Defense Model (CADM) • The Effects of CF Attacks • The Effects of CF Defenses • Conclusion
  4. 4. Patrizia Catellani Counterfactual Communication Catellani & Covelli, JLSP, 2013
  5. 5. Patrizia Catellani Counterfactual Communication “If you had taken a firm stance on the situation of the national budget, things would be better now.” "If the opposition had accepted our proposal, things would have been better.”
  6. 6. Patrizia Catellani Information Relation Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model (CADM) Counterfactual Attack/Defense Social Judgment Perception of the Event Perception of the Message Social norms Specific expectations Individual differences Social norms Specific expectations Individual differences
  7. 7. Patrizia Catellani CADM Counterfactual Persuasion  HP -> Counterfactual attacks/defenses can be more persuasive than factual attacks/defenses. Why? • Communication is persuasive when it balances informativeness and the risk of reactance. • A way to find this balance is the use of subtle and indirect communication, in order to hide its persuasive intent. • Counterfactual communication is a type of subtle communication strategy. As such, it can be more effective than factual communication.
  8. 8. Patrizia Catellani Are attacks effective? • Negativity effect People devote more attention to negative than to positive information regarding a target (Meffert et al. 2006). • Backlash effect Attacks, however, are often not effective. They can have more negative consequences on the source than on their target (Carraro, Gawronski, & Castelli, 2010).
  9. 9. Patrizia Catellani A Counterfactual Attack…  HP -> … reduces the backlash effect The attacking source is perceived as less biased and more correct HP -> … is more effective than a factual attack The attacked target gets a worse evaluation
  10. 10. Patrizia Catellani The Effects of Factual vs. Counterfactual Attacks  Can counterfactual attacks be more effective than factual attacks? “You disregarded your previous commitment about the issue of taxes.” “If you had honored your previous commitment about the issue of taxes, things would be better now.”
  11. 11. Patrizia Catellani * Perceived Bias of the Attacking Source * 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 Factual Counterfactual None Attack Catellani & Bertolotti, SP, 2014
  12. 12. Patrizia Catellani * Evaluation of the Attacked Target * 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Factual Counterfactual None Attack Catellani & Bertolotti, SP, 2014
  13. 13. Patrizia Catellani Mediation Effect Attack Style Perceived Bias of the Source Evaluation of the Target -.41*** .32** (-.11 ns)-.24* Catellani & Bertolotti, SP, 2014
  14. 14. Patrizia Catellani Target Evaluation after Manipulation of the Source’s Hostility * Catellani & Bertolotti, SP, 2014 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Neutral Hostile Source Factual Counterfactual Attack
  15. 15. Patrizia Catellani A Counterfactual Attack…  HP -> … is more effective when it is focused on a stereotypically relevant personality dimension The message is perceived as more convincing The attacked target is perceived as more responsible and gets a worse evaluation
  16. 16. Patrizia Catellani Four Dimensions in Impression Formation Agency Communion Warmth MoralityCompetence Decided Resolved Tenacious Dynamic Competent Intelligent Efficacious Knowledgeable Sociable Friendly Caring Helpful Honest Loyal Trustworthy Sincere Leadership (Wojciszke & Abele, 2008; Carrier, et al., 2014; Leach, Ellemers, & Barreto, 2007)
  17. 17. Patrizia Catellani The Four Dimensions in Different Professional Categories Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Politician Businessman Magistrate Psychologist Professor Desirability Morality Leadership Competence Sociability
  18. 18. Patrizia Catellani Journalist: “If you had told the truth on the financial situation of your party, things would be better now. If you had honored your previous commitment to your voters, your party would be in a better condition now. If you had refused personal advantages in return for your vote on a law proposal, today we would be in a better situation.” Attack Examples “If you had hold out against the pressure of your political allies on your policies, things would be better now. If you had taken certain and firm stances during the electoral campaign, your party would be in a better condition now. If you had shown strength in the debate with your political rivals, today we would be in a better situation.” “If you had decided to compete on emerging markets, things would be better now. If you had decided promptly to compete with other companies, your company would be in a better condition now. If you had held out against the pressure of your shareholders on marketing strategies, today we would be in a better situation now. ” Journalist: “If you had shown transparency on the financial situation of your company, things would be better now. If you had respected financial norms to get control of a limited company, your company would be in a better condition now. If you had told the truth on the fiscal controversies of your company, today we would be in a better situation.” Businessman Politician MoralityLeadership Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted
