good words (right order) Jan 21 2010

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Patrick E. McLean's good words (right order) is a unique and entertaining approach to improve your professional writing.This class covered all aspects of writing, including the development of English, ways to use the language most efficiently and effectively managing yourself in the writing process.

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good words (right order) Jan 21 2010

  1. 1. good words (right order) class presentation 1/21/10 patrick@goodwordsrightorder.com
  2. 2. good words (right order) _________________________________________________ to write clearly is to think clearly
  3. 3. “Though the origin of most of our words is forgotten, each word was at first a stroke of genius.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
  4. 4. { part one } What They Didn’t Tell You About Writing (and English)
  5. 5. 1. How (and why) did the written language develop?
  6. 6. a recipe for beer.
  7. 7. a 5,300 year old record of oil deliveries
  8. 8. The written word developed to facilitate commerce.
  9. 9. Literary art began with the spoken word.
  10. 10. In the absence of the written word, humanity relied on rhyme and meter as a mnemonic device.
  11. 11. Thirty days hath...
  12. 12. There once was a man from Nantucket...
  13. 13. It’s really hard to make a ledger rhyme.
  14. 14. Writing solves that problem by giving us a more reliable kind of of memory.
  15. 15. In fact, the language itself is a kind of memory
  16. 16. “Though the origin of most of our words is forgotten, each word was at first a stroke of genius.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
  17. 17. Writing gives you the power to preserve words through time and transmit them across distance.
  18. 18. But this power comes at a price.
  19. 19. : alone with him that is Tiger: send it again. I didn't pick up on weird why you decided on me. to the bathroom and which is that Tiger: go ee: haha I wish Tiger: you just need some attention from me an asian mother Jaimee: haha ur too much Tiger: having and a military father you cannot and will not ever be full of yourself ee: miss u (Sept. 27, 6:38 Tiger: do you have a boy friend (8:45 p.m.) p.m.) Jaimee: are u leaving me caus Jaimee: I have fun with u, you always make me smile and I : now that's hot so who isJaimee: I don'ttoy have someone I am dating ... no ... u can ( I am lonely now ... i like falli your new boy even am not afraid to be myself or say anything to u ... the day I 18, 11:38 p.m.) be my boyfriend ;) ee: no new boy toy ... still running dry... been on 2 real met u I thought u were going to kick me out a few times but in the pat 2 months :( Tiger: then I am for someone reason you didn't and u have told meI numerouss Tiger: sorry baby just can't : I need you Jaimee: I wish times I talk to much but slowlyTiger: she is not here. They le as I get to know u iI think your absolutely amazing ee: then get your tight assTiger: quiet and secretively we will always be together over here and visit me! I need Jaimee: well I appreciate you Tiger: you are wrong I'm boneif y couldn't sleep I would hav thugs in harmon Tiger: when was the last time you got laid : I will wear you out soon Jaimee: Something wrong babe?I was find out to sepnd time more ... excited why I keep fa Jaimee: if we hang out on a Sundwaythis week (Oct. 15, 6:40 p.m.) with u we can watch Tiger: Because I'm blasian :) ee: how soon? I got a new piercing houswives again haha (Sept. 30, 3:38 p.m.) desperate Tiger: I will you Sunda night. Its the onlysorry babe. Im alrea Tiger: I'm night in which I : really. Where Tiger: oh god am totally free but I have to leave at 530 Monday morning to Jaimee: I'm putting my underw ee: I just sent u a pic of it Jaimee:my cheek below my drive up to the valley for an outing for one of my sponsors. ... is on take a break from watching boring old golf See you at 8 pm on Sunday in newport them off come take implanted a little diamond Jaimee: I mean the amazing sport of golf ;) Tiger: :) you are too funny Tiger: don't text me back till tomorrow morning. I have to : send it again. I didn't pick up on [more than an hour later] babe I was kidding Jaimee: that many people around me right now Tiger: sorry baby I just can't s : you just need some attention from me sexy Tiger: I know Tiger: send me something very naughty (Oct. 18, 3:40 p.m.) Tiger: she is not here. They le : do you have a boy friend (8:45 p.m.) orange county time yet? (Oct. 1, 6:06 p.m.) Jaimee: is it Jaimee: some things are worthJaimee: for lol appreciate im waiting well I ... besides you ee: I don't even have someone I am dating ... no ... u can Tiger: oh stop :) at work if y couldn't sleep I would hav boyfriend ;) Jaimee: hahaha I know ... but you canceledthe bathroom and moreit find out why I keep fa Tiger: go to on me last time take ... : then I am so the anticipation is killing me ... im finding myself Tiger: Because I'm blasian :) Jaimee: haha ur too much ee: I wish watching sports center ... haha j/k it isn't that bad
  20. 20. “Keep a diary and it will keep you.” Mae West
  21. 21. Anything you write can be instantaneously delivered to everyone in the world.
