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Lesson 13 Civil Rights


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Lesson 13 Civil Rights

  1. 1. Civil Rights
  2. 2. Today’s class <ul><li>Civil Rights Movement (African-Americans) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are Civil Rights? How were they achieved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What problems still exist? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important moments in women’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are women equal in today’s society? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What we’ve discussed so far… <ul><li>The beginning of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonization (Settling the new land) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution – Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New government – The Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nation grows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine – The U.S. gains control in the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People move west </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Differences in America <ul><li>The issue of slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Northern and Southern economies are very different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North – Industry – Large Cities – Paid Labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South – Agriculture – Smaller Cities – Slave Labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and political differences lead to the Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The North wins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation “frees” the slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? </li></ul>
  5. 5. After the Civil War <ul><li>We call the period after the Civil War the Reconstruction Era (p. 84) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government wanted to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuild the political system in the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuild the economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>During this early period, many black people were able to participate in the government </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reconstruction
  7. 7. Reconstruction <ul><li>During this period, the southern states were under military control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was meant to protect the rights of the newly freed African-Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. government added 3 changes to the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 th Amendment – Ended slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment – Citizenship given to blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 th Amendment – Right of blacks to vote (men) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Racist Groups <ul><li>Racist groups such as the White League and the Ku Klux Klan were started against blacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lynching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tar and feathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whites gained control of southern governments by intimidating black voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The White League as well as the Red Shirts killed many blacks and they were scared to vote </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>A terrorist group against African-Americans </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lynching
  11. 11. Jim Crow Laws <ul><li>Laws that segregated (separated) blacks and whites </li></ul>
  12. 12. Segregation Laws <ul><li>1896 – Jim Crow Laws were declared legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ separate but equal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The laws could be used as long as there were facilities for both blacks and whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: restaurants, bathrooms, schools, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Jim Crow Laws <ul><li>These laws prevented poor and illiterate people from voting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll tax – a tax must be paid to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept many poor people from voting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You must be able to read and write to vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These methods were used to keep blacks from voting and helped whites regain control of the state governments </li></ul>
  14. 14. Jim Crow Laws
  15. 15. Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>1954 – The Supreme Court rules that segregated schools are unconstitutional </li></ul>
  16. 16. p. 123 <ul><li>1957 – Little Rock, Arkansas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 black students were admitted to an all-white school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites protested and the military was called in to get the students into the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a difficult transition, but most schools were integrated by the mid-1960s </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Little Rock Nine
  18. 18. Rosa Parks (p. 124) <ul><li>1955 – Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A boycott is lead by Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After a year, the transportation system is desegregated </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. “ I Have a Dream” <ul><li>1963 – March on Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 300,000 protesters march to the Lincoln Memorial and listen to Martin Luther King’s speech </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Martin Luther King Jr. <ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. believed in non-violent protests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ civil disobedience” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An active refusal to obey unfair laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks is a good example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit-ins – protesters remain in a place until they are forcefully removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: blacks used this method in white restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They would “sit-in” the restaurant until police made them leave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>King was an important figure in the Civil Rights movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King was the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Martin Luther King
  22. 22. Changes <ul><li>1964 – The poll tax is ended </li></ul><ul><li>1964 – Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965 – Voting Rights Act made it easier for blacks to vote </li></ul><ul><li>1968 – Civil Rights Act of 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents discrimination in the sale, rental and purchasing of housing </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. “ Black Power” <ul><li>A term used during the Civil Rights movement </li></ul><ul><li>Many worried that this slogan went against King’s ideal of “peaceful protest” </li></ul><ul><li>During this time there were many riots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was a large riot in Los Angeles in 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that America is still far from solving it’s problem with racism </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Los Angeles Riots 1992 (p. 125)
  25. 25. Problems <ul><li>The O.J. Simpson trial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed the complexity of racial problems in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The election of Barack Obama shows the progress America has made with racial issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time will tell how far America has come during Obama’s term as President </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Women’s movement <ul><li>In 1896 blacks were given the right to vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right was still not given to women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1920 women were given the right to vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 th Amendment to the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women had pushed for this right after World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women held many of the “men’s” jobs while they were at war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This helped the suffrage movement greatly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Movements in WWI and WWII
  28. 28. Women and World War II <ul><li>16 million American men went to fight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 million women went to work in the factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced military goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A movement was born after women proved they could do the difficult jobs normally done by men </li></ul>
  29. 29. First-Wave and Second-Wave Movements <ul><li>First-wave (WWI) – Right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Second-wave – Focused on equality with men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted changes in divorce laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted equal pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom in decisions about pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to abortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contraceptives (the pill) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Important Events <ul><li>1960 – Birth control pills approved (safe) </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Equal pay act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal pay for equal work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pay is not yet equal, but has risen greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965 – Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No discrimination based on race, gender or religion for government jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1969 – First “no-fault” divorce law in California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women begin to gain more rights in marriage and divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973 – Roe vs. Wade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court case which made abortion legal </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Women’s Rights <ul><li>We’ve discussed some important events in the Women’s Movement </li></ul><ul><li>While many issues still exist, we have seen a lot of progress from these movements </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning of the 20 th century only 20% of degrees were earned by women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now it is close to 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning of the 20 th century only 5% of doctors were women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now it is almost 38% </li></ul></ul></ul>