Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
 ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©¤¤
 !#%$%$ ©¤'¤' 
(0)2143¢57698@14ACB5EDF5HG757)PI5¢375
Q¨RFST(0 UA B5PDF5F8V8WS7145¢)2SX598
D BYa`cbd©efg¥¨©7hi...
¥T¦¨§†©«ª­¬®¯¬©¢°±¦³²U´dµ¶¸· §¨¹ ¶ ¦¨ºU¬»©¼º¾½†¿“À“¿q¦¨´¸²Á§†½¹ ¶ ©±©±§†´³Â樴 · ®¿Á¬»½†¿“¦¨º ħ†ºÄ§k¦ · ² ¶ ¹†¹†¦¨Åi´¨§¨...
Asÿ¡ £¢¥¤§¦¨¤©9ÿ I¤¤©
x Š`«Y­r¨tUu #%v¤!  I`ˆhi !! Y­r¨§©§¥Éu 
  R7Y­Yybd§ !# f `c© # §¥¤h ! Yyr¨§©§¥ B v¤!¨## ` $ ¥¨© '
...
w
H—©ebi`  ` #%$ hiCh # Y $ F§fge` w §¥Éu # u© B I` B© ! h # b $ `ÕY­bx§yh !¨w © # §¥ hnYa` # bdyuÎhnY # £
§¥ÉuyxXh€T`...

€ z
€‚€ T
ƒ T
€ y
ƒ z
„B…
„ z
„
„
„
†
„
Q‡@ˆtk¤¤‰«D # `BE“bi`cfgfgnhiqQ¨t¥¨f `c¥…Yy§ ! b $ `qb By` w © # §¥§„ f „ ir† ...
Ï
1 $ yu©¢` ! u“u #k# ¥¨© Bbdyuu`c¥¨©h)%# ¥©ebd§yh !¨# bdnh%¦` ! ©bdyu¡E“bi`c¥Éhi ! biuƒx w §fgfg¹‚
Ð Â €Ñz ҕӗÔՃÖՃד...
@BA
„ † „BCtx „ † „BC—©DC)C † † a5¢©2` # ¥Éu # xX§¥ § 6 © # ¥¨© $ ` C` w ©§b # u`c© # §¥ u !¨#} `c¥¨©
‰Ú¤')’”‰¦3a’¥‚
§FEH...
@B@
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
2
n
2.5
n
3
o
3.5
o
4
p
4.5
p
5
q
W (GeV)
luminosité
EPA
r
rho-poles
rho-pole sanss γ
t
scalaire
PDG...
@‹
€ T
€ z
€d
€ y
C
C
ˆ f
ˆ i

‘
€ z
€ T
€d
€ y
C
C
ˆ f
ˆ i
‘

Q‡@ˆtk¤V¡t«D # `BEbi`cfgf…yudhi˜Q¨t¥¨f `c¥ghi $ `7Yy...
@BÃ
ƒ z
ƒ z
ƒ z
ƒ T
ƒ z
ƒ T
C
C
Ä f
Ä i
Q‡@ˆtk¡¤ '¨¼D # `BEbi`cf…fg‚hFQ¨t¥¨f `c¥…Y­§ ! b $ FYybd§ w yuu ! uCÅC † Ä f Ä...
@‹Þ
 “%¦`cfgY $%# © ! hi h—h # CRC ! u # §¥ w §bdbxyu†Yy§¥Éh­`c¥¨©î` ! h # `BE“bi`cfgfgßC)C † ƒ z ƒ z ƒ T ƒ T yu†©
`cYyY­ ...
@Bí
0
î
0.5
î
1
ï
1.5
2
2.5
0
î 0.1
î 0.2
î 0.3
î 0.4
î 0.5
î 0.6
î 0.7
î 0.8
î 0.9
î 1
ï
x
ð
phi(x)
B1=0 and B2=0
ñ
B1=0 ...
@¨E
0
î
0.2
î
0.4
î
0.6
î
0.8
î
1
1.2
1.4
0
î 0.1
î 0.2
î 0.3
î 0.4
î 0.5
î 0.6
î 0.7
î 0.8
î 0.9
î
z
F
g(z)
B1=0 and B2=0...
@¡w
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
1
10
10
2
10
3
W
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
W (GeV)
σ(γγ→f+
f-
)(nb)
X
γγ
Y
→ e
+
e
-
γγ
Y
→ µ
` +
µ
` -
γγ
...
@¡
0
î
0.1
î
0.2
î
0.3
î
0.4
î
0.5
î
0.6
î
0.7
î
0.8
î
0.9
î
1
0
î 1
ï 2
u
3
v
4
w
5
x
6
y
7
€
8

9
‚
10
ï
Q2
Q2*F_pi
CJ...
@áÏ
1 km
L PE
ALEPH
L3
DELPHI
OPAL
y
SPS
z
PS
France
Suisse
{|~}€•V‚„ƒ€…‡†tˆŠ‰”‹7Œr‰”ˆŠ1Ž1‹’‘T“”
‘Œ–•—1˜™‰”ˆŠ1Ž’—1šœ...
t¦u
HB
R4
HB
v
R0
HB
R4
HB
R3
HB
w
R2
HB
R1
HB
v
R3
HB
R2
HB
R1
HC 1
HC 2 HC3
HC 1
HC 2HC3
x
Muon Filter
BGO
TEC
y
Beam Pi...
t¦¼
½e¾ž¿ ÀÂÁÄÃ ÅžÆ ÇÂÈÄÉÊ'ËgÌ
φ
ρ ÍÎÐÏjÑyҐÓÐÔÄÏÕÑyÖ
×'ØgÙÛÚ'Ü7Ý{ސß5à
ρ á'â7ãÂä‘å7æ çgè é êëì gí î ïð òñ ó‘ô ñöõž÷}øÂñ ù...
tt
{
“ Grid
”
Anodes
Grid
” Cathodes
• Z chamber
–
Charged
•
particle
—
track
˜
SMD
™
Inner
š
TEC
›
Outer
œ
TEC
Y
X
B
{|~...
tu¯
E
θ
φ
hadron
Shower Shapes in the BGO
γ
{|~}€••‚ à ¤€…D¥uˆŠšÇš¢—1 i—1Žj˜i—ç1—9 n¢—1²£1Ž7•”—£•e‹ ºd!dRù²£1‹j º‹jŽ...
ts»
Energy Measurement
→
→
e
e
+¼
-
γ
½ ¾6¿
HC module
BGO Crystals
À
Proportional
wires
Á
U - 238
Â
absorber
{|~}€•V‚ à ...
tuÎ
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
p (GeV)
dE/dx
électrons
muons
pionsÏ
kaons
protonsÏ
{|~}€••‚ à En… ¥ ¢—1²£—1...
tuÙ
½¤…H½¤…ÑÚÜÛ6Ý}Þmß©qÛ'esÞyà6á ai ·m¸
·}º
ró‘Œöñ ‹VŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢—
å
Œö²
å
‹7•®ˆŠ«’²£1 i‰lŒrŽj‰”—ö²A1‹j 1ˆŠšÇš¢—1 i—1Ž...
t'
Inner-TEC (wire 1)
0
(
50
)
100
150
200
250
0
( 500
) 1000 1500 2000
117.9 / 83
A 396.8
x0 117.1
w0 46.21
Inner-TEC Z (...
t'r
0
(1
2
3
44
5
)6
07
8
1
0
( 0.5
( 1 1.5 2
charge positive
p
s
dE/dx
0
(1
2
3
44
5
)6
07
8
1
0
( 0.5
( 1 1.5 2
charge n...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interactio...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interaction at L3 experiment at CERN

511 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Patrick Deglon Master Diploma Work - Neural Network Identification of pions, kaons and protons from two photons interaction at L3 experiment at CERN

  1. 1.  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©¤¤ !#%$%$ ©¤'¤' (0)2143¢57698@14ACB5EDF5HG757)PI5¢375 Q¨RFST(0 UA B5PDF5F8V8WS7145¢)2SX598 D BYa`cbd©efg¥¨©7hiqpsr¨tUu #%v¤! ) !¨wx$ By` # bd9©¢SX§bdY ! u wd!¨$ ` # bd € €‚ƒ€…„ †‡ˆ† „ ‰ ‰ ƒ‘“’X”a’T•e–˜—d™e—d•efg–chikj ™ lnm¢oqprdsTtvuxwydz¢{}|¢~ €k‚¢„ƒ†…ˆ‡Š‰†‹ŒkŽ“}‰†€k‘‡Š‚ lCp |Š’“yd”k”kyd• p—–˜m¢p@rdmš™ |Š›¢yd{}{ mœžr yg~ˆŸa{ yd¡†¢9| sTmŠsTsTr G˜5¢) I573¢5 £!¨# ¥¤¤'¤'
  2. 2. ¥T¦¨§†©«ª­¬®¯¬©¢°±¦³²U´dµ¶¸· §¨¹ ¶ ¦¨ºU¬»©¼º¾½†¿“À“¿q¦¨´¸²Á§†½¹ ¶ ©±©±§†´³Â樴 · ®¿Á¬»½†¿“¦¨º ħ†ºÄ§k¦ · ² ¶ ¹†¹†¦¨Åi´¨§¨°y§k´¨§k½Áħ†¿q´¨¦¨¹†§†½ º ¶ ¬º­¹†§“¬»´¨ÆÇ§T°Ä§†¹†¦¨½†§g½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§†½d´¨§†¹Éª­¬§†´¨ª­¬»§†¹U²U§†½e¹ ¶ ©y©±§†¹d¹†¿q©±¹Éª­¬»¦±È†§É°±¦³²Á´¸µ¶¸· §g©±®¿Á¬½†¿q¦¨ºq²Á¿q¹ À¬¼´¨§qÊ ¶ ¬½ËÆ Ç“§¼²Á§†©±¹†§ˆº ¶ ¬»ºŠ°±®¿qÅ ¶ ½†°ÍÌ¿ ·0¶ ©ž°±¦¨½†§†È†º¾§“¬½Î°±§0°y¦³²Á´¸µ¶¸· §%Š´¨§²U½ ¶eÏ §†¹†¹†§“¬»½nÐÑ¿q½†¦¨¿2Ҋ¦¨§†©Óc´¨§¨Â ² ¶ ¬½7¹†¿n°±¦¨¹Ô² ¶ ©y¦¨Åi¦¨´¨¦¨ºÄ§Š§†ºa¹†¿ÕȆ´¨¿“¦¨½†À ¶eÖ ¿“©±È†§×ÆkØTÙy¿qª­¬»§ Ï£¶ ¦¨¹Šª­¬»§UÊ ®¿“À“¿q¦¨¹¢°±§†¹7ªÁ¬»§†¹†º¾¦ ¶ ©±¹ËÂa§†´¨´¨§ Ö ½ÁħԲ ¶ ©y°±¿q¦¨º°±§k¹“¬»¦¨ºÚ§×ƍØTÙy¿qª­¬»§ Ï£¶ ¦¨¹¨ªÁ¬»§“Ê}§ · ®ÛħÔܱ¿q½†¿q¦¨¹ËÂ熴¨´¨§ · §k½†§†°y¦¨½†¦³Ü¤¿“¦¨ºÃÀ“§†½¹´¨§¨°y½ ¶ ¦¨º“ÈeÙ±§ · ¦¨©±Æ Ðѧ†¹@²Á§†©±¹Áħ†§†¹dÀ ¶ ©±ºk§†©±¹“¬»¦¨ºÚ§‚Ì¿ƒÝ¨¿“À“§†½†¦ ¶ ¥T½†¿“ȆȆ¦¨©±¦³Â¨° ¶ ©±ºk´¨®¿q¦¨°±§ · ®¿žÄ§†ºÄ§dº¾½q̧†¹@²U½Áħ†È†¦¨§“¬»¹†§×ÆcÞd´­¿ º ¶ ¬×Ê ¶ ¬½e¹§“¬¬»©±§½†§ · ¿q½†ª­¬§Ã²Á§†½†ºÚ¦¨©±§†©±º¾§@ª­¬»¦ · ®¿s²Á§†½ · ¦¨¹°±§¨È ¶ ©yº¾¦¨©@¬»§†½@´ ¶ ½¹†ª­¬»§cÊ}®Ûħ†º¾¿“¦¨¹¨Åi´ ¶ ª­¬għ °±¿“©±¹ ·0¶ ©Î¿“©±¿q´ Ö ¹†§×Æ Ç“§°Ä§†¹†¦¨½†§¼¿U¬»¹†¹†¦X½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§†½qº ¶ ¬»ºU²U¿q½†ºÚ¦¨È“¬»´¨¦ Ì§†½†§ · §†©±ºg´¨§gßq½Ç ¶ Ùy©Îàs¦¨§†´¨°V° ¶ ©±º“Ê}®¿q° · ¦¨½†§Š´¨¿ ²Á¿“º¾¦¨§†©±È†§g̿νÁħԲ ¶ ©y°±½†§…Ì¿ · §†¹˜ª­¬»§†¹†ºÚ¦ ¶ ©±¹ §†º´¨¿Õ½†¿¸²U¦¨°±¦¨ºÄ§gÌ¿ˆº¾½ ¶ ¬»Àᧆ½ · §†¹˜§†½†½†§“¬½e¹ËÂa¹†¦³Ü±©±§ °±§ ¹†¿ º¾½q̧†¹kܤ½†¿“©±°±§Õħ†½“¬»°y¦¨º¾¦ ¶ ©±Æ ⢩ÎȆ§Éª­¬»¦±È ¶ ©yȆ§†½†©±§É´¨¿9ºÚÙħ ¶ ½†¦¨§¨Â“Ê}§T¹ ¶ ¬»Ù±¿“¦¨º¾§s½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§†½g´¨§ßq½Tã7§†½†Ù±¿q½†°ÕݨÈeÙ@¬»´¨§†½k² ¶ ¬»½s¹†§†¹ Ȇ¿q´¨È“¬´¨¹@§†ºÃ¹ ¶ ©FÈ ¶ ¬»½¹@°±§@º¾½ ¶ ¦¨¹†¦ Ì§ · §aÈ Ö È†´¨§aª­¬»¦ · ®¿Š¿“¦¨°Ä§ƒÌ¿ · ¦¨§“¬xäŠÈ ¶¸· ²U½†§†©±°±½†§aȆ§†º¾ºÚ§±²UÙ Ö ¹†¦¨ª­¬»§ÛÆ Ðѧ†¹k½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§ · §†©yº¾¹ÈeÙ±¿“´¨§“¬»½†§“¬}ä7À ¶ ©yºq¿Á¬¹†¹†¦ÉÌ¿˜´¨®Ûħ†ª­¬»¦³²Á§U°±§kã7§†©Ȩ́†À“§¤åa´¨§ßq½“à@½†¿“©»ÓgÐE¬Ù±§†¦ · ² ¶ ¬½Š¹†§†¹¼°y¦¨¹†È“¬»¹†¹†¦ ¶ ©±¹«È ¶ ©±¹†ºÚ½“¬»È†º¾¦¨Àᧆ¹«´ ¶ ½¹«°±§†¹½†§Ô²Á¿“¹ËÂÉ´¨§gßq½Éæ ¶ ºèçVà@½†§†°}Êg² ¶ ¬»½¼¹†§†¹¼È ¶ ©±¹†§†¦¨´¨¹ ²Á½†¿“º¾¦¨ª­¬§†¹ËÂÉ´¨§dßq½gé0¦¨È ¶ ´¨¿q¹˜êɽ ¶ °@¬»¦¨ºk² ¶ ¬»½«´¨®¦¨©±ºiħ†½qµ§†ºÉªÁ¬»®¦¨´W¿0² ¶ ½†ºiħëÌ¿ ·0¶ ©eº¾½†¿qÀá¿q¦¨´³Âd㘿qÅi½†¦¨§†´¨§ Ýɬ»¹†¦¨©y© ¶ ² ¶ ¬»½X´¨®¿ · ¿“Åi¦¨´¨¦¨ºÄ§XªÁ¬»®¦¨´“¿q§“¬»§ÎÌ¿½ÁħԲ ¶ ©y°±½†§ˆÌ¿ · §†¹XªÁ¬»§†¹†º¾¦ ¶ ©±¹ËÂyØs´¨¿Á¬»°±¦¨¿ ê@¿Á¬»¹†ì¨Øs§†È†ÈÛÙ±¦ ² ¶ ¬½q¹†¿VÅi¦¨§†©yÀ“§†¦¨´¨´¨¿q©yȆ§žÌ¿ ·0¶ ©íħÔܤ¿“½†°î§†º ¹†¿Õܤ½†¿“©±°±§FÈ ¶ ©±©±¿“¦¨¹†¹†¿q©±È†§9°±§†¹ ¶ ¬»ºÚ¦¨´¨¹q°±®¿“©±¿q´ Ö ¹†§¨Â ßq§†Å ¶ ½†¿“لݨȆ¦¨¿“½†½†¦¨© ¶ ² ¶ ¬»½¢¹†¿Õ°y¦¨¹Ô² ¶ ©±¦¨Åi¦¨´¨¦¨ºiħ¢§†ºa¹†¿qܱ§†©±º¾¦¨´¨´¨§†¹†¹†§Š§†ºsïñðiò óTôqõ±óTö±÷¸óÉïËø¸ðqò ó­êW¿q¹†È†¿q´ â ·0¶ ©y§†º² ¶ ¬½s¹ ¶ ©¼²U½Áħ†È†¦¨§“¬}䃿¸²q² ¶ ½†ºUº¾§†ÈeÙ±©±¦¨ª­¬»§s§†ºÁ¹†¿F°±¦¨¹Ô² ¶ ©±¦¨Åi¦¨´¨¦¨ºÄ§‚Ì¿q¿“´¨´¨§†½¨²U½†§†©±°±½†§¬»©0Ȇ¿ Ï Ä§ ¿qÀá§†È ·0¶ ¦¨Æ ùÉ©„ܱ½†¿“©±° · §†½†È†¦d§†©±È ¶ ½†§ƒ¿Á¬0ßq½¢ê@§†°±½ ¶ æÉ¿“°±½ ¶ ©î°±§9ãq¬»§†À“¿“½†¿¸Â˜ª­¬»¦³Â º¾½†¿“À“¿“¦¨´¨´¨¿q©±º¢¹“¬»½q´¨§ · µ§ · §X¹“¬×Ê §†º­ª­¬»§ ·0¶ ¦³Â · ®¿—ħ†ºÄ§s°±®è¬»©±§­Ü±½†¿q©±°±§X¿“¦¨°±§×Æ Ç“§©±§«À ¶ ¬°±½†¿q¦¨¹˜²Á¿q¹ ¶ ¬»Åi´¨¦¨§†½q°±¿q©±¹È†§†¹q½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§ · §†©±º¾¹F´¨§†¹q¹†§†È†½Áħ†ºÚ¿q¦¨½†§†¹ËÂ7ª­¬§«¹†§¹ ¶ ¦¨ºd¿Á¬ ØUâTúÉéd­ØT¿q½ ¶ ´¨¦¨©y§¨æÉ¿“¦³Ü±©±§†´³Â ¶ ¬îÌ¿9´¨®¯¬©±¦¨À“§†½¹†¦¨ºÄ§ÔÂkØ ¶ ´¨´¨§†ºÚº¾§gÝɬ»º¾§†½û“² ¶ ¬»½É´¨§“¬»½kܱ§†©±ºÚ¦¨´¨´¨§†¹†¹†§g§†ºU´¨§“¬»½ ¿q¦¨°y§X¿q° · ¦¨©y¦¨¹†º¾½†¿qºÚ¦¨À“§ÛÆ Ç“§k¹ ¶ ¬Ù±¿q¦¨ºÚ§k§†©»ç@©¼§Ô串Á½†¦ · §†½g¬»© · §†½†È†¦qº ¶ ¬»ºd²U¿q½†ºÚ¦¨È“¬»´¨¦¨§†½9Ì¿¢º ¶ ¬»ºÚ§†¹¨´¨§†¹Ã²Á§†½¹ ¶ ©±©y§†¹¨°@¬Ü±½ ¶ ¬}²Á§ üqü §†º±°±§­æÉýª­¬»¦ ¶ ©±º±Åq¦¨§†©ƒÀ ¶ ¬»´×¬Š½ÁħԲ ¶ ©±°±½†§ˆÌ¿ · §†¹XªÁ¬»§†¹†º¾¦ ¶ ©±¹ËÂy§†ºy¹†¿q©±¹Xª­¬¦Ê}§a©±®¿Á¬»½†¿“¦¨¹­²Á¿q¹X§“¬ °±§X° ¶ ©y©Ä§†§†¹ˆÌ¿q¿“©±¿q´ Ö ¹†§†½ñÆ às¦¨©±¿q´¨§ · §†©±º¯ÂeÊ}§Uº¾¦¨§†©±¹FÌ¿7½†§ · §†½†È†¦¨§†½¹Ô²qħ†È†¦¨¿q´¨§ · §†©±º · §†¹“²U¿q½†§†©±ºÚ¹¨ª­¬»¦ · ®¶ ©±ºd²U§†½ · ¦¨¹¨°±®§†©±ºÚ½†§Ô²Á½†§†©±°±½†§ °±§†¹Ñħ†ºe¬»°±§†¹g¹“¬}²qħ†½†¦¨§“¬»½†§†¹d§†ºkª­¬»¦ · ®¶ ©yºÁ¹ ¶ ¬º¾§†©@¬»¹²Á§†©y°±¿q©±ºÁº ¶ ¬º¾§†¹dȆ§†¹É¿“©±©Ä§†§†¹Ë¨¿q¦¨©y¹†¦­ª­¬§ · ¿ ¹ ¶ §“¬»½TÝ¿q©±°±½†¿qª­¬»¦ · ®¿¿“¦¨°Ä§ÕÌ¿qÈ ¶ ½†½†¦³Ü¤§†½gȆ§T°±¦³²U´dµ¶¸· §×Æ Ðѧ†½†È†¦¼Ì¿qº ¶ ¬»¹sÆ¯Æ¯Æ êW¿qº¾½†¦¨Èeþ ߤħÔܤ´ ¶ ©