  22. 22. ...for free. (zero marginal cost)
  23. 23. The persistence of the written word (what makes writing useful) also makes it very dangerous.
  24. 24. 2. Where do words come from?
  25. 25. (okay smart-ass, where does the dictionary get them?)
  26. 26. What happens when you don’t have a dictionary?
  27. 27. When he found himself lacking a word, he made one to fit.
  28. 28. Nouns manager Adjectives nervy dialogue aerial accused mimic noiseless dislocate auspicious addiction misgiving obscene divest baseless alligator mountaineer olympian drug beached amazement ode premeditated dwindle bloodstained anchovies outbreak promethean elbow blushing assassination pageantry quarrelsome enmesh circumstantial backing pedant radiance film consanguineous bandit perusal rancorous forward deafening bedroom questioning reclusive gossip disgraceful bump reinforcement remorseless grovel domineering buzzers retirement rival hobnob enrapt courtship roadway sacrificial humour critic rumination epileptic sanctimonious hurry dauntless savagery equivocal softhearted impedes dawn scuffles eventful splitting jet design shudders fashionable stealthy jig dickens switch foregone traditional label discontent tardiness frugal tranquil lapse embrace transcendence generous unmitigated lower employer urging gloomy unreal misquote engagements watchdog gnarled varied negotiate excitements wormhole hush vaulting numb exposure zany inaudible viewless pander eyeball Verbs invulnerable widowed partner fixture besmirch jaded worthless petition futurity bet juiced yelping puke glow blanket lackluster Adverbs rant gust cake laughable importantly reword hint cater lonely instinctively secure immediacy champion lustrous obsequiously submerge investments compromise madcap threateningly swagger kickshaws cow majestic tightly torture leapfrog denote marketable trippingly unclog luggage deracinate monumental unaware
  29. 29. So how do you make a dictionary?
  30. 30. “The chief intent of it is to preserve the purity, and ascertain the meaning of our English idiom; and this seems to require nothing more than that our language be considered, so far as it is our own; that the words and phrases used in the general intercourse of life... The value of a work must be estimated by its use; it is not enough that a dictionary delights the critick, unless, at the same time, it instructs the learner; as it is to little purpose that an engine amuses the philosopher by the subtlety of its mechanism, if it requires so much knowledge in its application as to be of no advantage to the common workman.” Samuel Johnson from ‘The Plan of an English Dictionary”
  31. 31. “our language be considered the words and phrases used in the general intercourse of life” Samuel Johnson from ‘The Plan of an English Dictionary”
  32. 32. We can make a word right now. And it can be in the next revision of the dictionary.
  33. 33. “blog”
  34. 34. You are the source of your authentic language.
  35. 35. 3. Why aren’t words spelled like they sound?
  36. 36. They were.
  37. 37. pepulle pupill pepille pupyll pepil pupul pepylle peuple pepyll pople peeple poepul poepull puple
  38. 38. All valid spellings of the word “people”
  39. 39. All valid spellings of the word “people” before the 15th century.
  40. 40. In the 15th and 16th centuries the spelling of words in the English language was fixed by a special kind of English court called the Chancery.
  41. 41. This was done to standardize contracts and payments.
  42. 42. But after the spelling was fixed the pronunciation of words continued to evolve.
  43. 43. Linguists call it the ‘Great Vowel Shift’
  44. 44. ( obligatory “vowel movement” joke goes here )
  45. 45. the other reason that spelling and pronunciation don’t match well in English is contained in
  46. 46. 4. Why does English have so many synonyms?