  19. 19. Patrizia Catellani Message Convincingness *** * 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Politician 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Businessman Factual CF Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted Attack
  20. 20. Patrizia Catellani * * Attacked Target Responsibility 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Politician 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Businessman Factual CF Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted Attack
  21. 21. Patrizia Catellani * * Attacked Target Evaluation 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Politician 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Morality Leadership Attacked Dimension Businessman Factual CF Bertolotti & Catellani, submitted Attack
  22. 22. Patrizia Catellani Perception of the Event Perception of the Message Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model (CADM) - Attack Counterfactual Attack «If only you…» Social Judgment Evaluation of the attacked target • Responsibility attributed to the target • Perceived bias of the source • Convincingness of the message Specific expectations regarding the attack source Social norm regarding the attacked target
  23. 23. Patrizia Catellani Four Types of Defenses Responsibility for the outcome Yes No Negativityoftheoutcome Yes Concession Excuse Acknowledging both the responsibility and the negativity of the outcome Acknowledging the negativity, but not the responsibility for the outcome No Justification Denial Acknowledging the responsibility, but not the negativity of the outcome Denying both the responsibility and the negativity of the outcome
  24. 24. Patrizia Catellani Responsibility for the outcome Yes No Negativityoftheoutcome Yes Concession Excuse No Justification Denial I didn’t state my position firmly enough within the coalition. I did a fair enough job in stating my position within the coalition. The opposition didn't revise its ideological stance. Counterfactual Defenses If I had insisted on our proposal, things would have been better. (Self-focused, upward CF) If the opposition had accepted our proposal, things would have been better. (Other-focused, upward CF) If I had hesitated on our proposal, things would have been worse. (Self-focused, downward CF) My conduct in this situation was irreprehensible.
  25. 25. Patrizia Catellani Responsibility for the outcome Yes No Negativityoftheoutcome Yes Concession Excuse No If I had insisted on our proposal, things would have been better. (Self-focused, upward CF) If the opposition had accepted our proposal, things would have been better. (Other-focused, upward CF) Concession vs Excuse
  26. 26. Patrizia Catellani Defendant Responsibility Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014 Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation Target * 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Self Other Factual Counterfactual Defense
  27. 27. Patrizia Catellani * * Defense Deceptiveness Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Self Other Factual Counterfactual Target Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation Defense
  28. 28. Patrizia Catellani Mediation effects Catellani & Bertolotti, EJSP, 2014 Defendant Evaluation -.41*** (.14 ns) -.58*** Defense Deceptiveness Counterfactual Defence Target .38* Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation
  29. 29. Patrizia Catellani ** Defendant Evaluation after Manipulation of the Defendant’s Trustworthiness 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Self Other Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Self Other Defense Target Defense Target Trustworthy Defendant Untrustworthy Defendant Defense Factual Counterfactual
  30. 30. Patrizia Catellani Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation Defense Deceptiveness as a function of Recipient Sophistication 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 Other Self -1 SD Recipient Sophistication +1 SD Target
  31. 31. Patrizia Catellani Bertolotti & Catellani, in preparation Defendant Future Intention as a function of Recipient Sophistication 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 Other Self -1 SD Recipient Sophistication +1 SD Target
  32. 32. Patrizia Catellani Perception of the Event Perception of the Message Counterfactual Attack/Defense Model (CADM) - Defense Counterfactual Defense «If only I…» Social Judgment Evaluation of the defendant • Responsibility attributed to the defendant • Defense deceptiveness • Defendant future intention Specific expectations on the defendant Individual difference in sophistication
  33. 33. Patrizia Catellani So what? o Counterfactual attacks and defences are more effective than factual attacks and defenses. o Their persuasiveness is rooted on: • The way the event is reconstructed • The way the message source and the message itself are perceived o Individual differences (e.g., recipients’ sophistication) moderate the effects of counterfactual attacks/defenses. Future research should investigate why.
  34. 34. Patrizia Catellani
  35. 35. Patrizia Catellani http://www.patriziacatellani.com/en/ Mauro Bertolotti

×