  3. 3. Asÿ¡ £¢¥¤§¦¨¤©9ÿ I¤¤© x Š`«Y­r¨tUu #%v¤! I`ˆhi !! Y­r¨§©§¥Éu R7Y­Yybd§ !# f `c© # §¥¤h ! Yyr¨§©§¥ B v¤!¨## ` $ ¥¨© ' pTbd§yh !w © # §¥ hi $ Y­©§¥Éu $ ¡ pTbd§yh !w © # §¥ h%! ¥¨FYW` # bdÑhqf Byu†§¥Éu ¤¡ (' 5 ! ©¥Éu # §¥ I` $ `Yybd§yh !¨w © # §¥ h)%! ¥¨qYa` # bd1020 43 6 Byu†§¥É`c¥ w yu 5 x ¥% ! Y Bb # ¥ w F Š¡ ¤'  Tyuh B© w © ! biu ¤' S7` $¾##6 bi`c© # §¥žh !87@9 7@A 3 ¡ R ! ©ebdyusfgyu ! bdyuÉf…Y $ §t Byu¢h­`c¥Éu $ %¦`c¥É` $ tku ¡¤ ¡ 1¥¨©bx§yh !¨w © # §¥î` !! b Byuy` !! hi¥¨ ! bx§¥yu ¡¤¡ ¡ DFyu w b # Yy© # §¥ h)%! ¥g¥¨ ! bx§¥ ¡B' ¡  ¢`DCÚ§¥ w © # §¥ h%bxbd ! b ¡3 ¡ ¡ R7Y­Yybd¥¨© # uu“`BE“ ¡3 ¡(' SX§¥©ebGF§ $ nh $ %¦`cYyY­bd¥¨© # uu`BE ¡ ¡43 8 ! EGEyu© # §¥gYy§ ! bFh)%¦` ! ©ebdyu B© ! hyu I` ¥ # b ¡5 'IH B©r¨§yhiÕh)%¦`c¥g` $ tUu† ¡¤' ' PH¨©y£ÚS¢`cb $ § ¡¤' ' 3˜`cb # ` 6¤$ yu¼h)%¥©eb B‚h ! b Byuy` ! hF¥¨ ! bd§¥¨yu '$ ' ¡ 8 B $ w © # §¥îhiyusYa`cbd© #¾wx!$ yu ' '(' R wdw Yy©`c¥ w F©T)CRQ w ` wx# © Byu '' '43 SX§¥©¸`cf # ¥g`c© # §¥ ' ' 8yYy w ©bxyuÉ¥…f `¤uu ' ' S7` $¾wx!$ h $ `ˆu† w © # §¥g)CRQ w ` w ' 3x6 Byu !¨$ ©`c©u ' 3 6 Byu†§¥É`c¥ w 1SUTWV@XWYa`Bb)c ' 3 pTbd§yh !w © # §¥ w §¥¨© # ¥ ! nh%! ¥¨Ya` # bdedgfhdpi 3¤ 3 ¡ pTbd§yh !w © # §¥ w §¥¨© # ¥ ! nh%! ¥¨Ya` # bdrqsftquii§ ! 020 33 ST§¥ wx$%! u # §¥ 3¤' R w bd§¥¨tf…yu ! © #%$¾# u Byu 'B' 6 B)C Bbd¥ w yu '3   # u©‚hyuvQE ! bdyu '   # u©‚hyuÉ©` 6¤$ y` !! ' 14¥Éhi ! '¤'
  4. 4. w H—©ebi` ` #%$ hiCh # Y $ F§fge` w §¥Éu # u© B I` B© ! h # b $ `ÕY­bx§yh !¨w © # §¥ hnYa` # bdyuÎhnY # £ §¥ÉuyxXh€T`c§¥Éuq©ˆh…Yybd§©§¥ÉuqYybd§ ¥É`c¥¨©‚h $ %# ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥h—h !! Yyr¨§©§¥ÉuyÁR ! ¥ ## y` ! h ! h B© w © ! b Š¡x v¤!¨# yu©Fh B w b # ©9h­`c¥Éu $ `gu w © # §¥ëx¤§¥E¥¨ÕYy ! ©˜fgyu ! bdb v¤! wd# ¥ v ©t“Y­yu¼h9YW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yu w rÉ`cbyE Byu‚ $ yu B $ w ©bd§¥Éuyx $ yugf ! §¥Éuyx $ yugY # §¥Éuyx $ yu €T`c§¥Éu© $ yuY­bd§©e§¥guƒ± ¢`nY­bx§yh !¨w © # §¥ h)%! ¥¨‚YW` # bdîh $ Y­©e§¥gu…„ f „ i‡† „ f „ iˆƒf¥ˆWi `îh B I` B© B $ §¥E ! fg¥¨© B© ! h # B‰‘'“’”‰Ô¡a’•x w %yu©FYy§ ! b v¤! § # w g©b` ` #%$ ¥îugY­¥ w r v¤! ˆu ! b $ yus©bx§ # u¢` ! ©bdyusYW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yuyc) By`c¥¨fg§ # ¥Éuyx $ `Yybd§yh !w © # §¥—h $ Yy©§¥Éu B©`c¥¨© ©b Iyu $ `cbyEfg¥¨©˜f ` §b # ©¸` # bxx #%$ ` B© B0¥ B w yuu` # bdVh)%# hi¥¨© # Q¨b $ yu B $ w ©ebd§¥Éu7© $ yu f ! §¥ÉuTYy§ ! b¢Yy§ ! § # b $ yuÉbx ©b– p§ ! b # hi¥¨© # Q¨b w yunYW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yuyx %¦` #! © #%$%# u Bˆhyunb Byuy` !! hië¥ ! bd§¥¨yuV`cbd© # QÉ£ wd# $ uy@57¥ )C—CÔ©Wxg` ! ©¸`c¥© $ yu B $ w ©bd§¥Éuyx $ yu0f ! §¥gu9© $ yuƒrg`¤hbd§¥ÉuÎYy ! ¥¨©˜F©bd `¤uu¥™F` # u Bfg¥¨© # hi¥¨© # Q Byuyx­` ! ©¸`c¥© #¾$ Yy ! © F©bdÑh # CRQ wd#%$ 2hi„h # u†© # ¥E ! bÎh # CRC Bbd¥¨©u rÉ`¤hibx§¥guƒSX wd# yu©ƒhF! ` ! C` # © v¤! $ yuŠrÉ`¤hbd§¥ÉuŠ§¥¨© ! ¥¨nb BYy§¥Éu†ghiyuƒh B© w ©e ! bu bd $ `c© ## f…¥©gu # f #%$ ` # bdd1 $ B©` # ©d` $ §bu hi ¥ !Õ# ¥¨© Bbxyu“u`c¥¨© hƒu` § # b«u #¤! ¥Õb Byuy` ! hq¥¨ ! bd§¥¨yusYy§ ! ` # © # h¥© # Q¨b w yuÉYW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yuy R $ %# ¥gu©`cbVhi $ ! bV`c¥É` $ §)E ! 6¤# § $ §)E #%v¤! x $ yu9b Byuy` !! hig¥¨ ! bd§¥¨yun`cbd© # Q wd# $ u u§¥¨© w `cYW` 6¤$ yu9hiƒYybd§ ! yuuyuquYy w ©` wd!¨$ ` # bdyuyx“©d¥CYW`cbd© #%wd!¨$%# b $ §biu v¤! %#%$ u”%¦`BE # ©qhi u B $ w © # §¥v)0§ ! u bdbd§¥Éu w v¤! %#%$ ¥gyu©W» ¢`nu w © # §¥ ¡nh§¥¨¥¨bi` ! ¥¨ w § ! bd©e # ¥¨©bd§y£ h !w © # §¥—` !! b Byu†y` !! hF¥¨ ! bd§¥¨yuy Š gÿ‡ehfpgh©djigkD¤ Iÿl¦h¤kmnehfpogqotrs© SX§fgfgu§¥Î¥§f $ %# ¥Éh #¾v¤! dx $ ` Y­r¨tUu #%v¤! I`qh !! Y­r¨§©§¥Éusu”%§ wdwd! Y­qh $ %# ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥ h…h !! Yyr§©e§¥guƒÁSXyuh !! Y­r¨§©§¥Éu §¥¨© # ¥¨©bi`BE # bYy§ ! b w b Bb v¤! `c¥© #¾v¤! fg¥¨© h $ `¼f `c© # IbddáD‚`c¥ÉuXfg§¥ w `¤uyx w ©©ef—`c© # Ibd«yu†© w §fgY­§yu BÎh)%! ¥YW` # bxnh«Y # §¥Éuyx h€T`c§¥Éuɧ ! hiY­bx§©§¥Éuy  TÕYybd§ 6¤$ IfgˆY­b # ¥ wd# YW` $ h w ©©ÎY­r¨tku #%v¤! Õyu©Fhiˆ©bd§ ! bˆh !! Yyr§©e§¥gus§t˜¥ Yy§ ! bxbi` # ©FYy¥gub v¤! %¥ w bd§ # u“`c¥¨©Ñh !! C` # u w y` !! hi $ `¤ub–x¨§¥ § 6 © # ¥¨¥ ! ¥¨ # ¥É£ ©bi` w © # §¥î¥¨©bdVh !! Yyr¨§©§¥ÉuyxÃf ` # uŠ¥¨§ ! u7¥§ ! u¢r¨ ! bd©§¥Éu I`…hi !!„# ¥Éu ! CRQÉu`c¥ w yu © w r¥ #%v¤! yuy¸Du%! ¥¨Ya`cbx© $ % B¥bƒE # ÎhiyuaYyr¨§©§¥ÉuW¥%yu©aYW`¤u˜u ! C—QÉu“`c¥¨©ŠY­§ ! b w b Bb«hi $ `ˆf `c© # Ibdd±D%¦` ! ©bdnYW`cbd©Wx #¾$ yu©¢¥ w §bd # fgYy§yu“u ##6¤$ ehieC†` # bdehyuuC†` # u w y` !! u ! C—C†£ # u`cfgfg¥¨© w §¥ w ¥¨©b Byu@Yy§ ! b v¤! ƒh !! Yyr¨§©§¥ÉuYW`¤uu†¥¨©d`¤u“u¥™aYyb Iyu $ %! ¥ehi $ %¦` ! ©bx Yy§ ! b # ¥¨©bi`BE # b•  ¢`nu§ $%! © # §¥gyu©h)%! © #%$¾# ub0hyu B $ w ©bd§¥Éuy»57¥g)CRCÚ©Wx $ yu B $ w ©bd§¥ÉuuFYybd§f I¥¨¥¨© ` wÕ! ¥ ¥¨§f 6 bd # fgY­§bx©`c¥¨©nhgYyr§©e§¥gu # bd© ! $ uykDF§¥ w ¥ w bd§ # u`c¥¨©‚h !! C` # u£ w y` !! h)% B $ w ©bd§¥Éu@©b Iyush¥guyuv†h $ %§bihbdƒhwXxbBy{z B $ w ©bd§¥ÉuYW`cb w f T YW`cbu w §¥Éh¥|Rx §¥C`cbdb #} I`¢§ 6 ©¥ # b ! ¥¨ŠYybd§ 6 ` 6¤#%$%# © BÎh%# ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥„¥¨©bx9h !! Yyr¨§©§¥Éudu ! C—QÉu“`c¥¨© Yy§ ! b˜Yy§ ! § # b~F©bx B© ! h # B
  5. 5.  € z €‚€ T ƒ T € y ƒ z „B… „ z „ „ „ † „ Q‡@ˆtk¤¤‰«D # `BE“bi`cfgfgnhiqQ¨t¥¨f `c¥…Yy§ ! b $ `qb By` w © # §¥§„ f „ ir† „ f „ i † Šg‹ŒŽ–’‘“Ž•”–”–‹d‘j‹˜—‘B™‹jšj‹“›œ‹GžŽhŸ“‘B™‹“Ž•œ ¡›vŒ‹”–Ž•œ•¢‹j‘“‹“£u—Ž•‘ž¤›œ‹j‘“Ž•Ÿ“œ4 ¥›vŒ‹Œ’‹j¦y§‚—¨ ¡œ ¥›š–—‘“ ¡©ƒ‹j›ŽB›œ Œ¤¦’›‹y—ŽB4‘“‹p™‹jž‹jŸjœ‘“ ¡›ª— ¥šjœ‘j ¡›’«•¬›r™‹“ž4‹“Ÿjœ‘j ¥›­šj‹g‘“Ž®—B—‘“ ¡Ÿ@¨’‹¥Œ¤¦›‰— ¡š“4œ‘j ¥›y¯Ÿ@¨ŽBŸj¦›1™‹j”–‹“œ)¦›—¨ ¥œ ¡›« Šg‹jšt—¨ ¥œ ¡›šp›œ‹j‘“Ž–’šjš“‹j›œa— ¥¦‘­Ÿj‘a™‹j‹“‘°£u«)±²žŽ‡³h›´Œ¦°—‘j ¡Ÿ“‹jš“šj¦š‘¯£ž›‹°‘j‹jš“œ‹­µW¦‹°ž4¤™‹jž‹jŸ“œ‘“ ¡›y¯pž4‹ — ¥šjœ‘j ¡›°‹jœ£u« 1 $ yu©«Yy§yu“u ##6¤$ —h)%§ 6 ©¥ # b ! ¥nC` # u w y` ! h% B $ w ©bx§¥gu©b IyuÕh¥Éux w `cb w §fgfg $ yu B $ w ©bx§¥gu0u§¥¨© w rg`cbƒE Byuyx­¥¨§ ! uŠYy§ ! §¥Éu w §¥Éu©b !¨# bdehyu–¶¥¨©§¥¨¥§ # biu”· B $ w ©bd§f `¤£ E“¥ B© #¾v¤! yuaYy§ ! b $ yu w §¥ w ¥©ebdb–¸DFY $%! uƒx $ % B¥¨byE # ÎhyuaY­r¨§©§¥Éu h BY­¥Éh0hi $ % B¥¨bi£ E # ‚hiyu B $ w ©ebd§¥ÉuU¸Õhi§¥ w ¥—` wdw B $ Bbi`c¥¨© $ yu B $ w ©bd§¥Éuyxc§¥…§ 6 © # ¥©Šhyu B¥¨byE # yu¼h Yyr¨§©§¥Éu # f…Y­§bd©¸`c¥©eyuyÉ1 $ yu©Ñ` $ §biu # ¥¨© Bbdyuu`c¥©‚h%! © #%$%# u†b $ V T57pYy§ ! b B© ! h # b w ©e©qYyr¨tku #%v¤! )Χ ! u bdbd§¥ÉugY $%! us¥—h B©` #%$k$ q T5¢p hy`c¥Éu $ `Õu w © # §¥g HP` # u0` `c¥¨©0h%¦` $%$ bƒY $¾! u $ § # ¥vx ` # u0h B)Q¨¥ # b $ yu v¤! `c¥¨© # © Byu wx# ¥ Bf `c© #¾v¤! yu v¤!¨# # ¥¨©b “# ¥¨¥¨¥¨©dhy`c¥Éu w ©©¢Y­r¨tUu #%v¤! ¸pTbd¥¨§¥Éu $ `¹QE ! bd0d(0¥ B $ w ©bd§¥Ch v¤! `¤hb # £ # fgY !¨$ u # §¥ € z Bfg© ! ¥ëY­r¨§©§¥ “# bd© ! $ hi v¤! `¤hb # £# fgY !¨$ u # §¥ ƒ z ¸ ! ¥îYy§yu # ©bd§¥ˆh v¤! `¤hb # £# fgY !$ u # §¥ € T Bfg© ! ¥ÎY­r¨§©§¥ “# bx© ! $ h v¤! `¤hb # £# fgY !¨$ u # §¥ ƒ T•} “%# ¥¨©b` w © # §¥ h w yuhi !! Yyr¨§©§¥Éu `2h§¥¨¥¨b $%# ! I` $ ` w b By`c© # §¥ h ! u†tUu© Ifg † w §fgYy§yu B„hi»º YW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yu¼`átk`c¥¨© ! ¥ v¤! `¤hib # £# f…Y !¨$ u # §¥ „B¼®½ XD¾À¿¨¾Àºt t˜¥îh # ©¢h%! ¥„Y­r¨§©§¥ v¤! %#¾$ yu© # bd© ! $ u # u“`¼f `¤uu«yu†© # f `BE # ¥g` # bdq©7u”%#¾$h `«Y $%! u “# ©e v¤! $ ` $%! f # Ibxqp§ ! b¼©bi` ` #%$¾$ bÕ` w hyupEbi`c¥Éh ! bu7Yy§yu # © ## yuyxq¥¨§ ! u«` $¾$ §¥Éu h B)Q¨¥ # b $ ` # bd© ! ` $%# © BÑh ! Yyr¨§©§¥1‚ Á T z¨Â „ ƒ T z°Ã b Á TT  „ ƒ TT à b vË| (0¥¨Fhi !!# Ifg¹Eb`c¥gh ! b # ¥¨© Bbdyuu`c¥¨©˜yu© $ ` f `¤uu9h ! utku© If…Fhyugh !! Y­r¨§y£ ©§¥Éuyxpg`cb w §¥Éub `c© # §¥ehi $ ` v¤! `¤hb # £# fgY !¨$ u # §¥vx w %yu†©d` ! u“u #¤$ `¢f `¤uuƒh ! utku© If… † t˜¥—h B)Q¨¥ # © w ©©f `¤uuqYW`cb¡‚ Ä Â Å Æ ƒ z  ƒ T•Ç T¡È ÉÊÊ Ë Æ … Ì ¼ÎÍ z „B¼ Ç T v |