  47. 47. Famine or Hunger
  48. 48. Hunger comes from the Old English word ‘hungor’
  49. 49. Famine is a French word.
  50. 50. J'ai faim
  51. 51. So where’d the French come from?
  52. 52. Pre 1066 – William the Bastard
  53. 53. Post 1066 – William the Conqueror
  54. 54. Victors write the history.
  55. 55. When the Normans (French) conquered England, they doubled the size of the English language.
  56. 56. anger rage follow ensue wrath ire forbid prohibit, interdict ask inquire forgetting oblivion aware cognizant foretell predict back dorsal fox-like vulpine begin commence freedom liberty belief creed friendly amicable belly abdomen gather assemble bodily corporal get off descend brotherly fraternal get out produce buy purchase give provide calf veal gladness joy, delight cool acquiesce god deity child infant go on proceed come arrive guess suppose cow beef, bovine hearing audience deadly mortal, fatal heed attention deep profound height altitude deer venison help assist earth soil hen poultry end finish, complete hill mount fatherly paternal horse equestrian feeling sentiment hound-like canine fill up replenish itch irritate flood inundate know recognize
  57. 57. English is a promiscuous language.
  58. 58. wile trick device finesse artifice stratagem
  59. 59. wile O.E. trick Dutch device Old French finesse French artifice Latin stratagem Greek
  60. 60. 5. With all these words, how do you know which ones to use?
  61. 61. “First, learn to hammer in the nails, and if what you build is sturdy and serviceable, take satisfaction in it’s plain strength.” William Zinnser
  62. 62. { part two } good words
  63. 63. 5. With all these words, how do you know which ones to use?
  64. 64. wile trick device finesse artifice stratagem
  65. 65. 1. Use the good ones.
  66. 66. good words are words of clear, unambiguous meaning
  67. 67. these are usually words that are real things
  68. 68. The more specific you can be the better off you are.
  69. 69. “The perpetrator performed an aggravated assault on the victim which resulted in substantial injuries and the subsequent...”
  70. 70. “Bill hit Steve in the head with a hammer.”
  71. 71. 2. Use as few words as possible.
  72. 72. omit needless words ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell. – from “The Elements of Style” by Strunk and White
  73. 73. 3. No adverbs, few adjectives.
  74. 74. “The road to hell is paved with adverbs.” Stephen King
  75. 75. rewriting mini procedure ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1. Kill all the adverbs. 2. Kill all the adjectives. 3. See if the sentence can be saved.
  76. 76. The camel died quite suddenly on the second day, and Selena fretted sulkily and, buffing her already impeccable nails--not for the first time since the journey began--pondered snidely if this would dissolve into a vignette of minor inconveniences like all the other holidays spent with Basil. Gail Cain 1983 Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest Winner
  77. 77. The camel died quite suddenly on the second day, and Selena fretted sulkily and, buffing her already impeccable nails--not for the first time since the journey began--pondered snidely if this would dissolve into a vignette of minor inconveniences like all the other holidays spent with Basil. Gail Cain 1983 Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest Winner
  78. 78. The camel died on the second day. Selena fretted, not for the first time since the journey began -- pondered if this would dissolve into a vignette of minor inconveniences like all the other holidays spent with Basil.
  79. 79. 3. No jargon, buzzwords, technical terms or acronyms.
  80. 80. Why do people use jargon?
  81. 81. Why would someone say, “Are you experiencing any pain,” instead of...
  82. 82. “Does it hurt?”
  83. 83. I think it’s fear.
  84. 84. Fear of making a statement.
  85. 85. Fear of standing out.
  86. 86. Maybe being unintelligible feels safe.
  87. 87. But it’s a false security.
  88. 88. Unclear communication isn’t just a waste of time, it’s terribly destructive.
  89. 89. Density is typically measured as basal area in square feet per acre.
  90. 90. MegaMicroSystems is a key industry player with global tangible assets, strategic allied partnerships, and an information-driven technology base. We utilize user-centric methodologies, grow visionary systems, and orchestrate strategic functionalities in order to generate successful customer and end-user experiences. The ultimate goal for our targeted client base is to allow them to implement world-class synergies, generate end-to-end communities, and launch successful implemented platforms.
  91. 91. 4. Use the most correct word.
  92. 92. How do you know?