  6. 6. Ï 1 $ yu©¢` ! u“u #k# ¥¨© Bbdyuu`c¥¨©h)%# ¥©ebd§yh !¨# bdnh%¦` ! ©bdyu¡E“bi`c¥Éhi ! biuƒx w §fgfg¹‚ Ð Â €Ñz ҕӗÔՃÖՃדØgٗÕuÚvÛsܕݥÙRރßyÕyÝpÛeÚ Ó—ÔÕ Ò Õyßyàá׃â)ÖÞ ã  ƒ Ñz РҕӗÔՃÖՃדØgٗÕuÖâ)×yä˜Ý Ò Ù—Þ ÔÕyÕuÚvۖå×yՃä˜ÙRÕyרåæâ)àáâ)Ö ç  ƒ ÑT РҕӗÔՃÖՃדØgٗÕuÖâ)×yä˜Ý Ò Ù—Þ ÔÕyÕuÚvÛ~ÚÕ)Ûè)ÙxéÕyä˜Õqåæâ)àáâ)Ö ê Â Ä Y Ð Ò ÝräÝhÞyރհÖâ)×yä˜Ý Ò Ù—Þ ÔÕyÕ¹ÚvÛëޓì¥Þyà•éÕyäÕ¨åp×yâ)ÚvÛdÙRà † v† ¡| Ëpísîhî¨ï‰ðdñòjóõôdö¥òƒðd÷Iøtùúîhû–ðdöaðd÷ üý¥þ ù¡òjÿ¡ô¡  ý ÷¡ö£¢¢ Tyu‚Y­r¨§©§¥ÉuVu§¥¨© Bf # unYa`cb hyuqYa`cbx© #%wd!¨$ yu w rÉ`cbyE ByuF¥ f…§ ! fg¥¨©WÁ T…¥¨§f 6 bdîhi2Y­r¨§©§¥Éu Bf # uqYa`cb ! ¥ $ Y­©e§¥—hFf `¤uu¥¤¥¦Áyu©Šhi§¥¨¥ BqYW`cb‰è3’¥‚ § T©¨ È d § ã ã § Á T Á T X „ 㠁 ã T Y „ ¤ T ã T Á Tv†('| ` w $ ` w §¥gu©`c¥¨©Õh‚u©b !¨w © ! bdDQ¨¥¨ B $ w ©bd§f—`BE¥ B© #%v¤! R wƒw ©©eeCÔ§bxf !¨$ ‚§¥ˆu”%¦`cYyb w! § # © v¤! $ yuŠY­© # ©yu ` $ ! biuÎh ã ©ƒh Á T u†§¥¨© C†` §b # u Byuyxihi§¥ ws$ Y­r¨§©§¥ˆyu© v¤! `¤u # fg¥¨©@b B $ iSX $ `Fu # E“¥ # Q¨0` ! uu #¤v¤! $ Y­r¨§©§¥ u !¨# © $ `—h # bd w © # §¥šh $ % B $ w ©bd§¥v¸ #%$ uÑu§¥© w § $%# ¥ By` # bdyuƒ57¥ˆ)C—CÔ©Wxk¥PYW`cbd©`c¥¨©Ñhyu v¤! `¤hib # £ w ©e ! buyx»§¥g§ 6 © # ¥¨©sYy§ ! b $ %¦`c¥E $ #h)% Bf # uu # §¥¤h ! Yyr¨§©§¥1‚ $%£' È Y ã Ð T „ Á T Y)( Ð T „ ¤ T 0 ( ã T Ð T „ Á T $%£' 21)354 Ñ È Ð ( Ð T „ ¤ T 0 È6 0 v†43| ` w 6 0 $ ` # ©yuu h $ % B $ w ©bd§¥v(0¥ B $ w ©bd§¥h !  T5¢p I`'3—G˜3 `…© $%$ fg¥¨© # © v¤! %#%$ yu© # fgYy§yu“u ##6¤$ Vh2h # CRC Bbd¥¨© # bˆu“` “# ©eyu“u…hi w $%$ …hi $ ` $%! f # Ibd~v 6 0 È X „ Xxb’i87–|—cR # ¥Éu # x $ DC†` # ©¢hnh # bd v¤! $ yusYyr§©e§¥gu˜u§¥¨©Tbi`¤h # Byu¢h­`c¥Éu $ `ˆh # bd w © # §¥îhi $ % B $ w ©bd§¥gyu© ! ¥¨ 6 §¥¨¥¨‚`cYyY­bx§ !# f `c© # §¥v D Iyu $ §biuyxÉh­`c¥Éu $ `VY $¾! YW`cbd©2hiyu B B¥¨fg¥¨©u $ yu„hi !! B $ w ©bd§¥Éuƒ¥¨Hu§¥¨©9YW`¤u § 6 ub ` 6¤$ yuyx w `cb #%$ uƒu”%¥ §¥¨©Fh­`c¥Éu $ Õ© !6 I` “# hiCh ! C†` # u w y` ! t7¥îYW`cb $ e` $ §biu h)% B B¥¨fg¥¨©u«`c¥¨© # £¦©`BEGE Byuy ¢` w §¥Éh # © # §¥Ph)%¦`c¥¨© # £¦©`BE # fgY $%#¾v¤! ! ¥ $%# f # ©Î¥ Á T 57¥E)C—CÔ©Wx I` ! ¥¨ B¥¨byE # ghiwC†` # u w y` ! h§¥¥ B Ð xY $%! u Á T yu©pEbi`c¥Éh¥xÃY $%! u $ %¦`c¥E $ h h # C—C ! u # §¥ yu†©´Eb`c¥gh¥x ©îh§¥ wE$ yu $%# f # ©yu E B§f B©b #%v¤! yu—h ! h B© w ©e ! b # f £ Y $¾#%v¤! ¥¨© ! ¥¨ $%# f # ©Ef—` !# f ! f I`9BxW©„hi§¥ w I` Á T x@Yy§ ! b v¤! $ yu B $ w ©bd§¥Éu0¥ u§ # ¥©7YW`¤uƒh B© w © Byuy“ T§biu v¤! %! ¥ u !¨$ B $ w ©bx§¥îyu© “! Ya`cb $ gh B©e w © ! b–xç¥îYW`cb $ h)% B B¥¨fg¥¨©uq©`BEGE Byu ! ¥ CÔ§ # uyx $ §biu v¤! $ yuÑh !! B $ w ©bd§¥Éu‚u§¥¨© ! uyxk§¥PYW`cb $ h)% B B¥¨fg¥¨©us©¸`BE‚E ByuŠhi !! CÔ§ # uy R # ¥gu # xÃ¥ëYybd¥É`c¥¨© $ yu B B¥¨fg¥¨©uq`c¥¨© # £è©`BE‚E Byuyx v¤!# u†§¥¨© $ yu7Y $%! u7¥§f 6 bd !! x Á T yu©˜Yy© # ©7© $ ÎY­r¨§©§¥eyu© v¤! `¤u # fg¥¨©˜b B $ kST wd# yu†© ©eb Iyu # ¥¨© Bbdyuu`c¥¨©Wx w `cb¥ Yy§yu“`c¥¨© $ ‚Yyr¨§©§¥—b B $ x $ yu B v¤! `c© # §¥ÉuÎuCu # fgY $%# Q¨¥¨© B¥¨§bdf Bf…¥©x¤57¥—)CRCÚ©Wx¤§¥ Yy ! ©ˆh B w § ! Y­b $ —h # `BEbi`cfgf… hi„Q¨t¥¨f `c¥‘h $ `»QE ! bd—2¥ž©bd§ # uqYybd§ w yuu ! up‚
  7. 7. @BA „ † „BCtx „ † „BC—©DC)C † † a5¢©2` # ¥Éu # xX§¥ § 6 © # ¥¨© $ ` C` w ©§b # u`c© # §¥ u !¨#} `c¥¨© ‰Ú¤')’”‰¦3a’¥‚ §FEHG „ f „ i † „ f „ i †PI È ERQ©Q V Ä T ½ Á T z È b ½ Á TT È b)cTS §VUWQ©QvË| § I! §FUWQ©Q È § ¨ z § ¨ T˜© ERQ©Q V Ä T ½ Á T z È b ½ Á TT È b)cgyu© $ `ëu w © # §¥H)C—Q w ` w —h ! Yybd§y£ w yuu ! ugY­§ ! bFhiyugYyr¨§©§¥ÉuÉb B $ uy±SX $ `Õu # E“¥ # Q¨ v¤! $ %§¥VYy ! ©s§ 6 ©¥ # bƒh # bd w ©fg¥¨© $ `eu† w © # §¥H)CRQ w ` w ERQ©Q ¥ w §¥¥É` # uu`c¥© $ ` $%! f # ¥¨§yu # © BîhyuYyr¨§©§¥ÉuyyDqyu B© ! hyu §¥¨©afg§¥¨©b B v¤! w ©©eÎ`cY­Yybd§ !# f `c© # §¥—hi§¥¨¥¨ $¾# ! I`ˆhyuXbdbd ! biu # ¥C Bb # ! bdyu I`YXa` ‰Ú¤')’” SX©©ghibx¥ # Ibd B v¤! `c© # §¥—yu©ƒ`cYyYy $ B $ %¦`cYyYybd§ !# f `c© # §¥ h ! Yyr¨§©§¥ B v¤!¨## ` $ ¥¨© vÚR¢pT5u|¤§ !…$ %¦`cYyYybd§ !# f `c© # §¥cbe # ©uFd` w €Ubeb #%$%$%# `cf u¡vÔRfbgb |R SX©©g`cY­Yybd§ !“# f—`c© # §¥žYybdfg©FhiVu # fgY $%# Qb $ ÕY­bd§ 6¤$ Ifgd±57¥î)C—CÔ©Wx $ `Vu w © # §¥ )C—Q w ` w e„ f „ i´† „ f „ i † yu†©Šh BY­¥Éhy`c¥©e‚h !Ph¨!! hyuÉY­r¨§©§¥Éuy¤SX©©Õh BY­¥Éhy`c¥ w `ŠYy§ ! bd)CRCÚ© v¤! ¼¥§ ! ua¥¨Yy§ ! §¥ÉuTYW`¤u w §fgYW`cbdbhiyuab Byu !¨$ ©`c©ua§ 6 ©¥ ! u˜` w hyu B¥¨byE # yu¼h…C` # u w y` ! Ð h # C—C Bbd¥¨©yuyaH ` # u w h¨!! hiqY­r¨§©§¥Éugyu© w ` $¾wx!$ ` 6¤$ I` $ ` Yyb B wd# u # §¥ § !¨$%! wE“b F` w I` $ % B $ w ©bd§yht¥É`cf #%v¤! v¤! `c¥¨© #%v¤! ëvpi757Dr|R‰t7¥eY­ ! ©` $ §biu u§ ! u©bi` # bd w ©©Õh BYy¥Éh­`c¥ w dxyhFf—`c¥ # Ibd I`§ 6 ©¥ # b $ `ˆu w © # §¥g)CRQ w ` w ERQ©Q  T C†` # © v¤! $ ` $%! f # ¥§yu # © Bžu§ # © w ` $%wd!¨$ ` 6¤$ I` $ `VY­b B wx# u # §¥ § !¨$¾! C¥%# fgY $%#%v¤! YW`¤u v¤! Vu§¥ w ` $%wd!¨$ u†§ # ©F` # u B¥1 $ !# u©ChyuŠYybd§)Ebi`cf…fgyu v¤!¨#Tw ` $%wd!¨$ ¥¨© w ©© $¾! £ f # ¥¨§yu # © B¥x»f ` # ugY­§ ! b7fg§¥ h # Y $ F§fgx ` # u ! © #¾$%# ub $ %¦`cY­Yybd§ !“# f—`c© # §¥Hh§¥¨¥ BFYW`cb $ FYW`cbd© #%w}$ ‚h­`c©` 6 §§)€ vÚpTD‚Gu|—‰¦¤“’¥‚ §VUWQ©Q V Ä c È Y T d T Ä q S Æ Ä T r Ç Ætsvu r Á T xw A ¤ 0 Ä T „ X Ç T „ X y s€u y r Ä T‚ § Ä SV ê c È Æ X  X Y ê Ç T svu X ê „ X Y„ƒ X „ êa… ƒ y  êa… v | ` w Á T Tw A‡† È ¤ T ˆ Yy§ ! b $ `FYybd§yh !¨w © # §¥¤h9rÉ`¤hbd§¥Éuyxi© Á T xw A‡† È Ä T Yy§ ! b $ `qYybd§yh !¨w £ © # §¥îh%! ¥¨FYW` # bdÑh $ Yy©§¥Éuy p§ ! b9` § # b ! ¥¨sCÔ§¥ w © # §¥îhi $%! f # ¥§yu # © BY $%! u w §bdbd w ©dxc¥¨§ ! u¢` §¥Éu I`«¥¨§©bdˆh # u“£ Yy§yu # © # §¥ $ 0Y­bd§)E“bi`cfgfg…h…8 w r !¨$ b‰¦'“’ v¤!¨# ¥¨§ ! uhi§¥¨¥¨ w ©©~CÚ§¥ w © # §¥ h $¾! f # £ ¥¨§yu # © BqYy§ ! b9h # CRC Bbd¥¨©uÉfg§yh I $ yuy ‰sïtðøtùH‘Bö¡òƒð÷ ø ý   ý î¨öaðd÷“’V¢Š ¢`gu w © # §¥î)CRQ w ` w Chi w ©©ÎYybd§yh !¨w © # §¥—yu© ! ¥ w ` $%wd!¨$ ©eb Iyuqu # fgY $ ˆYy§ ! b $ %¦`cYyYybd§ !# f `c© # §¥”¤¥¦ È b)“57¥EYW`cbd©`c¥¨©qh $ ` QE ! bd…¡x“§¥ § 6 © # ¥¨© $ % B $ Bf…¥©Šhqf `c©eb #%w ‚u !¨## `c¥¨©‚ • È „—– dg¿ ™˜ed V € z c ˜ef V € T¡c ggV € y chC d X i€ z „ i€ y C fkj V €d c „l– dg¿ #˜ed V € z c ˜mf V € T–c gV € y chC f X i€ T „ i€ y C dTj V €d c v5|
  8. 8. @B@ 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 2 n 2.5 n 3 o 3.5 o 4 p 4.5 p 5 q W (GeV) luminosité EPA r rho-poles rho-pole sanss γ t scalaire PDG u John Field v Q‡@ˆtk¤ q«Q¨§¥ w © # §¥Éu h $%! f # ¥¨§yu # © Bí¥ CÔ§¥ w © # §¥ hwb Y­§ ! b h # CRC Bbd¥¨©yu`cYyY­bd§ !“# f `c© # §¥Éu x¦‘“Ÿ“‹jœœ‹a³’¦‘“‹4¯B ¡›“—‹j¦œB©ƒ ¡‘“ž4ŽhŒ£™‹˜—‹j›’ŒŽ•›’Ÿj‹d‹j›“y — ¡¦‘Ÿ“4›µq”– ¥Œ£¢‹jž‹jšdŒ{zvzW™‹“‘j‹“›œš—«”Šg‹jš¥ž4¦”–› ¡š“4œ–™‹“š  ¡›’œ£™‹jœ–™‹‰ B|Uœ‹“›¦‹“šx—ŽB‘‰ž‹U—‘j á’‘“Ž•”–”–‹‰Œ‹}xŸ@¨¦ž‹j‘©~€€t‚Ϋ 57¥ # ¥Éu Bbi`c¥¨© $ yu `cb # ` 6¤$ yuÕhi»H `c¥Éh $ u©`cf r È ƒ € z  € T … T x„ƒ È ƒ € z „ € y … T x†… È ƒ € z „ €d … T x r  ƒ  … È Y‡¤ T¦ È b)xc§¥2©bd§ ! u‚ • È „ – dg¿ ƒ ˜ d V € z c ˜ f V € T¡c ggV € y chC d ƒ i€ z „ i€ y … C f}j V €d c „ – dg¿ … ˜ed V € z c ˜mf V € T–c gV € y chC f ƒ i€ T „ i€ y … C dTj V €d c v† '| Dn`c¥gus¥§©ebd w §¥QE ! b`c© # §¥¡x»¥¨§ ! uŠ` §¥Éu r È Ä T ©‚ ƒ È € T z  € T y „ Y € z S € yÈ b  b „ Y Æ Ð z Ð y „‰ˆ5Š€ z ˆ€ˆ‹Š€ y ˆ $Œ%a' £{Ç È „ Y Ð z Ð y Æ X „ 6 $%a' ‚ Ç È „ Y„Ž r Y Ž r Y Æ X „ 6 $%£'  Ç È „ r Y Æ X „ 6 $%a' ‚ Ç v† $|
  9. 9. @‹ € T € z €d € y C C ˆ f ˆ i  ‘ € z € T €d € y C C ˆ f ˆ i ‘  Q‡@ˆtk¤V¡t«D # `BEbi`cfgf…yudhi˜Q¨t¥¨f `c¥ghi $ `7Yybd§yh !w © # §¥Vh $ Yy©§¥Éu YW`cb $ %# ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥¤hinhi !! Y­r¨§©§¥Éu Šg‹jš°Œ‹j¦y§eŒ4Ž¡’‘jŽB”–”–‹jšpŒ‹f’¥‹”“a›”–Ž•›r‘“‹˜—‘B™‹“šj‹j›’œ‹“›œž‹jš°Œ‹j¦x§§™‹jž•™‹“”u‹“›œšpŒ‹¹”–ŽBœ‘jŸj‹jš°Œ¦°—‘j‹“”u‹j‘  ¡‘“Œ‘j‹gŒŽB›šgž‹•—‘j ¡Ÿ“‹jš“šj¦š„•£•—–™˜›šR˜©œB«ž‹Œ4Ž¡’‘jŽB”–”–‹‰Œ’‹d’Ž•¦’Ÿ@¨‹t‘j‹ —‘a™‹jš“‹j›œ‹tž4‹ŸjŽB›Ž•ž¡Ÿ(¯‚‹jœ‚Ÿj‹“ž4¦’’Œ‹ Œ‘j ¥4œ‹tž‹‰Ÿ“Ž•›’Ž•žh W«p’¤™‹jµW¦ŽBœ4 ¥›¢¡‹£p¤¦¥¨§B‹jš“œ’ž¤™‹“µW¦©¥ŽBž4‹“›œa”–Ž•œ¨£™‹“”–Ž•œµW¦‹‰Œ‹tŸj‹jšgŒ’4Ž¡’‘jŽB”–”u‹“š—« … È „ r „ ƒ È „ r Y Æ X  6 $%a' •Ç vˤ| ` w 6 $ ` # ©yuuEh%! ¥ $ Y­©§¥ hy`c¥Éu $ w ¥¨©bdehÑf `¤uu† ƒ 68Ȫ© X „  3« ¬ … xy©­  $ %¦`c¥E $ „¥©ebd $ ‚Y­r¨§©§¥ € z © $ $ Yy©§¥ € y )® # ¥ v¤! %¦` # Yy§yu Bc¤¥¦ È b)x rEk`cbih6g¯È XWx w `cbF` # ¥gu # % B “# © ! ¥¨nh ## byE“¥ w 9¥ $%£'  ȱ° Xx 57¥ w ` $%wd!¨$ `c¥¨© $ `q¥¨§bdfg w `cbdb B‚h • ` we² 14pu‰Úc“’•x %§ 6 © # ¥Éup‚ ³ ˆ • ˆ Tž´ ȵ – T d T ƒ X  6 T $%£' T  … X „ 6 T $Œ%a' T  vËc| 57¥ ! © #%$¾# u`c¥¨© $ `‡CÚ§bdf !¨$ v¤!¨# bd $%# ³ ˆ • ˆ T ´ © $ `0u w © # §¥Ñ)CRQ w ` w xáYy§ ! b ! ¥ # ¥¨©b“£ ` w © # §¥ I`Õh !!0w §bxYauyx»§¥î`°‚ §FE §F¶ È X µ – d T r ³ ˆ • ˆ T ´ È T r X  6 T $%a' T  X „ 6 T $%a' T  vˤ¡| ¥ # ¥¨© B)E“bi`c¥¨©u ! b §h· ©s¥…Yybd¥É`c¥¨© r È Ä T x»§¥…©bx§ ! –‚ §VE G C)C † ˆƒf¥ˆWi I § $%£'  È Ypd T Ä T X  6 T $Œ%a' T  X „ 6 T $Œ%a' T  vËB'|  T9Y #%w ¥ $Œ%a'  ș° Xgyu©Š`¤uu†§ wx# B„` ! ©ebdfgÕh ! Yybd§YW`BEk`c© ! b0h !V$ Y­©§¥ # bd© ! $ B w rg`c¥E BVhy`c¥gu $ `~QE ! bd…¡…hy`c¥gu $ w `c¥É` $ ƒ£v†h # `BE“bi`cfgfgghiëEk` !¨w r¨¥|—t˜¥E§ 6 ub ! ¥¨ h BY­¥Éhy`c¥ w e¥ r i zqh $ `¤u w © # §¥ )C—Q w ` w x w v¤!¨# yu© w `cb` w © Bb # u© #%v¤! hyu # ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥Éu I`ˆhi !!0w §bdYWuy 57¥ # ¥¨© B)Eb`c¥© w ©©e B v¤! `c© # §¥g§¥g§ 6 © # ¥¨©‚ E V Ä c‚¸ ¸ ¸ ¸{¹»º‹¼ž½›¾ ¿ i ¹»º‹¼B½›¾ ¿ È – d T 6 Ä T Æ Y‚À‚Á©À uR ƒ 6 $Œ%a' £ Ñ … „ 6 $Œ%a' £ Ñ ÇvË3|
  10. 10. @Bà ƒ z ƒ z ƒ z ƒ T ƒ z ƒ T C C Ä f Ä i Q‡@ˆtk¡¤ '¨¼D # `BEbi`cf…fg‚hFQ¨t¥¨f `c¥…Y­§ ! b $ FYybd§ w yuu ! uCÅC † Ä f Ä i Šg‹‰Œ4Ž¡’‘jŽB”–”–‹“Œ‹h’¥‹”“a›”–Ž•›­‘“‹˜—‘B™‹“šj‹“›œ‹¥žŽ†záŽB”užž4‹“Œ’‹jš‰Œ4Ž¡’‘jŽB”–”–‹jš¥Œ’‹F’¥‹»“B›”–ŽB›‰— ¡¦‘hŸj‹W—‘“ ¡Ÿ“‹jšjª šj¦’š—«aÆq›q—‹“¦œ B|Wœ‹“›4‘Œ¤Ž•¦’œ‘“‹jšpŒŽ–’‘“Ž•”–”–‹jš£‹j›ÇzáŽB4š“Ž•›œ¡—ŽB‘jœ4‘pž‹¥’ž¦ ¥›sŒ¤¦’›ŽB¦œ‘j‹pµW¦ŽB‘ÉȔ¯¥ ¥¦D‹j› Ÿj‘“ ¡šjŽB›œ)ž‹jšW—¨’ ¡œ ¡›šR«e‹g‘j ¥›Œ¹¨ŽBŸ@¨¦’‘B™‹h‘j‹˜—‘B™‹jšj‹“›œ‹¥› ¥œ‘j‹t(’›’ ¡‘jŽB›Ÿ“‹‚Ê› ¥¦št›‹tšjŽB©¥ ¥›šy—ŽBšx—‘B™‹j©ƒ ¡‘ ž¤ŽB”g—ž4œ¦Œ‹hŒ‹gŸj‹U—‘j ¥Ÿj‹“šjšj¦’š—«yŠg¤‹“šjœ”— ¥¦‘jµW¦’ ¡B› ¡¦štž‹g‘j‹“”g—žŽh˟“ ¡›šƒ—ŽB‘g¦›‹hzR ¥›Ÿjœ ¡›°‹j”—‘jµW¦‹®« ˡljsïtðøtùH‘Bö¡òyðd÷ ø}Ì ùv÷ ý î°ôdò“ï ý ø ý óúüý ’)ðd÷H’V¢˜R ! ©¸`c¥© $ `ƒY­bx§yh !¨w © # §¥Hhi $ Yy©§¥Éu Yy ! © F©bx w ` $%wd!¨$ B I` $ `ˆY­b B wd# u # §¥ § !¨$¾! dx` ! ©`c¥¨© $ `ˆYybd§yh !¨w © # §¥PhiÎrÉ`¤hibd§¥Éu¢yu© w §fgY $%#%v¤! BdUSX wd# © # ¥¨©` ! C` # © v¤! $ `0Yybd§yh !w © # §¥PhÎrÉ`¤hbd§¥Éu7yu© ! ¥EYybd§ w yuu ! u h $ ` w r¨bd§f…§yhit“¥g`cf #¾v¤! v¤! `c¥¨© #%v¤! evpiFSXDr|Rt˜b–xkh­`c¥Éu w w `¤uyx $ w ` $%wd!¨$ yu©¢¥¨§¥É£ Yybd© ! b 6 `c© # C@USq%yu©gYy§ ! b v¤! § # x #%$ C` ! ©gbdfgY $ ` w b $ yud©bxfgyug¥¨§¥g£èY­bx© ! b 6 `c© # C†u Ya`cb hyuhCÔ§¥ w © # §¥ÉuÉf…Y # b #%v¤! yuyx±`cY­Yy $ ByuvC†` w © ! biuhuCÔ§bxfgyuy 57¥2bx)Ek`cbihy`c¥¨© $ `‡QE ! bds'x᧥ëu•%¦`cYyb w! § # © v¤! $ %§¥„Yy ! ©7h B w § ! Yyb $ ˆh # `BEbi`cfgf… hqQ¨t¥¨f `c¥…¥…©bd§ # uÉf…§b w y` !! ‚ÍC)C † ƒ z ƒ T ƒ T ƒ z x ƒ z ƒ T † Ä iF© ƒ T ƒ z † Ä fg  “%¦`cfgY $%# © ! h ƒ ƒ † Ä ¥%yu©¨Ya`¤u w ` $¾wx!$ ` 6¤$ x w `cbs $¾$ 7yu©¥¨§¥É£¦Yybd© ! b 6 `c© #} t7¥ $ ` bdfgY $ ` w ‚` $ §biugYW`cb $ `DCÔ§¥ w © # §¥—h)%§¥Éhinh ! f Byu§¥lΓÏsV ã ½ ‘}Ð c“x v¤!¨# yu© $ %¦`cfgY $%# © ! h hVY­bd§ 6 ` 6¤#%$%# © BPhC©bd§ ! b ! ¥¨VYW` # bx ƒ ƒ hy`c¥Éu $ Cf Byu§¥ Ä xd` w ã $ `˜CÔb` w © # §¥ h $ ` v¤! `c¥© # © B…h0fg§ ! fg¥¨© $ §¥E # © ! h # ¥g` $ …hiyu w §¥Éu© # © ! `c¥©¸uqh Ä `átk`c¥¨© ! ¥ v¤! `c¥¨© # © B—h…fg§ ! fg¥¨©©ebi`c¥Éu biu # ¥C Bb # ! bd ` ! C†` w © ! bgh% B w r $%$ ‘}Ð U ¥%¦` ! $ §¥E # © ! h # ¥É` $ yu©¢h B)Q¨¥ # YW`cb $ %¦` ! ÑhFYybd§YW`BEk`c© # §¥¤h ! f Byu§¥ Ä  ¢`q¥¨§bdf ` $%# u`c© # §¥ h $ %¦`cfgY $¾# © ! hÑh‚h # u©b #}6¤! © # §¥9ΓÏCyu©hQ ! BFYW`cb¡‚ Ñ z Ñ § ã ÎHχV ã ½ ‘}Ð c È SÏ Ž y v† ¤| § I! S¨Ï‚yu© $ ` w §¥gu©`c¥¨©qhqh Byu # ¥¨© B)Ebi`c© # §¥ $ Y­©§¥ #%v¤! qh ! f Byu§¥ Ä v”SÒ—Ó~$ ¤¡¤FG73hx S¨ÔÕÓ $ˤ$nG˜3…|—cp@§ ! b ‘}Ð † Ö x $ `DCÚ§bdfg‚h×ÎHÏeyu©¢hi§¥¨¥ BqYW`cbv‚ ÎHØRٓV ã c È s€ÚvÛ dÜ 4—Ý ΓχV ã ½ ‘}Ð c È Ž y S¨Ï 㠃 X „ ã …v† |
  11. 11. @‹Þ  “%¦`cfgY $%# © ! hi h—h # CRC ! u # §¥ w §bdbxyu†Yy§¥Éh­`c¥¨©î` ! h # `BE“bi`cfgfgßC)C † ƒ z ƒ z ƒ T ƒ T yu†© `cYyY­ $ Bßà}á°V ã ½ ç ½ ‘}Ð c{TSX©©E`cfgY $%# © ! h…Yy ! ©rF©bd w ` $%wd!¨$ B¥‰Ú3’’”xÁ© ` ! ©n` ! Yybdy£ f # b˜§bihbdFYy§ ! b ! ¥¨Fr B $%#%wd# © BF¥ !¨$%$ ‚h $ `YW` # bd v¤! `cby€T£Ú`c¥© #¾v¤! `cby€1‚ à ff È à ii È X µ d ¬ y r y YUd 㠃 X „ ãŅxç ƒ X „ çh… q ƒ5â z „ â T … Tžã X „ $Œ%a' T   à fhi È à iGf È X µ d ¬ y r y YUd 㠃 X „ ã … ç ƒ X „ ç … q ƒ5â z „ â T … T ƒ X „ ã … X „ $Œ%a' T   â z â T ã ç ƒ X „ ç …  㠃 X „ ã … ã T „lä T $Œ%a' T   ƒ â T zW„ â TT … ƒ 㠄 çR… Y  vË5| ` w ã ½ ä È ƒ X „ ãŅ ƒ X „ çR… ° ã“ç c Tyu # ¥Éh #%w yu  © „ uFb B)C Bbi`c¥¨© I` $ `Yy§ $ `cb # u`c© # §¥ hyuÎYyr¨§©§¥Éu # ¥ wd# hi¥¨©uyx â z © â Tnu§¥¨© $ yu w rÉ`cbyE“yuVhiyu v¤! `cby€Xuëv #%wd#¼$ yu w rg`cbƒEyu ` $ ¥¨©sæå¡«©£Ú£å¡|R Dn`c¥Éu w yu w §¥Éh # © # §¥guƒx $ % B $ Bfg¥¨©Šhif `c©b #¾w • h # ¥¨©W‰Ô3)’“‚ • È Ñ § ã § ç Î Ï V ã ½ ‘}Ð chàká°V ã ½ ç ½ ‘}Ð cæΓχV ç ½ ‘}Ð cvˤ'| t˜¥î§ 6 © # ¥¨©9` $ §biu ! ¥¨Vu w © # §¥ë)CRQ w ` w nYy§ ! bnh # CRC Bbd¥¨©yuƒ`cfgY $¾# © ! hyu # ¥ # © # ` $ yuy )0§ ! uŠ` $%$ §¥Éugbd©¥ # b v¤! `c©bdqY­bx§Y­§yu # © # §¥Éuhi§¥¨¥ ByuÉYW`cb9hyuÉ©r B§b #%wd# ¥Éuy  ¢`ÑY­bdf # Ibx2Yybd§Yy§yu # © # §¥žyu†© w $%$ ´CÔ§bdf !¨$ B„Ya`cbÍ®7bd§yh­u”€UtC©¼ TYW`BE¥‰ÔB'h’•x #%$ u EU`cbihi¥¨© ! ¥ #%v¤! fg¥¨© $ `CÔ§bdf…n`¤utf…Y­©§© #¾v¤! u‚ ÎHχV ã ½ ‘}Ð c È Ž y S¨Ï 㠃 X „ ã …v $|  ¢`nh !!# IfgqY­bd§Yy§yu # © # §¥gyu©Šh§¥¨¥ BqYW`cbƒSXr¨bd¥¨tk`B€T£èçr # ©¥ # ©u”€Utg‰Ú3’¥‚ ΓÏsV ã ½ ‘}Ð c È X Ž y SÏ 㠃 X „ ãŅ ƒ Y 㠄 X … T v |  Tyu0h !! hbd¥ # IbxyuÎu§¥¨©7Y­bd§Yy§yu ByuYa`cbn8 w r !¨$ b‰¦3)’•1 $ `gh B $ §Y­Y B $ `eCÔ§¥ w £ © # §¥Eh)%§¥ghˆh ! f Byu§¥Ñ¥ ! ¥Îu§fgf…Îhi¼Yy§ $ t¥F§fgˆhiÎG˜)E¥ 6 ` ! b Æté yÉê T… Ç ©a¥¨ EU`cbihi v¤! $ yuÉ©bd§ # uÉYybdf # bius©bdfgyu‚ Î~V ã ½ ‘}Ð c È Î“Ø¡Ù“V ã c X  y ƒ Y 㠄 X …të z V ‘}Ð c  y Y G XdVRY 㠄 XWc T „ X I ë TUV ‘}Ð c v ¤| 8 w r !¨$ bƒY­b B w §¥ # ueh‚Y­bd¥Éhbd ë z È bq© ë T È „ bRì‘XŠYy§ ! b $ yuY # §¥guƒxy© ë z È „ bRì˜Y˜© ë T È „ bRì YdYy§ ! b $ yuv€T`c§¥Éuy t˜¥ Yy ! © § # b v¤! Phy`c¥Éu w ©© CÔ§bxf !¨$ `c© # §¥vx $ ` CÚ§¥ w © # §¥ h)%§¥ghPhß®¢bd§yhyu”€Utk£  TYW`BEŠyu©Éh§¥¥ B˜YW`cb ë z È bX© ë T È b)x}© v¤! $ `­CÔ§¥ w © # §¥gh%§¥Éh9h9SXr¨bd¥¨tk`B€T£ ç¨r # ©¥ # ©¸u•€Átˆyu©ëhi§¥¨¥ B¤Ya`cb ë z È bC© ë T È T y d ¢`lQE ! bd 3 hi§¥¨¥¨ ! ¥¨ # ¥É£ ©bxY­b B©¸`c© # §¥eEb`cY­r #%v¤! 0hi $ `¹CÚ§¥ w © # §¥Ch%§¥Éh¢Yy§ ! b w yu v¤! `c©bd¢rt“Y­§©er Iyuyuy D‚`c¥Éu $ ` $%# f # ©e # u§©§Y #%v¤! svjd f È d i |—x $ `‡CÚ§¥ w © # §¥îh)%§¥ÉhiÎh ! Y # §¥ëhi§ # ©uF©bdÎut“f B©b #%v¤! x ©¢h§¥ w ë z È b)