  93. 93. Words have two kinds of meaning:
  94. 94. Words have two kinds of meaning: 1. Denotation (dictionary definition)
  95. 95. Words have two kinds of meaning: 1. Denotation (dictionary definition) 2. Connotation (everything else)
  96. 96. You are your connotations.
  97. 97. When you put two words next to each other, a third meaning, is created that cannot be contained within mere denotation.
  98. 98. ham
  99. 99. ball
  100. 100. hock
  101. 101. ham ball
  102. 102. ball hock
  103. 103. ham hock
  104. 104. hock ball
  105. 105. funnel
  106. 106. ham funnel
  107. 107. “Would you mind asking your husband to stop cramming sandwiches down his ham funnel?”
  108. 108. It’s important to be able to do this with language, because we don’t have a word ready-made for every shade of meaning we might need to convey.
  109. 109. blood funnel
  110. 110. “...a great vampire squid wrapped a r o u n d t h e f a c e o f h u m a n i t y, relentlessly jamming it’s blood funnel into anything that smells like money.” Matt Tabbibi describing Goldman Sachs
  111. 111. Mr. Tabbibi is obviously upset.
  112. 112. Mr. Tabbibi is eloquently upset.
  113. 113. “What does it say that Iranians can march by the millions, put life and limb on the line, while Americans sit meekly by as a financial colossus with tentacles deep into the federal government enriches itself beyond our imagination on the backs of the poor and the struggling?” Peter Daou on Goldman Sachs
  114. 114. 5. If possible avoid any word from with a French, Latin or Greek root.
  115. 115. The core of the English language, Anglo-Saxon, is still our best source of clear and powerful words.
  116. 116. anger rage follow ensue wrath ire forbid prohibit, interdict ask inquire forgetting oblivion aware cognizant foretell predict back dorsal fox-like vulpine begin commence freedom liberty belief creed friendly amicable belly abdomen gather assemble bodily corporal get off descend brotherly fraternal get out produce buy purchase give provide calf veal gladness joy, delight cool acquiesce god deity child infant go on proceed come arrive guess suppose cow beef, bovine hearing audience deadly mortal, fatal heed attention deep profound height altitude deer venison help assist earth soil hen poultry end finish, complete hill mount fatherly paternal horse equestrian feeling sentiment hound-like canine fill up replenish itch irritate flood inundate know recognize
  117. 117. “I gained an immense advantage over the cleverer boys... I got into my bones the essential structure of the ordinary sentence– which is a noble thing.” Sir Winston Churchill
  118. 118. { part three } right order
  119. 119. A sentence is any combination of words that expresses a complete thought.
  120. 120. No.
  121. 121. Jesus wept.
  122. 122. It’s form was an exact quadrangle; and we may calculate that a square of about seven hundred yards was sufficient for the encampment of twenty thousand; though a similar number of our own troops would expose to the enemy a front of more than treble of that extent.
  123. 123. “...a great vampire squid wrapped a r o u n d t h e f a c e o f h u m a n i t y, relentlessly jamming it’s blood funnel into anything that smells like money.” Matt Tabbibi describing Goldman Sachs
  124. 124. Most of the languages in the world convey a level of meaning through word order.
  125. 125. For the vast majority of languages this order is SUBJECT, OBJECT, VERB.
  126. 126. Bob the ball throws.
  127. 127. 3, 4, x = 12
  128. 128. For us, it’s SUBJECT, VERB, OBJECT
  129. 129. Bob throws the ball.
  130. 130. 3 x 4 = 12
  131. 131. If you are a native English speaker, your brain is wired so that this is the easiest order for you to process language.
  132. 132. In fact, this order is a tool for understanding the world.
  133. 133. “Use the analytic tool of complete sentences, including subjects, objects and predicates.” -- Lou Gerstner, in the famous memo that banned the use of presentation slides at IBM
  134. 134. Every sentence, no matter how complicated, confused or unclear can be broken down into a simpler sentence that fits this form: Subject Verb (Object)
  135. 135. “Did you know that Abraham Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg Address while traveling from Washington to Gettysburg on the back of an envelope.”
  136. 136. “Robinson, who coaches the Oregon State Beavers, was cheered on by the President, who snacked on popcorn, the First Lady, Sasha, Malia and the girls’ grandmother Marian Robinson.”