  12. 12. @Bí 0 î 0.5 î 1 ï 1.5 2 2.5 0 î 0.1 î 0.2 î 0.3 î 0.4 î 0.5 î 0.6 î 0.7 î 0.8 î 0.9 î 1 ï x ð phi(x) B1=0 and B2=0 ñ B1=0 and B2=2/3 B1=0 and B2=-0.1 ñ B1=-0.2 and B2=-0.2 ñ Q‡jˆtk¡¤‡3t ¢`nh # u©b ##6¤! © # §¥9Î~V ã c Šg‹jœœ‹³’’¦‘j‹‘“‹˜—‘B™‹“šj‹“›œ‹‰µU¦Ž•œ‘“‹Œ{z€zU™‹“‘j‹j›’œ‹“št¨ò“á— ¡œ¨£¢‹“šj‹“šx— ¡¦’‘ž4ŽózR ¥›Ÿjœ ¡›–Œ¤ ¥›Œ‹Œ’¤¦›‡”»™‹“šj ¡›“ô©¥ ¥4‘ ™‹jµU¦Ž•œ ¡›Í¡5£©¤¦¨§ õá«òŽp—‘j‹“”–”¢‹“‘j‹föø÷Çùûúh‹jœ†öxüùûúv‹jš“œ¥ž¤¨ò“@— ¥œ¨p¢‹jš“‹µW¦h”»¢‹j›‹~¢ŽsžŽsš“‹jŸjœ ¡›u‹”z³hŸjŽBŸj‹ Œ‹„ýh‘j ¡Œ’š›Èp“aªþ‹ —Ž¡’‹®«tŽ…Œ‹j¦x§B•¢‹j”–‹Wö‡÷“ùÿú‹“œTöxü—ù ü  ‹“šjœgž¤¨ò“@— ¥œ¨£¢‹jš“‹qŒ‹¡Šg¨‹j‘“›ò“BŽ£ÈWª¢¡¨4œ›œš›Èp“ƒ« ‹jšqŒ’‹j¦y§DŒ‹“‘j›•¢‹“‘j‹jšp‘j‹ —‘a™‹jš“‹j›œ‹“›œž4¤¨ò“á— ¡œ¨£¢‹jšj‹£Œ¤¦’›¤£¦¥¨§©¥¨§s‹jœ‰Œ¤¦›£¥§ !¥¨§Dœ‹jž“µW¦’‹¨ž4‹qŒp™‹ ³h›’4œ q‹j‘“¨ŽB‘jŒ—xŸj¨¦ž‹j‘‘«  T w ` $¾wx!$ h $ `ˆu† w © # §¥g)CRQ w ` w qY­bxfg©¢h%§ 6 ©¥ # b ‰è3a’•‚ §VE—G C)C † Ä f Ä i I § $%£'  È$# d T Ä 7 6 ¸ ¸ ¸ Ä T% χV Ä T c ¸ ¸ ¸ T S ' X ƒ X „ 6 T $Œ%a' T  … T „ – ( ƒ X „ 6 T $%a' T  …¦) V 6 $%a'  c „ # # X ) V 6 $Œ%a'  c T10 v† ¡| ` w 6 T È X „  32 3 3 © ) h B)Q¨¥ #Áw §fgfg¹‚ ) V ê c È54 z Ñ § ã 4 z Ñ § ç76 V ã ½ ç c98A@ A¨B A @ z i A¨B 8A@DC B C¨@ z i C B 4 z Ñ § ã 4 z Ñ § ç 8A@ A¨B A @ z i A¨B 8A@DC B C¨@ z i C B v† '| § I! 6 V ã ½ ç c È ã ã V@X „ ã c  ç V@X „ ç c ã T „ûä T ê T ã È VjX „ ã c¥VjX „ ç c  ã“ç ä È VjX „ ã c¥VjX „ ç c „ ã“ç v† 3|  ¢`˜QE ! bd¤gbdYyb Byu¥©e $ `—h BYy¥ghy`c¥ w C¥ ê Ȫ6 $%a'  Y­§ ! b $ yu v¤! `c©bdVr¨tk£ Yy§©r Iyu†yuƒ
  13. 13. @¨E 0 î 0.2 î 0.4 î 0.6 î 0.8 î 1 1.2 1.4 0 î 0.1 î 0.2 î 0.3 î 0.4 î 0.5 î 0.6 î 0.7 î 0.8 î 0.9 î z F g(z) B1=0 and B2=0 ñ B1=0 and B2=2/3 ñ B1=0 and B2=-0.1 ñ B1=-0.2 and B2=-0.2 ñ Q‡@ˆtk¤¤‰« ¢`CÚ§¥ w © # §¥E‚v”™B| x¦‘Ÿ“‹jœœ‹‚³’¦‘j‹4¯G ¥›—‹“¦œ’©ƒ ¡‘gž4Ž‡zR ¡›’Ÿjœ4 ¥›¨8ô¢Gmõy— ¥¦‘gž‹jšgµW¦ŽBœ‘j‹g¨ò“@— ¥œ¨£¢‹jš“‹jš‰šj¦‘gžŽøz® ¡›Ÿ“œ ¡›uŒ¤ ¡›Œ‹ Œ¦–”»™‹jš“ ¡›«xŠg ¥”u”–‹g ¥›‡›‹•—‹j¦œ”—ŽBšgŸjŽBž4Ÿ“¦ž‹j‘gžŽøzR ¥›Ÿjœ ¡›h8ôHGmõ‰ŽB›ŽBž“BœµW¦‹“”u‹“›œ ¯PI”‹ž¤ŽBŸjŽBžŸj¦ž•™‹j‹x—Ž•‘ Œ‹jšt›œ–™‹ ’‘“Ž•ž‹jšh›¦”»™‹“‘jµW¦‹jšR« SX v¤! $ %§¥‘`cYyYy $¾$ $ `îu w © # §¥P)C—Q w ` w —h ®7bd§yhyu”€Utk£è sYW`BECyu© ! ¥¨ biu # §¥ u # fgY $¾# Q B‚h $ % B v¤! `c© # §¥˜v ¡|‚ §VE—G CÅC † Ä f Ä i I § $%a'  È5# d T Ä 7 ¸ ¸ Ä T % ÏsV Ä T c ¸ ¸ T ƒ X „ 6 T $%a' T  … Tv | t˜¥ÕYy ! © § # b v¤! $ Šb`cY­Yy§bd©¥©ebd $ `Fu w © # §¥Õ)CRQ w ` w 9hi7Y­bx§yh !¨w © # §¥Ch $ Yy©§¥Éu © $ `nu w © # §¥…)C—Q w ` w ‚h ®7bd§yhyu”€Utk£è sYW`BE„h§¥¨¥¨u‚ 7RQ G Q©Q 4 ÏTSaÏVU I 7 ¹»º‹¼ž½ ¾ 7RQ G Q©Q 4 ¦ S ¦ U I 7 ¹»º‹¼ž½ ¾ È – ¸ ¸ % ÏsV Ä T c ¸ ¸ T X „ 6  $%£'   v | 57¥ # ¥¨© B)Eb`c¥© $ % B v¤! `c© # §¥ v† |Rxc§¥g§ 6 © # ¥¨©‚ E V Ä c ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸¹ »º‹¼ž½ ¾ ¿ i ¹»º‹¼ž½ ¾ ¿ È # d T ¸ ¸ Ä T % ϖV Ä T c ¸ ¸ T Ä 7 6 ƒ X „ 6 T $%a' T  Ñ … 6 $%£' £ Ñ  À‚ÁpÀ u¡Â 6 $%a' ‚ Ñ „ 6 T $%£' T £ Ñ À‚ÁpÀ u¡Â 6 $%£' £ Ñ v 5| t˜¥ u”%¦`cYyb w! § # © v¤! $ yu¼©bdfgyu ¸ ¸ Ä T % ÏsV Ä T c ¸ ¸ T u§¥¨©¼bd)Ebd§ ! Y ByuyWSX wd# yu©ÎhqF! ` ! C` # © v¤! % ÏsV Ä T c I` ! ¥qh BY­¥Éhy`c¥ w ˜¥ Ä i T Yy§ ! b¨E“bi`c¥Éh Ä  D Iyu $ §biu ¸ ¸ Ä T % χV Ä T c ¸ ¸ T h§ # ©s©e¥ghbd bu ! ¥¨ w §¥gu©`c¥¨©dÃSq%yu†©T¥„)CRCÚ© w v¤! $ %§¥…§ 6 ub ¥…bx)Ek`cbihy`c¥¨© $ ` QE ! bd§5UD‚`c¥Éu w yuq ! Y Bb # ¥ w yuƒxk§¥ w § $%$¾# u # §¥¨¥—hiyu B $ w ©ebd§¥Éu‚` w hiyuqYybd§y£ ©§¥Éu‚»„¥0 † „ u di ¢` `cb # ` 6¤$ ˆ¥¨©bi`c¥¨©É¥ ! h­`c¥Éu $ uC†` w © ! bÎh…CÔ§bxfgƒyu©¼h§¥ w Á T ©X¥§¥2Ya`¤u Ä T BH ` # u w wx# ¥¨ w rÉ`c¥E“Fb # ¥2© $ DC†` w © ! bFhDCÔ§bdfgˆh ! Y # §¥—h§ # ©
  14. 14. @¡w 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 W 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 W (GeV) σ(γγ→f+ f- )(nb) X γγ Y → e + e - γγ Y → µ ` + µ ` - γγ Y → π a + π - γγ Y → K + K - γγ Y → p p _ Q‡@ˆtk¡¤ ˆ8± w © # §¥Éus)C—Q w ` w yuhFYybd§yh !¨w © # §¥—hi $ Yy©§¥ÉuÉ©¢hFf Byu§¥Éu x¦‘Ÿj‹£’‘“Ž®—¨µW¦‹h ¥›¡—‹j¦œ©¥ ¥4‘žŽuŒp™‹˜—‹j›Œ’Ž•›Ÿ“‹¨‹j›Õy Œ’‹jššj‹“Ÿjœ4 ¥›š¡‹”z³hŸjŽBŸj‹“šhŒ‹“š¡ž‹˜—œ ¡›š¡‹jœŒ‹jš ”»™‹jš“ ¡›šR«VÆq›  B|Ušj‹j‘“©¥‹hµW¦‹¨ž‹¨‘jŽá—B— ¥‘jœ¥›’ ¡”“|W‘j‹hŒ‹¨ž‹˜—œ ¥›šqšj¦’‘¨› ¡”“|W‘“‹¨Œ‹¨”»™‹“šj ¥›šŽ•¦y’”–‹“›œ‹qŽ•©ƒ‹jŸ y»« F©bd $ FflFf…Yy§ ! b¢¥¨§©bxq ! Y Bb # ¥ w d57¥ h B)Q¨¥ # © ## x»§¥…§ 6 ub v¤! –‚ s€ÚvÛ 3 3cb Ñ % ÏsV Ä T c È bRì –ed „¨f T Ä Tv† '| Dn`c¥gu $ %¦`cY­Yybd§ !# f `c© # §¥ hië8 w r !¨$ b–x $ ´C†` w © ! b2h´CÚ§bdfg„Y­ ! ©ëF©bx w ` $¾wx!$ B2¥ Yybd¥É`c¥©‚ Ä T% Ï S V Ä T c È # d ¬ S TÏ ƒ X „ ë z  ë T … T  – y ë z ƒ X  ë T … v† ¡$| 'hgsñö ý ÷H’ƒòƒð÷ iôÿ ¡ô îhï‰ðøtùH‘Bö¡òyðd÷Iø}Ì ùv÷ ý î°ôdòjï ý 020)¢˜DFyuˆYyb Byh #¾w © # §¥gueCÚ§¥Éh­`¤£ fg¥¨©` $ yuŠh $ `¥iFSXD Y­b B § # ¥©sYy§ ! b $ %¦`cfgY $¾# © ! h×àká ‰¦3a’•‰Ú3)’”‚ àká–V Ä c † X Ä … i v† ¡¤| ` w º $ —¥¨§f 6 bxPh w §¥Éu© # © ! `c¥©¸uÕY­bd¥É`c¥¨©ÕYW`cbd© I` $ %# ¥¨©bi` w © # §¥¡Xp§ ! b $ w `¤u C)C † 020“xc¥¨§ ! u` §¥Éu I`sC†` # bd I`«ÕYyr¨§©§¥Éus©¢ v¤! `cby€Tuyx±h§¥ w ‚ • CÅC † 020 † X Ä  S ƒ $%a' ‚ …v† ¡c| ` w S ƒ $Œ%a'  … $ `ˆh BYy¥Éh­`c¥ w n`c¥E !¨$ ` # bx„h ! Yybd§ w yuu ! uy Dn`c¥gu $ ! bF`cbd© #%wx$ ¥‰Ú'’”x $ ` w § $%$ ` 6 §b`c© # §¥¤ST T5utPf…yu ! bd°‚ §VETp C)C † 020 § $%£'  È Xaì X¢S)Xxbrq ues d „¨f z T Ä z T Å X „ – ¤ T t Ä Tv† ¡¤¡|
  15. 15. @¡ 0 î 0.1 î 0.2 î 0.3 î 0.4 î 0.5 î 0.6 î 0.7 î 0.8 î 0.9 î 1 0 î 1 ï 2 u 3 v 4 w 5 x 6 y 7 € 8  9 ‚ 10 ï Q2 Q2*F_pi CJ. Bebek et al. data CEA data Earlier Cornell data ƒ Later Cornell data Q‡jˆtk¡¤l5t‡Hîyu ! bd‚h ! C†` w © ! b9hCÚ§bdfgnh ! Y # §¥g¥˜CÚ§¥ w © # §¥—h Á T Šg ¡”–”–‹„…h†ˆ‡ ü‰ Žw¦›‹pŒ£™‹ —‹“›ŒŽB›Ÿj‹v‹j›’‘”“¨‡ ü ¯V‡ ü „¦…•†–‡ üP‰ Œ‹j©ƒ‘jŽBœT—‹jœ‘“‹p4›Œp™‹˜—‹j›Œ’Ž•›œtŒ‹¤‡ ü «ÅÆq›  B|Wš“‹j‘“©¥‹p‹“›r‹”zvz®‹“œ£µW¦’¤R¢Ž–’‘“Ž•›Œ˜‡ ü ¯V‡ ü „…h†ˆ‡ ü‰ œ‹“›Œr©ƒ‹j‘@š­¦’›‹­Ÿj ¥›šjœŽB›œ‹®«a‹jš­ŽB¦œ‹j¦’‘@š­Œ¦rŒ‹“‘j›‹j‘ — ¥4›’œ£‹“šjœ4”–‹“›œµW¦‹¹ž¤ ¥›r›‹¹Œ’ ¡œa—Ž•šó“eŸ“‘j ¡‘j‹®«e™¹ ¡›Ÿ­‹“› z᎕šjŽB›œpŽ‚|Wš“œ‘jŽBŸjœ4 ¥›1Œ¦»Œ‹“‘j›‹j‘h— ¡›œ ¯ ‡ ü „¦…•†–‡ üP‰ šj‹“”“|Wž4‹œ‹j›’Œ‘j‹q©ƒ‹j‘@šedU«Dfq‹g)«ih–ž“‹jš“œh”— ¥‘jœŽ•›’œ“Œ‹q› ¥œ‹“‘µW¦¤Ÿjj‡ ü ùly ü «lkh›u‹»z€zá‹jœ ¯hžŽ › ¡œŽBœ4 ¥›pŒ£™‹˜—‹j›’ŒpŒ‹hž¤‹#§á—u™‹j‘“4‹“›Ÿj‹4¯•‹“œ)4Ÿ“a› ¡¦šhŽ•©ƒ ¡›’š¥Œ‹“šh‹#§á—u™‹j‘“4‹“›Ÿj‹“šŒ‹hŒ’þzvz®¦’šj ¡›šnmo—–pmRqlr•«PsrŽB4š ž4‹hz᎕Ÿ“œ‹j¦‘tŒ‹Rz® ¡‘j”–‹tŒ¦g— ¡›uŒ ¥4œt—‹jœ‘j‹tž‹g”u—‹j”–‹y— ¡¦’‘‰›’ ¡œ‘j‹t‹ §@—°™‹j‘j‹j›’Ÿj‹®« ~ˆv‚ 43xwÀüý ’)ðd÷–ô÷“‘ ý ’V¢7 Tyuˆu w © # §¥Éu)CRQ w ` w yuÎh„Yybd§yh !¨w © # §¥ h $ Y­©e§¥gu©0hÑf By£ u§¥Éudh B w b # ©yuWYyb B w Byhfgfg¥¨©Éu†§¥¨©ÉhyuWY­bd§ w yu“u ! u w §¥¨© # ¥ ! uyd T ! bŠu w © # §¥‚)CRQ w ` w `cb # î` w Ä © $Œ%a'  x­f—` # uÎh´C` w! §¥ w §¥© # ¥ ! Ñ©¼r¨§fg§)E I¥¨@1 $ `cbdb #} v¤! $ utku© If… w §f…Y­§yu Bˆhiyu¢hi !! Yyr§©e§¥guX¥¨©bd¥2b Byu†§¥É`c¥ w n` w7! ¥«YW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ v¤!¨# ` $ yudflFfgyuT¥¨§f 6 bdyu v¤! `c¥¨© #%v¤! yud© I`qY­ ! Yyb Iyu $ `FflFfgqf `¤uuyST9Yybd§ w yuu ! u yu©¢`cY­Yy $ B9b Byu§¥É`c¥ w F© w §bdbxyu†Yy§¥Éh I` ! ¥¨qYW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ × ÔÕƒÕ ÒRÒ Õ B57©`c¥¨© ! ¥ w ` $%wd!¨$Év¤! `c¥¨© #%v¤! x $ w ` $¾wx!$ hi $ `Cu w © # §¥ )CRQ w ` w ‚yu†© ! ¥¨1CÚ§¥ w © # §¥ h $ `2¥¨§bdfg w `cbdb B—hi $ `ëu†§f…fgîhyuFYybd§ w yuu ! uY­§yuu ##6¤$ yuƒvt˜b $ yuFb Byu§¥É`c¥ w yu `cf I¥¨¥¨© ! ¥¨q¥§ ! $¾$ 9Yy§yuu #}6¤#%$%# © B2h­`c¥Éu $ w ` $%wd!¨$ h $ `nu w © # §¥V)CRQ w ` w d­SX§fgfg ¥¨§ ! uFYa`cb $ §¥ÉuÑh)%! ¥ Yybd§ w yuu ! u v¤! `c¥¨© #%v¤! x w ©© w §¥¨©b ##6¤! © # §¥ w b B ! ¥¨ # ¥©ebyC By£ bd¥ w v¤!¨# Y­ ! ©–F©bd w §¥Éu©b !¨w © ## 9§ ! hyu©b !¨w © ## d  “% B© ! hghyu b Byu§¥g`c¥ w yu˜yu© $ 2u !¨$ fg§t“¥ h)% B© ! h # b w yu7YW`cbd© #%wd!¨$ yuy5¢¥e)CRCÚ©Wx $%$ yu7§¥¨© ! ¥ë©f…Yauhi # Ω $%$ fg¥¨© Y­© # ©Wx v¤! % $%$ yu9u…h Byu # ¥¨© I)Ebd¥¨© v¤! `¤u # f…¥© # ¥Éu©`c¥¨©`c¥ Bfg¥¨©Wá)0§ ! uÉ¥¨qYy§ ! §¥Éuh§¥ w YW`¤u $ yu B© ! h # bqh # bd w ©fg¥¨©W ® # ¥ v¤! w 2h # Y $ F§fg0¥¨…u§ # ©dYW`¤u w §¥Éu` w b B I` $ % B© ! hi2hƒb Byu§¥g`c¥ w yuƒx $ ! b¼Yyb By£ u¥ w vÔ§ ! ` 6 u¥ w ¥|ahy`c¥Éu $ 2uY­ w ©ebdƒ¥Cf `¤uu†0yu© ! ¥¨9Yybd ! 2hi $ %)CRQ w ` wx# © BwvÚ§ ! h $ %# ¥¨)CRQ w ` wd# © B¥|@hi $ %# h¥¨© # Q w `c© # §¥v