  137. 137. “Avoid the passive voice.”
  138. 138. The problem is that it violates the spirit of a subject, verb, object word order.
  139. 139. It makes it harder to say what we’re trying to say.
  140. 140. Sometimes this is important.
  141. 141. “An error has been found in your account.”
  142. 142. “Someone made a mistake.”
  143. 143. “We made a mistake.”
  144. 144. The passive voice is the voice of those who seek to dissemble, obfuscate or cover their ass.
  145. 145. The passive voice also violates the principle of omitting needless words.
  146. 146. Many famous quotations from Churchill, Roosevelt and Kennedy were used by the speaker in his talk on “Famous Political Orators.”
  147. 147. { make it shorter }
  148. 148. The speaker quoted Churchill, Roosevelt and Kennedy during his discussion of “Famous Presidential Orators.”
  149. 149. A sentence is a one idea.
  150. 150. A paragraph is one topic
  151. 151. The paragraph is the logical unit of composition.
  152. 152. “The first draft of everything is shit.” Ernest Hemingway
  153. 153. “Clutter is the disease of American writing.” William Zinnser, Author of ‘On Writing’
  154. 154. { part four } rewriting
  155. 155. “There is no great writing, only great rewriting.” Justice Brandeis
  156. 156. The more time you spend rewriting, the better your writing becomes.
  157. 157. I have a hard time remembering things.
  158. 158. So I named my company for both the goal of and the method to create great writing.
  159. 159. good words (right order)
  160. 160. good words (right order) subject verb (object)
  161. 161. rewriting procedure ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1. read it out loud 2. figure out what it is trying to say 3. check for bad words 4. check for wrong order 5. rewrite it 6. read it out loud
  162. 162. There are only two possible problems with any piece of writing.
  163. 163. 1) The words don’t communicate what you want to say.
  164. 164. 2) The words communicate something you don’t want to say.
  165. 165. So as you rewrite, you are constantly adjusting your aim.
  166. 166. “Take dead aim.” Harvey Pennick
  167. 167. “Robinson, who coaches the Oregon State Beavers, was cheered on by the President, who snacked on popcorn, the First Lady, Sasha, Malia and the girls’ grandmother Marian Robinson.”
  168. 168. When workloads increase to a level requiring hours in excess of an employee's regular duty assignment, and when such work is estimated to require a full shift of eight (8) hours or more on two (2) or more consecutive days, even though unscheduled days intervene, an employee's tour of duty shall be altered so as to include the hours when such work must be done, unless an adverse impact would result from such employee's absence from his previously scheduled assignment.
  169. 169. The building is a huge structure that houses federal courts as well as other agencies, including the offices of Senators Harry Reid, the Democratic majority leader, and John Ensign, a Republican.
  170. 170. If it were just you and I talking, sitting close together at small table in an uncertain port, a place just far enough away from all that we know that we could be honest with one another, here's what I would tell you:
  171. 171. I utilized a multi-tined tool to process a starch resource.
  172. 172. On Monday, the digital content organization plans to announce several moves that signal it is ready for companies to start building devices and services with the technology this year.
  173. 173. Celebrations moved like a wave from east to west as midnight joyously struck across the globe and the world welcomed 2010. In New York, at least 1 million people watch the iconic ball drop in Times Square.
  174. 174. If, for a while, the ruse of desire is calculable for the uses of discipline soon the repetition of guilt, justification, pseudo-scientific theories, superstition, spurious authorities, and classifications can be seen as the desperate effort to "normalize" formally the disturbance of a discourse of splitting that violates the rational, enlightened claims of its enunciatory modality.
  175. 175. Valais is the first water bottled in the Swiss Alps to be sold in the United States. The final design for the bottle label reflects the Swiss heritage by featuring a mountain images, as well as a Swiss flag icon. It informs consumers visually that this is a refreshing, natural beverage.
  176. 176. Most gardeners limit their experience of growing beans in their backyard gardens to snap beans. In fact, snap beans are second in popularity only to the omniscient tomato.
  177. 177. Much too frequently, the criminal manages to escape the scene of a crime because he manages to escape the visual capability of the responding officers.