  16. 16. @áÏ 1 km L PE ALEPH L3 DELPHI OPAL y SPS z PS France Suisse {|~}€•V‚„ƒ€…‡†tˆŠ‰”‹7Œr‰”ˆŠ1Ž1‹’‘T“” ‘Œ–•—1˜™‰”ˆŠ1Ž’—1šœ›j˜eŒr˜i—ežŸ‹jŽj—¡ €¢—£•”1Ž7ŒrŽ¤˜™—9¥£¥§¦ ¨ª©Ae—¡«¬Œ •l•”—®­°¯±—1‰ª1—–•”²AˆŠŽ´³¶µ ·¹¸ © —£•”‰e1ŽjŽ ¢—1—º²»Œr u¼½ ½t¾¿ ÀÁ ¥t¥–¦ ¨ÃÂÅÄÇÆÉÈ ·$ÊÌËnÍͤÎRÏ ³‡Ð ¸ÒÑ Ó€ÔÕÖÔ ×ÙØ ­ Ô¯ ˀÚÜÛÇÚ Î Æ ÔTÝ ­ Ô¯ Ñ Ô ÐÞ­ Ô¯ Ë Ô ÚÜÛÇÚ ßà …–árâ¤ã Œä—1˜ ˀÚÜÛÇÚ€å Œ å Œr iæ—1‹j ‰”1‰lŒ å —ç1— å Œ‡  ¢—£•1Ž7ŒrŽj˜i—‡—1‰ ËnÍÍå Œ å Œr iæ—1‹j u²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ— åŠå —®—1Žèe—1‹jé ²£ê¤1‰P1ŽV•™… ”¤1‹j 91ë ‰”—1ŽjˆŠ  å ŒÞ•”—1˜i‰PˆÙ1Žì—1šœ›j˜eŒr˜i—íiî€ílïɦ íiîAí!ïA¨ª©ð1Žì‹¤‰Pˆ å ˆ•”— å žc¢—1ñ ‹7Œr‰”ˆŠ1Ž ßà …–ò ãc… “óŽôæV¢—1Žª¢—1 eŒ å ©T˜™1«’«’—õ1Žô‹j‰”ˆ å ˆ•—ö‹¤Žj—÷¢—1䀌 å ‹VŒr‰PˆÙ1ŽøŽj‹j«ù¢—1 iˆŠñ ‹j—úe— å Œöšœ1Žj˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž$e— å ‹j«’ˆŠŽ¤£•”ˆŠ‰¦¢—£© å Œ±•”—1˜i‰PˆÙ1Ž˜—1šÇ›j˜eŒr˜i—º—£•‰Ã11Ž¤Ž¢—1—û²üŒr  å —£•7ýõ1Žj‰”—£þœÿŒr  å  … ”¤1‹j ºñ ‹j— å —’• ¡ •”‰£¢—1«˜—‡ n¢—£•”1ŽjŽj—Œä¦—1˜ª‹jŽj—‡²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — ©¦ˆ å š”Œr‹¤‰xñ ‹j— ˜i—1‰”‰”—¡²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — •lŒr‰”ˆ•”šŒ •l•”—¤¢Œû˜™—1 i‰lŒrˆŠŽj—£•7˜i1Ž7eˆŠ‰”ˆŠ1Ž7•i…¦¥9ŒrŽV• å —£•Ì²£ i1˜i—£•l•”‹V•¨§uÿ©¥¡© å —£•7Žj1«’ë  i—£•Tñ ‹VŒrŽ7þ ‰”ˆŠñ ‹j—£• ³§•”1Ž¤‰V˜i1Ž7•—1 ™äV¢—£•i…¡Ž’²Aêj1‰”1Ž Œ˜³ ·5¸ ï ¥u1Žj˜ å —’• ¡ •‰£¢—1«’—®¥£¥ ²A—1‹j‰ Œä1ˆÙ ‹jŽ„³¡ñ ‹jˆ€äðŒr‹j‰Ö¿eïîð© Ï î îð… ‘T1 e•”ñ ‹j— å žŸ1Ž˜i1Ž7•”‹ å ‰”— å —9” ¥!¤© 1Žõ˜i1Ž7•”‰lŒr‰”—‡ñ ‹j— å —9Žj1Žj—1‰ Ï î î —£•”‰šœ1 i« ¢—‡²üŒr 7¿ # Ô Ä ¸%$ Ï 1Ȑ©')( Ô Ä ¸ Ê $ 1ÈP©1032 Ô Ä ¸54 Ï 4 Ȑ©'0 Ô Ä ¸ Ï76 1Ȑ… ½¤…Ñ𞠂98A@ ¢‚ h|R‚3BDCւ§‘ûá ‘T—‘T“”$—£•”‰±‹jŽÉ˜i åŠå ˆP•”ˆŠ1Žj—1‹j Þežc¢— å —1˜i‰” ™1ŽV•9—1‰§1—õ²££•”ˆÙ‰P i1Ž7•i…Æt‹¤ ‹jŽø˜™—1 i˜ å —´e— ½FEG€« e—–˜iˆŠ i˜i1Žjš¢—1 ™—1Ž¤˜™— ©Te—£•ª²üŒrñ ‹j—1‰l•‡ežc¢— å —1˜i‰P i1Ž7•º i—1Žj˜i1Žj‰” i—1Žj‰ 1—£•û²»Œrñ ‹¤—1‰Ò•9e— ²££•ˆŠ‰” ™1ŽV•Œr‹j釗1«’² å Œr˜i—1«˜—1Ž¤‰Ò•¤e—£•Vñ ‹7Œr‰” ™— —1馲ó¢—1 iˆŠ—1Ž¤˜™—£•û1‹ç‘T“”’¿IH‘T“ó”AP’©¥º“‘þ ” P)Q ©Rx”FHó‘ —1‰x‘á …¦‘tžŸ‹jŽ¤ˆŠä—1 e•”ˆÙ‰¦¢—§e—S!ó—1ŽT¢—1ä— ‰P eŒäðŒrˆ åŠå —§Œr˜i‰”ˆŠä—1«’—1Žj‰¢Œ å žŸ—1馲ó¢—1 iˆŠ—1Žj˜i— ‘á …tÿT—±eˆŠ² åVU 1«’—®•”—u뤌 •”—º‹¤ŽjˆŠñ ‹j—1«’—1Žj‰•‹j  å —£•¤e1ŽjŽ ¢—1—£•Ã1—u‘á … ½¤… à …XWIY3`badcYfe¦Yhg¦e¦YpiTq`pr¤‘£žŸ—1é²ó¢—1 ™ˆÙ—1Žj˜i—°‘á®—£•‰Ã˜i1«’²££• ¢—1—çe—°² å ‹7•”ˆŠ—1‹j e•‡e¢—1‰”—1˜i‰P—1‹¤ 1• —1«’ë  Us ‰¦¢—£• å —£•¤‹jŽ7•7Œr‹j‰”1‹j e—£•7Œr‹j‰” i—£•i…‘tžŸ—1Ž7•”—1«’ë å —šœ1 i«’—x‹jŽ‡˜ ¡ å ˆŠŽV1 i—¤˜™1‹¤˜êª¢—u1— à â
  17. 17. t¦u HB R4 HB v R0 HB R4 HB R3 HB w R2 HB R1 HB v R3 HB R2 HB R1 HC 1 HC 2 HC3 HC 1 HC 2HC3 x Muon Filter BGO TEC y Beam PipeCollision Point € Support Tube  x HCAL barrel HCAL End Cap ‚ Scin. Counters ƒ {|~}€•V‚ à„ …±†t˜™êª¢—1«¬Œ‡ežŸ‹jŽj—º²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ—°1— å žŸ—1é²ó¢—1 iˆŠ—1Žj˜i—‘á …‡†‡ˆ‰’‘”“†•—–™˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†kl†gˆ‡mn“†ij†g‰ij†j¦f˜ˆm†‡klo † §pd¨“†g˜qr†hf‰g†7sFtXˆ†gkluvhu¦h‡dFkr–wh¨˜yx{zF|}…‡†kr–Xˆq{~hfq{h†€W¦f†‡kro uh df†“¦fi'u‚}ij†ghfql˜”kro †hˆ†•—‚}kr†fmf†3sFtƒ†ghX„p–wqrˆ–¦hfi…dFql†‡uij†˜n‰†”ˆ‰’‘”“†•—–ˆˆg†kruhDkro –¡§¦†nm¦ƒ‰Šv‹}ŒŽwwŠ‘|w’©h“df†“¦fi †vuvql˜ƒˆj¦f˜ˆ‰g†ˆˆ‰‘n“†•—–”kr–•f–A…7—”kr†“˜A™©’'—“kl†gˆˆ•—um¦kl†gˆ”š›…1œs†gi”kr†ˆƒˆ‰qrhfijqrklkr–wij†“¦f˜’ˆž|¦œp¦fiju¡¦˜ˆmf†ƒ‰g†ˆ mn“†gir†g‰ij†j¦˜’ˆhˆg†‡ij˜u¡¦†v†ghfif†h‰u˜g†kl†gˆ‰‘f–w•—‚}˜g†ˆDŸ–ˆ•–¦fuvhfˆh†gikro –¦ql•—–¦hfij| « ¢—1‰P i—£•¤1— å 1Ž¤æ‡—1‰¤1— à òu« ¢—1‰P i—£•e—uêVŒr‹j‰l…Å”¤1‹j ¤˜i1«’²£ i—1Ž7e ™— å —£•eˆŠšÇš ¢—1 i—1Žj‰”—£••²üŒr !þ ‰”ˆŠ—£•e— å žŸ—1é²ó¢—1 ™ˆÙ—1Žj˜i— ©%  —uäðŒrˆ•e¢—1˜i iˆŠ i— å —£•Ãe¢—1‰”—1˜™‰”—1‹j e•¤1—1²A‹jˆ• å —º²£1ˆŠŽj‰¤1žŸˆŠŽ¤‰P—1 eŒr˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž 1—£• e—1‹j靚Œrˆ•”˜i—£Œr‹jéð©Añ ‹jˆ•”—9‰” i1‹j䦗çŒr‹Þ˜™—1Ž¤‰P i—§1‹¶e¢—1‰”—1˜™‰”—1‹j u‘á ©»Œr‹j防»Œr i‰”ˆŠ—£• å —£• ² å ‹V•ó—1馉”—1 iŽj—£•i…‡Q å —£•”‰óˆŠ«’²A1 ™‰lŒrŽj‰1—‡Žj1‰”—1 ûñ ‹j—±‰”1‹7• å —£•ue¢—1‰”—1˜™‰”—1‹j e••”1Žj‰ó² å 1ŽjæV¢—£• £ŒrŽ7•˜‹¤Ž÷˜™ê7Œr«’²É«¬Œr榎¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹j—è²£ i£1‹¤ˆŠ‰²üŒr õ‹jŽ ¢ “ƒ¡¢Rƒ£óýõ“ ŒrˆŠ«¬ŒrŽj‰l…h‘Ì— ˜™ê7Œr«’² «¬ŒræŽ ¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹¤— ©Ì²»Œr eŒ åŠå ¢— å —´Œr‹ÉšŒrˆ•”˜i—£Œr‹7©7š”ŒrˆÙ‰®‰P1‹¤ ™Ž¤—1  å —£•®²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•’AŒrŽ7• å —² å ŒrŽ ‰” 1ŒrŽV•”ä—1 e•”—u—1‰Ì˜i— å ŒûŽj1‹7•7²A—1 ™«’—1‰e—û˜i1ŽjŽ7Œ Us ‰P i— å —1‹j ñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢—9e—º«’1‹j䦗1«’—1Žj‰l… ‘T—£•§¢— å —1˜i‰” i1Ž7•˜iˆŠ i˜i‹ å —1Ž¤‰ £ŒrŽ7•û‹jŽ¬‰”‹jë —¢Œ9䦈e—ö1—¥¤9˜i« e— å Œr i榗 ©A«¬Œrˆ• å —£• 1ˆPþ «’—1Ž7•”ˆŠ1Ž7•º1‹öš”ŒrˆP•”˜i—£Œr‹öŽ¤—•”1Žj‰xñ ‹¤— à9„9„b¦§ —1Ž©¨¶—1‰ à9„ª¦§ —1Ž©«Ì…¦‘T—£•°¢— å —1˜™‰” i1Ž7• ä ¡ Œr榗1Žj‰•²»Œr ²»Œrñ ‹¤—1‰Ò…f¬‹V•”‰”—®ŒäðŒrŽj‰ª1žŸ—1Žj‰” i—1 ¡£ŒrŽ7• å —–e¢—1‰”—1˜i‰”—1‹j ó‘á © å —£•9¢— å —1˜™‰” i1Ž7• •”1Žj‰j˜i1Žj˜i—1Žj‰” €¢—£•¤æ  U Œr˜i—¢Œh‹jŽ®­%¯f°p±p¯f¯f±p²ž³ ¢— å —1˜i‰” i1«¬Œr措¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹¤— …fR󎘌r i iˆŠä¦—¡Œ å 1 e•—¢Œx‹jŽ¤— ˜i1Žj˜i—1Žj‰” 1Œr‰”ˆŠ1Ž¬e— å žŸ1 e1 i—°1— ¸ ¦´¶µÃ¢— å —1˜i‰” i1Ž7•T²üŒr ˜i« Ô ²üŒr u•”—1˜i1Ž7e—¨· ‘T—°²£ i—1«’ˆŠ—1 –e¢—1‰P—1˜i‰”—1‹j Žj—°²A—1‹j‰¡•”—®‰” i1‹jä—1  ñ ‹¤žy¢Œ¸¤9˜i« 1‹„²£1ˆŠŽj‰¡ežŸˆŠŽj‰”—1 eŒr˜™‰”ˆŠ1ŽV… Q å •žŒr戊‰ö1‹5e¢—1‰”—1˜™‰”—1‹j Þe—¬«’ˆŠ˜i i1ä—1 i‰”—1éì—1Ž5•”ˆ å ˆŠ˜iˆŠ‹j« ß †£ý¥¥®ãDž¨Q å —£•”‰®˜eŒr²»Œrë å —ô1— «’—£•”‹j i—1  å —®²»Œ •l•lŒr榗 ežŸ‹jŽj—®²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — ¢Œ)¤ ¦§ ²£  ¢—£•¡AŒrŽ7• å —®² å ŒrŽ¬‰” eŒrŽ7•”䦗1 e•”— …A‘T— 1ˆ•‰ÒŒrŽ¤˜™—úežŒr²£²£ i1˜™êj—«’ˆŠŽjˆŠ«’‹j« ß ¥®ÿ”Huãû1žŸ‹jŽj—ö‰” eŒr˜™—õ—£•”‰ å Œì1ˆP•”‰lŒrŽj˜i—ö«’ˆŠŽ¤ˆŠ«’‹j« ñ ‹jˆÃ ™— å ˆŠ—’˜i—1‰”‰”—§‰” 1Œr˜i—ìŒr‹¶²A1ˆŠŽj‰¡˜i—1Žj‰” eŒ å e‹ e¢—1‰”—1˜™‰”—1‹j  ß ä¦1ˆŠ –›j榋j i— à à ãDž»‘Œ’˜i1Ž7þ Ž7Œrˆ•l•!ŒrŽj˜i—èe‹¹¥®ÿ”H Žj1‹V• ²£—1 i«’—1‰–1—  i—‡  —1‰”—1  e—£•¬¢—1ä7¢—1Žj—1«’—1Žj‰l• ñ ‹jˆÃŽj—§²A i1䈊—1ŽVþ Žj—1Žj‰7²»Œ •1‹ç²A1ˆŠŽj‰1žŸˆŠŽ¤‰P—1 eŒr˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7…e”VŒr ¤—1é—1«’² å —ñ ‹7ŒrŽ7 ‹¤Žj—º²üŒr i‰PˆÙ˜™‹ å —–Œº‰P1‹¤˜êª¢— å Œ ²»Œr i1ˆÌ1‹˜‰”‹jë — ©Åñ ‹jˆT•”—u‰P i1‹j䦗 ¢Œ¤û˜i«©r—1‰¤Œ‡e1ŽjŽ ¢— å ˆŠ—1‹ ¢Œ‡e—£•7æ—1 ië —£•Vê7Œ e ™1Ž¤ˆŠñ ‹j—£•i… †t‹¤  å Œu›j拤 ™— à ½¤©A†»Œä—1 iˆŠ»º eŒr˜™˜iˆŠŽ¤ˆ•Œu i—1²£1 i‰ ¢— å žŸ1 iˆŠæ¦ˆŠŽj—e—£••‰” eŒr˜™—£•x²£1‹j ¤‹jŽ å Œr iæ— ¢—1˜êVŒrŽj‰”ˆ åŠå 1ŽÉ1—ö11ŽjŽª¢—1—£•i…“RóŽÞ1뤕”—1 i䦗õŒr‹ ˜i—1Žj‰” ™— å —£•§¢—1äV¢—1Žj—1«’—1Žj‰l•²A i1ä—1Ž7ŒrŽ¤‰‡1‹