  178. 178. History is replete with examples to show that throughout our long and rewarding relations with the Chinese, they have time and again proved to be totally untrustworthy.
  179. 179. All patient meals will be rethermalized by use of a microwave oven before delivery to patients.
  180. 180. Firefighters are often called upon to save lives. Occasionally, they must help begin lives. Such was the case yesterday morning when five Elyria firefighters gave birth to a girl in the bathroom of an apartment.
  181. 181. Businesses planning sales strategy perceive buying power as a gauge of the general ability of potential customers to buy their products.
  182. 182. “It is one thing to study war and another to live the warrior's life.” Telemon of Arcadia
  183. 183. { part five } how to work
  184. 184. writing is either: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– a. The act of putting words on paper. b. A process through which we discover what we are trying to say.
  185. 185. writing is either: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– b. A process through which we discover what we are trying to say.
  186. 186. It’s okay to be lost.
  187. 187. In fact, you can’t do creative work without getting lost. It’s a fundamental part of the process.
  188. 188. The Creative Process is like an iceberg
  189. 189. Only 10% of it is visible.
  190. 190. This why it’s hard for us to manage.
  191. 191. the process ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1. There is a problem. 2. You gather information. 3. You develop solutions/options. 4. Some of them seem okay. Not great. 5. You run out of ideas. 6. You put it out of your mind completely. 7. The Eureka moment.
  192. 192. The cycle can take five minutes or five years, but the steps are always the same.
  193. 193. The discipline of focusing and relaxing your mind is what makes the process go.
  194. 194. “I am a bear of very little brain and long words bother me.” Winnie the Pooh
  195. 195. We are far more simple creatures than our egos will allow us to understand.
  196. 196. I believe that we get, at the most, six periods of concentration a day.
  197. 197. “A writer only gets 2-3 hours of productive time a day.”
  198. 198. Your biggest difficulty with writing may have nothing to do with writing at all.
  199. 199. “The writing part isn’t hard, it’s sitting down to write.” Steven Pressfield
  200. 200. This is exacerbated by the interrupt-driven workplace.
  201. 201. internal vs. external
  202. 202. To write well, you need to manage your attention, not your time.
  203. 203. Any system will work, but I suggest the Pomodoro Technique.
  204. 204. The Pomodoro Technique 1. Choose a task 2. Set timer to 25 minutes 3. Work on the task until the timer rings.* 4. Take a short break. 5. Every four Pomodoros, a longer break. http://www.pomodorotechnique.com/
  205. 205. If you are interrupted or lose focus, you don’t count the Pomodoro.
  206. 206. You take a break, then wind the timer up and try again.
  207. 207. The next Pomodoro will be better.
  208. 208. The secret is, the Pomodoro Technique isn’t about time. It’s about your awareness of time.
  209. 209. Writing is spiritually difficult because of the anxiety of becoming that creeps into the process.
  210. 210. You can’t control time.
  211. 211. You can’t directly control your ‘inspiration’ or ‘talent.’
  212. 212. You can’t directly control your emotions.
  213. 213. I don’t think we have that much control over our thoughts.
  214. 214. If you attempt to write something difficult, you will, as some point feel inadequate.
  215. 215. It happens to everyone, but fear not,
  216. 216. “He writes the worst English that I have ever encountered. It reminds me of a string of wet sponges; it reminds me of tattered washing on the line; it reminds me of stale bean soup, of college yells, of dogs barking idiotically through endless nights. It is so bad that a sort of grandeur creeps into it.” H.L. Mencken on Warren G. Harding
  217. 217. ...you can’t possibly write as bad as Warren G. Harding.
  218. 218. The only thing that is truly within your power to control is your attention.
  219. 219. But we can choose which thoughts we pay attention to.
  220. 220. What we do is a consequence of what we pay attention to.
  221. 221. So, let’s pay some
  222. 222. Pick a topic.
  223. 223. “I am a teacher of athletes. He that by me spreads a wider breast than my own proves the worth of my own. He most honors my style who learns under it to destroy the teacher.” Walt Whitman
  224. 224. ____________________________________________ orwell’s rules for writing 1.Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. 2.Never use a long word where a short one will do. 3.If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. 4.Never use the passive where you can use the active. 5.Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. 6.Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

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