  18. 18. t¦¼ ½e¾ž¿ ÀÂÁÄÃ ÅžÆ ÇÂÈÄÉÊ'ËgÌ φ ρ ÍÎÐÏjÑyҐÓÐÔÄÏÕÑyÖ ×'ØgÙÛÚ'Ü7Ý{ސß5à ρ á'â7ãÂä‘å7æ çgè é êëì gí î ïð òñ ó‘ô ñöõž÷}øÂñ ùrøjú ÷ÕûÐüù ρ ý'þ7ÿ¡  ¢¤£ ¥§¦ ¨ © § !# $#%')(¡$ 01(12 13 465§7986@¤ACBDFE ρ G6H¤I¡PRQ¤S T§U V W X Y§` a b cde!f#g h#i'p)q¡h r1q1s p1t!dur ρ v6w¤x¡yR€¤ ‚§ƒ „ … † ‡§ˆ ‰  ‘“’ ”R• ’#–!—)˜¡’ ™d˜1e —gf hji'kml'n {|~}€••‚ à€à … ¥ ¢—1›jŽjˆŠ‰”ˆŠ1Ž1‹¤¥®ÿ”H sF†9o¹˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†ˆkr†dFuqrhfi©mfo qlhir†g˜–¦‰ijqruhmf†—kror“†gkl†g‰ij˜uvh†i©mqp›dfuvˆqrij˜uh|fsFuv˜’ˆ€)p† hfurpfˆƒuv‚}ˆ†g˜†‡uhfˆ pfhf†©ij˜g–w‰g†—hfuspfˆ©–¦qr•¨†g˜qruhfˆ”‰uvhfhf–utvlij˜g†”ˆguh dFuqrhfi3mfo u˜gq ~qrhf† |rw –¦kl‘†mpf˜g†mpfˆg†•—†hfi—3hfurpfˆ“hf†dFuspf†‡uhˆ dF–wˆ“•—†ijij˜†©mf†©m”“†ij†‰gij†mpf˜“mf–¦hfˆ“kl†©i1pf‚£† Ÿ–D†vqrmf† |yx›uspfˆ“mf†g†vuvhfˆ©mfuvhf‰“†gz¦ij˜g– dFukr†˜”kl–›ij˜g–|{V†g‰ijuqr˜†©m†©kl– ij˜–¦‰†nmf–whˆnkr†ni1pf‚£†ž|7…‡†girij†“†gz7ij˜–pdfuvkl–¦ijqluvh¨†gˆiij˜7Ÿ†ˆ7df˜7“†‰gqlˆg†—'•—–wqrˆnhuspfˆnhf†n‰guhfh–wqrˆˆguhfˆ£dF–wˆ”kr†7dFuqrhfi mfo u˜q{~qrhf†fˆmp˜”‰g†ijij†©ij˜–}{V†‰giruvql˜g† |s~3–¦˜“‰uvhfij˜†“hfuspˆ7dFuspf†‡uhˆFmn“†yhhfqr˜Fkr–›mfqrˆij–wh‰†”mfo –pdwdF˜uv‰’‘f†fkr–FdFkpfˆ ‰urpf˜ij† |€…kpˆo –…~qrifmqpfdFuqrhfifmf†kr–ˆij˜–}{V†‰giruvql˜g†h€pfqf†ˆgikr†£dfkdpfˆ}dF˜u‰‘f†hm‚pdFuqrhfifmfo qlhir†g˜–¦‰ijqruhf| {|~}€•V‚ à ½T… P‡ˆ•‰P1榠eŒr«’«˜—u—1Ž˜½çeˆŠ«’—1Ž7•”ˆŠ1Ž1‹¤¥®ÿ”H …‡†i7‘fqrˆiju’~˜–¦•¨•—†•—o –I“†gi…“†mfuvhfhn“†dF–w˜„ƒ9–w†‡†˜gqlu˜A˜–¦‰‰gqlhfqr|}€…k¦˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†kr†‡dFuqrhfi7mfo qrhfij†˜ˆ†‰gijqluvhT†ghfij˜† ‰’‘f–¦€)pf†n‰urpgdfkr†Fm†”ij˜g–w‰g†ˆ†…l†‡†˜gij†gzs‡p|¦’©h“dF†mpfi9‰gkl–¦qr˜†•—†ghfi9mfqrˆijqlh5~‚pf†˜nkl†gˆ—“†g†'“†hf†g•¨†ghfijˆwdF˜u†‡†h–whfi'mqp dFuqrhfipmfo qrhfij†˜g–w‰gijqluvh‰ˆ§Š6ˆs‹ƒ†gi‰g†mpyzhdF˜u†‡†h–whfipm†kro qrhfij†˜g–w‰gijqluvhˆmqpۄ –¦qrˆ‰†g–Œpƒ–w†‡†‰‡kr†idp‚}† Ÿ–X†vqrmf†DŸ–Ž) •—• mqp—‰†ghfij˜†…r‚}†–¦•—x‘©–¦klkC‡p| ²£1ˆÙŽj‰ª1žŸˆŠŽj‰”—1 eŒr˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7…‡R󎧲£—1‹j‰ûŒr‹V•l•”ˆ»ä1ˆŠ  å —¡‰”‹jë —¸¢Œä¦ˆe— ñ ‹jˆh•”— ‰” i1‹j䗩¢Œª¤˜i« 1‹ ²£1ˆÙŽj‰1žŸˆÙŽj‰”—1 1Œr˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7… ¥º—9òª˜i« ¢ŒªâF¤û˜i« •”—º‰P i1‹j䦗 å Œª˜™ê7Œr«’ë  i—)¢Œª—1馲»ŒrŽ7•ˆŠ1Ž’‰P—1«’²A1 ™— åÙå — ß!’ “ÿóãDžtÿe—1‰”‰”— ˜™ê7Œr«’ë  ™— ¢Œ e¢—1 iˆŠä¦—ö²A—1 i«˜—1‰˜1—ö«˜—£•‹j i—1 I ~‹7•”ñ ‹jžy¢Œèòr½è²£1ˆŠŽ¤‰Ò•’•”‹¤  å — ²»Œ •l•lŒr榗¶1—£•
  19. 19. tt { “ Grid ” Anodes Grid ” Cathodes • Z chamber – Charged • particle — track ˜ SMD ™ Inner š TEC › Outer œ TEC Y X B {|~}€•V‚ à စ9†t˜™ê ¢—1«¬Œ i—1²£  ¢—£•”—1Ž¤‰ÒŒrŽ¤‰ å Œ ’ “uÿ …‡†Dˆ‰‘n“†•—– ˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†—kr–ª•p–A… ˆ§pf˜Dkr†Fdfkr–wh¤ij˜–¦hfˆg†v†g˜’ˆ†D–up„ –¦qrˆ‰†g–ŒpFzmor“†gkl†g‰ij˜uvhfˆÐ|1sF–¢‰˜guqCzž ˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†fkr†7dFuqrhfi9mfo qlhir†g˜–¦‰ijqruhf|…sF†”ij˜g–wqridf–¦˜ij–¦hfi9mf†”‰†pdfuvqlhi9˜† dF˜¦“†ˆ†ghfij†fkr†7dF–wˆgˆ–~†Fmfo pfhf†pdf–¦˜yx ijql‰§pfkl†Û‰’‘f–¦˜Õ~”“†g† |Ÿƒ9uhTdF–¦ˆˆ–~† †‡– qruhqlˆg†˜ kr†f~–s ›mf†Akr– •f–A…7—f†i‡‰g†ˆA‰‘f–w˜y~†ˆ †‡uhim”“†˜gql†‡†˜ †‡†˜ˆÛkr†ˆ –whumf†gˆÐ|‡’©hdF†mpif†vuvql˜€)pf†‡kr†ˆ•—umqpkl†gˆhqrhfi…“†˜gql†§pf˜’ˆhˆuhipkV“†y~”Ÿ†˜g†•—†hiwmn“†‰–¦k‘“†ˆvdF–¦˜h˜g– d¦dfuv˜ip–upyzX•¨uvmfx pfkr†ˆ†gz7i‘“†˜qr†mp˜’ˆÐ|‡…‡†‰gqgdF†˜•—†gifmf†‡kr††‡†˜klo –w•—‚}q{~‚pq¡vri…“†3mf˜guqrij†x{~–Œpf‰‘f†3kru˜’ˆmf†kr–ˆ˜†g‰uvhfˆij˜mp‰ijqluvhf| Amplification region Drift region Anode wire Focus wire Grid wires Grid wires Cathode plane Charged track . . . . . {|~}€•V‚ à âT…±†t˜™ê ¢—1«¬Œ‡e— å Œ‡ ¢—1 ™ˆÙ䗰1—£•7˜™ê7Œr i旣•AŒrŽ7• å Œ ’ “uÿ …‡†hˆg‰’‘n“†g•—–A˜†edf˜7“†ˆg†hfij†¢phˆ–…~˜g–whmfqlˆgˆ†g•¨†ghfi¦mf†hkr–Ff~‚pf˜†¤£}t}|%’©hdf†§pfip†vuvql˜h€)pf†kr†ˆ3krq{~hf†ˆhmf†h‰‘f–w•fd “†kr†‰gir˜gu•—–~hn“†ijqr€)pf†gˆƒ€)pfqT†‡uhfiF„ –¦qr˜†›mn“†g˜qr†v†g˜›kl†gˆD‰’‘f–¦˜Õ~†gˆ —T–wqrhfˆqA€)pf† kr†ˆX~˜qrklkr†ˆ›€)pq1dF†˜•—†girij†ghfi mfo –¦†‡uqr˜hmf†gˆ‡klq{~hf†gˆhmf†‡‰‘f–w•fd‚}qr†hfdF–w˜g–wkrkVŸ†kr†ˆž| ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•x˜ê7Œr iæ7¢—1—£•i…1‘Œ›¤æ‹j i— à ⮫’1Žj‰” i— å —u²A iˆŠŽj˜iˆŠ²£—˜1— å Œ°e¢—1 ™ˆÙ䗖e—£•V˜ê7Œr i榗£•i… ‘T1 e•”ñ ‹jžŸ‹jŽ¤—‡²üŒr ™‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —±˜™ê7Œr iæ7¢—1—‡‰” eŒä—1 e•”— å Œ ’ “uÿV© — åŠå —±ˆŠ1ŽjˆP•”— å — æðŒ¦¥¤ñ ‹jˆü—£•”‰x˜i1«¬þ ²££• ¢—ª¢Œ¨§ „¦© 1—‡ÿ R Ô —1‰—¢Œ¤½ „¦© e— ÿ«ªpP µ“¬ …}¡Ž–˜ê7Œr«’²„¢— å —1˜i‰” ™1«¬Œr榎ª¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹j—äðŒ¤æ¦‹jˆ1—1  ˜i—£•u˜ê7Œr i榗£• 䦗1 e• å —£•› å •®ežŒrŽj£1— …¤‘T—£•u˜êVŒr ™æ¦—£•–•—e¢—1² å Œr˜i—1Žj‰)¢Œ˜‹jŽj—’䦈Š‰”—£•l•”—¬1— ò ¦§®­ Ž7•i…¨‘T1 e•”ñ ‹j— å —£•j˜™ê7Œr i旣••Œr²A²£ i1˜ê¤—1Žj‰ å žŒrŽ¤£1— ©™— åŠå —£•••”1Žj‰ÌŒr«’² å ˆŠ› ¢—1—£•i…Åÿe1«’«’— 1Ž ˜i1ŽjŽVŒ Us ‰ å —‡‰P—1«’²ü•xñ ‹jžŸ1Ž¤‰x«’ˆ•x˜i—£•˜™ê7Œr i旣•²£1‹¤ ‡Œr i ™ˆÙä—1 ®Œr‹jé ŒrŽj£e—£•i©¦1Ž’²£—1‹¤‰ ˜i1ŽjŽ7Œ Us ‰” i— å —£•Ì˜i11 e11Ž¤Ž¢—1—£•T‰” iˆeˆŠ«’—1Ž7•”ˆŠ1ŽjŽ¤— åŠå —£•1— å Œº‰” 1Œr˜i— …
  20. 20. tu¯ E θ φ hadron Shower Shapes in the BGO γ {|~}€••‚ à ¤€…D¥uˆŠšÇš¢—1 i—1Žj˜i—ç1—9 n¢—1²£1Ž7•”—£•e‹ ºd!dRù²£1‹j º‹jŽ²£ê¤1‰P1Žö—1‰ ‹jŽ’ê7Œ 1 i1Ž …‡†ˆ‡m†mpyzˆ‘fqrˆijup~˜g–w•—•—†ˆ˜g† dF˜¦“†gˆ†hir†ghfipkr–ˆ˜¦“†edfuvhfˆ†mqpۘA™©’ Ÿ–Žpfhfdf‘uijuh¨†iXŸ–°pfh—‘f–¦mf˜guhf|5…‡‘f–¦€)pf† ‚}urtvlij†F˜g† dF˜¦“†gˆ†ghfij†‡kl–¨‘f–upfij†mpf˜fmo qr•‡d±pfkrˆqruh—†h˜†Õ~qrˆij˜7“††ˆmp˜±pfh ‰˜qrˆij–¦kl|²~FkpˆF‰†gijir†”‚}urtvlij†F†gˆiw~˜–¦hfmf†l— dFkpfˆFkl–fdF–w˜girqr‰mpkl†6³—–—mn“† dFuˆ7“†mf†”kloj“†hf†g˜Õ~qr† |}’©hDu‚£ˆ†˜g†v†”€)pf†nkl†pdF‘fuijuh›–—mn“† dFuˆ¦“†5dF˜†gˆ€)p†Fijuspfij†”ˆuvh “†h†˜Õ~qr†‡mf–¦hfˆFkr†F‰g˜qrˆij–¦k‰†ghfij˜–¦k —'–wkru˜ˆF€)pf†nkloj“†h†˜Õ~qr†mn“†edfuvˆ¦“†g†5dF–¦˜Fkr†F‘f–¦mf˜uvh—ˆor“†ij†hfm›ˆ§pf˜¦dFkdpfˆqr†mpf˜ˆ ‰˜gqlˆgij–Œpyz7| ‘Œ›¤æ‹j i— à ᠙—1²A  ¢—£•”—1Žj‰”—‹jŽö•—1˜™‰”—1‹j •ˆŠŽ¤‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹¤ h—1‰he—1‹j鰕”—1˜i‰”—1‹j e•e—1馉P—1 iŽj—£•ó£ŒrŽ7• å —±² å ŒrŽ‰” eŒrŽ7•”䦗1 e•”—’1— å Œ ’ “ÿ7…nRxŽõ²£—1‹¤‰ó䦍1ˆŠ  å —£•¨§ › å • 1— å Œ ’ “uÿþ܈َj‰¦¢—1 ™ˆÙ—1‹j  © å —£• ¤r⧛ å • 1— å Œ ’ “ÿóþ—1é‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j  …¥®ŒrŽ7• å —£•´§9²£ i—1«’ˆŠ—1 e•› å •i©t½„•1Žj‰˜i1Ž7•lŒr˜i n¢—£•b¢Œ9‹jŽ¤— «’—£•”‹j i—‡e— å Œû˜™11 ee1ŽjŽª¢—1—¶µ7©1Ž å —£•ÃŒr²£²£— åÙå — å —£•Ì› å •ÌˆŠŽj‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j e•lþµ7…¦¥®ŒrŽ7• å —£• ¤r⇛ å • •”‹jˆÙ䀌rŽj‰l•i©!ˆ å ¡ —1Ž Œ ƒ¤ñ ‹jˆ ¡ •1Žj‰ü˜™1ŽV•lŒr˜i n¢—£•i©!—1‰e1Ž å —£•Œr²£²£— åÙå — å —£•T› å •T—1é‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j e•lþµ7… H󈊎V•”ˆ© Žj1‹7•7²£1‹j䦍1Ž7•• i—1˜i1Ž7•”‰” i‹jˆŠ i— å —£••‰” eŒ ~—1˜i‰P1ˆÙ ™—£•h˜™1 i i—£•”²A1Ž7£ŒrŽj‰Œr‹j鱉” 1Œr˜i—£•i… ÿe1«’«’—x˜i—£•»²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•h•1Žj‰¤² å 1Žjæ7¢—1—£•VAŒrŽ7•»‹jŽ9˜™ê7Œr«’²¡«¬Œr措¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹¤— ©i— åÙå —£•»1Žj‰j‹jŽ¤— ‰” eŒ  —1˜i‰”1ˆŠ i—¡˜i1‹j iëh¢—1— …e“Ž§«’—£•”‹j eŒrŽj‰ å —1‹j  eŒ ¡ 1Žè1— ˜i1‹j ië ‹j i— © Ž¤1‹7••1ë ‰”—1Žj1Ž7• å —1‹j  ñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—91—u«˜1‹¤ä—1«’—1Žj‰l… ¥º—±² å ‹7•i© ˜i—§ ¢—1‰”—1˜i‰P—1‹¤ û²£—1 i«’—1‰ 1—±«˜—£•‹j i—1  å Œ±˜™ê7Œr i榗’ ¢—1²££• ¢—1—±²üŒr  å —£•Ã²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜eþ ‹ å —£•º•”‹j  å —1‹j ª²»Œ •!•lŒræ— …'HˆŠŽ7•”ˆ©¦Ž¤1‹7•x˜i1ŽjŽVŒrˆ•l•”1Ž7• å —1‹j û²£—1 i‰”—1ž ¢—1Žj—1 i榈Š—±²»Œr ª‹jŽ¤ˆŠ‰¦¢— 1— å 1Žj榋j—1‹j  ߌ·¹¸ ·}º 㜩Åñ ‹VŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢—º²A ™ˆÙ«˜1 eeˆŒ å —²£1‹j  å žŸˆe—1Žj‰”ˆŠ›j˜eŒr‰”ˆŠ1ŽÞ1—º²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•i… ‘T—¤˜eŒ å 1 iˆŠ« ¢—1‰P i—碗 å —1˜i‰” i1«¬Œr措¢—1‰”ˆŠñ ‹¤—ÚǍ1 i«p¢—òüŒr ¤e—£•»˜i ™ˆP•”‰lŒr‹j鰏1žŸ1é ¡ e— Œr‹®æ—1 i«¬Œ þ ŽjˆŠ‹¤« 1—ë ˆ•«˜‹¤‰Pê ß ºd!dRuãj•”—‰” ™1‹¤ä—¤¢ŒuâF¤º˜™« 1‹ç²A1ˆŠŽj‰1žŸˆŠŽ¤‰P—1 eŒr˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7…e‘T1 e•”ñ ‹jžŸ‹jŽj— ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — ˜™ê7Œr iæ ¢—1—u1‹ç‹¤Ž˜²Aêj1‰”1Ž’—1Žj‰” ™—°AŒrŽ7• å —Iºd!dR¤©t•”1Ž’˜êVŒr«˜² ¢— å —1˜i‰P i1«¬Œr榎 ¢—£þ ‰”ˆŠñ ‹j—§äðŒç²A i£1‹jˆŠ i— ‹jŽj—§æ¦—1 ië — 1ž ¢— å —1˜™‰” i1Ž7•¡—1‰–1—§²Aêj1‰”1Ž7•i…7ÿT—1‰P‰”—ç榗1 ië —’—£•”‰ ‹jŽ¤— •”‹jˆÙ‰P—ö1—–²Aêj1‰”1Ž7•§¢—1«˜ˆP•ª²üŒr  ºó i—1«¬•l•”‰” eŒrê å ‹¤Žjæç—1‰‡1—²£ i£1‹¤˜™‰”ˆŠ1Žô1—²»ŒrˆŠ i—£•‡í î í ï …
  21. 21. ts» Energy Measurement → → e e +¼ - γ ½ ¾6¿ HC module BGO Crystals À Proportional wires Á U - 238  absorber {|~}€•V‚ à ò€…ª”Ì ™ˆÙŽj˜iˆŠ²£—–ežŸ‹jŽ’˜1Œ å 1 ™ˆÙ« ¢—1‰” i— à h ‰–¦kluv˜qr•bŸ†ij˜†£dF†˜g•—†i9mf†“•—†ˆ§pf˜†g˜Fkror“†ghf†˜y~ql†fmo pfhf†pdF–w˜girqr‰mpkl† |s€‘kŒ³›–›mf†mpFz¨i¡³pdF†ˆ”mf†”‰–¦kluv˜qr•Ÿ†ij˜†uÄ kl†gˆ“‰–¦kluv˜qr•Ÿ†ij˜†gˆ¨“†gkl†g‰ij˜uv•¨–~hn“†gijql€)p†ˆÅ…{˜A™©’¸mf–¦hfˆhsFtƇn†gi3kr†ˆ©‰–¦kru˜qr•bŸ†ij˜g†ˆf‘f–¦mf˜guhfqr€)pf†gˆÇ…{šD…1œhs¦‡p| sor“†ghf†˜y~ql†Amf–whˆTkr†n˜A™©’ ˆ†™ij˜urpf†‡†TˆguspfˆTkr–¨„žu˜g•—†Ûmfo pfhf†F~†˜g‚}†»“†kr†‰gir˜gu•—–~hn“†ijqr€)pf†“mf†dF‘fuijuhˆÛ†gi mfor“†kr†‰ij˜guhfˆž|9’©h dF†mpfi“†‡uqr˜ˆ€)pfo qlknhfo³ –€)po pfhf†ƒˆ†mpkl† ‰usp‰’‘f†Xmf† ‰˜qrˆij–upyzmf–¦hfˆˆkr†©˜A™©’F|3…‡‘f–¦€)pf† •—umqpfkr†9šD…1œsS˜g†ˆˆg†•—‚}kr†dŸ–Èpfh •—qlkrkl†gx „p†mpqlkrkl†gˆ‰u•fdFuˆ7“†fmf†”‰urpf‰’‘f†gˆfmfo p˜–¦hfqp• †gi9mf†“‰’‘f–¦•—‚}˜†gˆ Ÿ– hkrˆ5dF˜ujdfuv˜ijqruhfhf†gklkr†ˆž|psoj“†h†˜Õ~qr†3m–whfˆkr†1šD…1œhsbˆ†‡ij˜guspf†‡†ˆuspˆkr–”„žuv˜•—†mf†1~†˜g‚}†ˆ‘f–¦mf˜guhfqr€)pf†gˆÐ| ‘Œ¤šÇ1 i«˜—¡e—˜™—1‰”‰”—榗1 ™ë —± ¢—1²£—1ŽV 1‹–‰ ¡ ²£— e— å Œ¤²üŒr ™‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —ªñ ‹jˆ£—1Ž¤‰P i—¡£ŒrŽV• å —›ºI! R¤… ”¤1‹j  1—£• å —1²£‰”1Ž7•i© å Œu榗1 ™ë —°•”—1 eŒ ¢—1‰” i1ˆŠ‰”— ©Å²A1‹j  1—£•7ê7Œ 1 i1Ž7•i©e— åŠå —°•”—1 eŒº² å ‹7• å Œr ™æ¦— … ‘Œû›j拤 ™— à ¤º«’1Žj‰” ™— å Œ±1ˆŠšÇš¢—1 i—1Žj˜i—u—1Žj‰” i—º‹jŽ˜²£ê¤1‰P1Ž˜—1‰T‹jŽ’ê7Œ e i1Ž7… ”¤1‹j ¡1—£•9¢— å —1˜™‰” i1Ž7•V—1‰1—£•V²Aêj1‰”1Ž7•I¢Œºê7Œr‹j‰”—ö¢—1Žj—1 i戊—1ŽÞe¢—1›jŽjˆŠ‰ å Œ å 1Žj榋j—1‹j  1—  eŒ 1ˆŒr‰”ˆŠ1ŽÊÉT¯n© ñ ‹jˆjäðŒr‹j‰h²A1‹j  å —”ºd!dR à … à ½°˜i«¬…pHóˆÙŽ7•”ˆ¤‹¤Žô¢— å —1˜i‰P i1Ž§²A—1 e å Œu«’1ˆŠ‰”ˆl¢— 1—®•”1Žp¢—1Žj—1 iæˆÙ—u‰”1‹7• å —£• „ …rE¦§º˜™« ß É̯ÌËÍ Ï ãDžŔ¤1‹j  å —£•7²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•û1—uê7Œr‹j‰”— ¢—1Ž¤—1 ™æ¦ˆŠ— © •”—1‹ å • å —£•‡¢— å —1˜i‰” i1Ž7•7—1‰ å —£•ó¥–•”1Žj‰Œr i  U —1‰¦¢—£•¤£ŒrŽ7• å —dºd!dR¤… ÿe—1˜iˆ€Ž¢—1˜i—£•l•”ˆŠ‰”—±e—º«’—1‰”‰” i— 1žŒr‹j‰” i—£•¤e¢—1‰”—1˜i‰”—1‹j e•Œr‹j‰”1‹j 1‹¤ºd!dR ²£1‹¤ –¢—1‰”‹71ˆŠ—1  å —£•7ê7Œ 1 i1Ž7•7—1‰ å —£•7«˜‹¤1Ž7•i… ¬‹7•‰P—Œr²£ ¢—£• å — ºd!dRé1•—󉔠i1‹jä—1Ž¤‰71—£•••”˜iˆŠŽj‰”ˆ åÙå Œr‰”—1‹j e•»ñ ‹jˆ ²£—1 i«’—1‰P‰”—1Žj‰Ìe—ó˜i1ŽjŽ7Œ Us þ ‰” ™— å —ó‰”—1«’²»•71—ó²üŒ •l•lŒr榗e—£•ð²üŒr ™‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•¤˜™ê7Œr iæ ¢—1—£•™…Ò‘T—x²£ iˆŠŽ¤˜™ˆÙ²£—×£•”‰ å —º•‹jˆŠäðŒrŽj‰l…%¥ ¢—£• å —’²»Œ •l•!Œræ—ޏe‹ìš”Œrˆ•˜™—£Œr‹V©jŽj1‹V•u«˜—1‰”‰”1Ž7•û—1Žì i1‹j‰”—‹jŽì˜™êj i1Žj1«¢—1‰” i— …€‘̍1 1•ñ ‹jžŸ‹jŽj— ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —±˜êVŒr ™æV¢—1—±²»Œ •l•”—珣ŒrŽV•ó‹¤Žè•”˜iˆŠŽ¤‰Pˆ åŠå Œr‰”—1‹j  © — åŠå —‡ä€Œ ²£ i£e‹jˆŠ i—’e— å Œ å ‹j«’ˆV¢—1 i— … ÿe—1‰”‰”— å ‹¤«˜ˆV¢—1 ™—äðŒ9•”—²£ i1²»Œr榗1  ©F¢Œº‹jŽj—uäˆÙ‰P—£•!•”— ˜i1ŽjŽj‹j— © 1—£•e—1‹jé ˜ U 1‰¦¢—£•¤1‹Þ•”˜iˆŠŽj‰”ˆ å þ å Œr‰”—1‹j  …5H‹j鱏e—1‹j麗1馉” n¢—1«˜ˆÙ‰¦¢—£••e‹’•”˜iˆŠŽj‰”ˆ åŠå Œr‰”—1‹j h1Ž®—1Ž¤ ™—1榈•”‰” i— å —¤‰”—1«˜²ü•»ñ ‹jžŸˆŠŽ7eˆŠñ ‹j— å —˜™êj i1Žj1« ¢—1‰P i—¤—1‰ å žŸˆŠŽj‰”—1Ž7•”ˆÙ‰ ¢—±1— å Œ å ‹¤«˜ˆ ¢—1 ™— …!“󎮘i1ŽjŽ7Œrˆ•!•lŒrŽj‰e˜i—£•x1—1‹¤éº‰”—1«’²»•i©i1Ž ²£—1‹j‰¤˜eŒ å ˜i‹ å —1  å —°²£1ˆŠŽ¤‰Ã²üŒr  “¢‹¬—£•”‰¤²»Œ •!•¦¢— å Œ9²üŒr i‰PˆÙ˜™‹ å —°—1‰ å —°‰”—1«’²»•Ãñ ‹jžŸ— åÙå — Œ9«’ˆ• ²£1‹j Œr i ™ˆÙä—1  Œr‹j阕˜™ˆÙŽj‰”ˆ åŠå Œr‰”—1‹j e•i…
  22. 22. tuÎ 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 p (GeV) dE/dx électrons muons pionsÏ kaons protonsÏ {|~}€••‚ à En… ¥ ¢—1²£—1Ž7AŒrŽj˜i—±1‹ ·¹¸ ·}º —1Ž’šœ1Ž¤˜™‰”ˆŠ1Ž1—ÑÐ ƒ¦pf˜f‰g†ijij†'f~‚pf˜g†‡ˆ†nir˜guspf†‡†‡kr–ƒmn“†edf†ghfmf–¦hf‰††hÓҙmqpÕÔ|Ö Ô|× dFuspf˜‡kr†ˆf‰gqlh€3df–¦˜ijqr‰mpfkr†ˆž|5’©hFdf†§pfi1†vuvql˜‡€)požŸ– ‚}–¦ˆˆg†‡€)pf–¦hfijqli…“†mf†f•—urpf†v†g•—†hfi—kr† Ô|Ö Ô|× dF†˜•—†gimfo qlmf†ghfijq †˜kl†gˆ£df–¦˜ijqr‰mpfkr†ˆž|5’©h›u‚£ˆ†˜g†v†‡–upfˆgˆqf€)p†‡kl† Ô|Ö Ô|× ˆ†§pfkphf†£dF†˜•—†gigdf–¦ˆmf†‡mfq{„l„£“†g˜†h‰qr†˜kr†£dfqruhˆhmf†gˆ‡•Ìpfuhfˆž| “óŽj‰” i—ا9¤’˜i« —1‰ à § „ ˜i«¬©••”—牔 i1‹jä— å —§˜eŒ å 1 iˆŠ« ¢—1‰” ™— ê7Œ 1 i1ŽjˆÙñ ‹j— ß P’ÿ”H‘㜅»‘Ì— ²£ iˆŠŽ¤˜™ˆÙ²£—󗣕‰Ì1—x²A ™1䦍1ñ ‹j—1 e—£•ð˜i åŠå ˆP•”ˆŠ1Ž7•Ö—1Žj‰” i— å Œh²üŒr i‰PˆÙ˜™‹ å ——1‰ å —£•¤Žj ¡ Œr‹jé 1žŸ‹¤ 1ŒrŽ¤ˆŠ‹j« 1‹ e¢—1‰”—1˜i‰”—1‹j  …VÿT—£•¡˜i åŠå ˆ•”ˆŠ1Ž7•‡²A ™1䦍1ñ ‹j—1Žj‰’1—£•¡æ—1 ië —£•‡ê7Œ 1 i1ŽjˆÙñ ‹j—£•i…hÿe1Žj‰” eŒrˆŠ i—£þ «’—1Žj‰ºŒr‹ ºd!dR¤©¦˜i1«˜²A£• ¢—ç1žŸ‹jŽj—±˜i1‹j˜™êj—’e—‡˜i iˆ•”‰lŒr‹jéð© å —Pçÿ”Hó‘ì—£•”‰˜i1«˜²A£• ¢—˜e—’ƒ ŒrŽjŽj—£Œr‹¤é9e— à ò똍£e‹ å —£• ß ä1ˆÙ h›j拤 ™— à ò ãDž ÿeê7Œrñ ‹¤—뒍£e‹ å — i—£•l•”—1«’ë å —b¢ŒÃ‹jŽ®«’ˆ åÙå —£þ šÇ—1‹jˆ åŠå —£•7˜i1«’²££• ¢—91—u² å Œrñ ‹¤—£•1žŸ‹j eŒrŽjˆŠ‹¤« —1‰Ãe—û˜™ê7Œr«’ë  i—£•I¢Œª› å •Ì²A i1²£1 i‰”ˆŠ1ŽjŽj— å •i… Hó²A  ¢—£• å —Pçÿ”H󑩣ˆ å Ž¤—®²£—1‹j‰¤æ¦‹ ¢—1 i— ¡ Œä¦1ˆŠ  ñ ‹j—’e—£•¤«’‹j1Ž7•i© ‰”1‹j‰”—£• å —£•‡Œr‹j‰” ™—£• ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•¤Œ ¡ ŒrŽj‰ ¢—1‰¦¢—±Œr i  U —1‰¦¢—1—£•™…'Q å  i—£•”‰”—±Œr‹7•l•ˆ å —£•TŽj—1‹¤‰P iˆŠŽ¤£•™©!«¬Œrˆ•7ˆ å •ÌŽj—±•1Žj‰e²»Œ • e¢—1‰”—1˜i‰lŒrë å —£•i… Hó‹j‰”1‹j §e‹¹Pçÿ”Hó‘5•—§‰” ™1‹¤ä—1Žj‰ å —£•¡˜êVŒr«˜ë  i—£•©¢Œç«’‹j1Ž7•l…7ÿe—£•¡˜ê7Œr«’ë  i—£•–•1Žj‰ ˜i1«’²££• ¢—1—£•1—u‰P i1ˆ•Ì˜ ¡ å ˆŠŽ71 i—£•V1˜i‰”1æ1ŽVŒ å —£•7—1«˜ë  Us ‰¦¢—£•i…“ åÙå —£•7Žj—±e¢—1‰P—1˜i‰”—1Žj‰eñ ‹j—®1—£• ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•‡˜™ê7Œr iæ ¢—1—£• ß ˜i1«’«˜— å Œ ’ “uÿóãÇ©»«¬Œrˆ•‡êj—1‹j i—1‹7•”—1«’—1Žj‰ ‰”1‹j‰”—£• å —£•’Œr‹j‰” ™—£• ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•V˜™ê7Œr iæ7¢—1—£•VŽj—±•”1Ž¤‰T² å ‹V• å ¢Œ …
  23. 23. tuÙ ½¤…H½¤…ÑÚÜÛ6Ý}Þmß©qÛ'esÞyà6á ai ·m¸ ·}º ró‘Œöñ ‹VŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢— å Œö² å ‹7•®ˆŠ«’²£1 i‰lŒrŽj‰”—ö²A1‹j 1ˆŠšÇš¢—1 i—1Žj˜iˆŠ—1  1—£••²üŒr i‰PˆÙ˜™‹ å —£•h—£•”‰ å Œu²A—1 ™‰”—–ežc¢—1Žj—1 i戊— ²»Œr ¤‹jŽjˆŠ‰ ¢—°1— å 1Žj拤—1‹j  ·¹¸ ·}º …£ÿT—1‰”‰P—ñ ‹7ŒrŽ¤‰PˆÙ‰¦¢— —£•”‰x«’—£•”‹j €¢—1—AŒrŽ7• å Œ ’ “uÿV…f§ó‹7ŒrŽ7‡‹jŽj—‡²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —±‰P eŒä¦—1 1•—±‹¤Ž «’ˆ å ˆÙ—1‹7©¦— åŠå —±²£—1 e ‹jŽj—‡ñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢—˜ežc¢—1Žj—1 i戊—9ë ˆŠ—1Žìe¢—1›¤ŽjˆŠ— ©¦ñ ‹jˆüŽj—’e¢—1²£—1Ž7‡ñ ‹j—’1—ç•lŒ 䦈Š‰”—£•l•”—±—1‰ºe—’•lŒ ˜êVŒr ™æ¦— …AÿT—1‰P‰”—uñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—£©Å²A1‹j ‹¤Žj—˜ê7Œr i榗ãâ · ¸ ©Å—£•”‰ÃŒr²A²£ i1馈Š« ¢—1— ²»Œr  å Œºšœ1 i«’‹ å — 1— ºó—1‰”êj—£þº å 1˜™ê7¼ à òž ß ä1ˆŠ Ã›j榋j i— à E ã ¿ ä‚å ä¤æ ·èç µ é Ô ê ç Ô ÐëËdì¤í é Ô ¥ Ô Ý é Ô Ýïî Ϧð ß ½¤… à 㠌ä—1˜ î Ï Ä æ È · ñò ò ò ó ò ò òô •”ˆöõè÷Êõ ¬ õùøuúyõ Ý õùûrü‡Ðëõýø¤úyõýû Ý õ ¬ ü êqþÇÿ ï þ þÇÿ ï þ¡  ð ¢ •”ˆöõ ¬ ÷ õ ÷ õ µ õùø ú õ Ý õùû ü •”ˆöõ µ ÷ õ õ · Ëdì¤í µ“¬ é ¥ · Ëdì¤í µ“¬ Ð ­ H󈊎7•ˆ© —1Ž˜i1ŽjŽ7ŒrˆP•l•lŒrŽj‰ å Œ‡ñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—§1—9«’1‹j䦗1«˜—1Ž¤‰º1žŸ‹jŽ¤—‡²üŒr ™‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —®—1‰u•”1Ž ·¹¸ ·}º 1Ž 11ˆÙ‰»²A1‹j䦍1ˆŠ h i—1‰P i1‹j䦗1  å žŸˆe—1Žj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—‡1— å Œ²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — …1Ró  ©l˜i—ŽjžŸ—£•‰»²üŒ •ó•”ˆAš”Œr˜iˆ å — …‘Œ  n¢—£•” å ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Žú1— å Œ ’ “uÿ —£•‰x‰”— åŠå — © ñ ‹jžŸˆ å —£•”‰u1ˆŠšÇ›j˜iˆ å —§1—ç1ˆÙšœš¢—1 i—1Žj˜iˆŠ—1 9e—£•²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£• å 1 e•”ñ ‹j— å —£•VšÇ1Žj˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7•1—dºó—1‰”êj—£þº å 1˜êޕ”—u i—‡ ~1ˆŠæŽ¤—1Žj‰l…p¥užŒr‹j‰lŒrŽj‰Ì² å ‹7••ñ ‹jžò¢Œºæ¦ eŒrŽ71— ñ ‹7ŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—–1— «˜1‹¤ä—1«’—1Žj‰ ß Ð¤£ ¸ !󗦥uãÇ©e‰”1‹j‰”—£• å —£•xšœ1Žj˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž7•û•”—¡ i—‡ ~1ˆŠæŽ¤—1Žj‰l©e²üŒr ™˜i— ñ ‹j—’‰”1‹j‰”—£• å —£•²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•¡  ¢—£Œr榈•l•—1Žj‰°1— å Œ˜« U —1«’—«¬ŒrŽjˆ ¢—1 i— …f¡ ¢—£ŒrŽj«’1ˆŠŽ7•i©€²£1‹¤  Ð ÷ ¸ !󗦥̩ å — ·¹¸ ·}º —£•”‰T‰” ¢—£•Ì—1šÇ›j˜eŒr˜i— … ”¤1‹j  ²A1‹jä1ˆÙ u‹¤‰Pˆ å ˆ•”—1  å — ·m¸ ·}º 1—£• e1ŽjŽª¢—1—£•i© ˆ å —£•”‰¤²£ iˆŠ«’1 e1ˆŒ å — 1—9²££•!•¦¢—£1—1 ‹jŽ ë 1Ž˜•”ˆÙ«˜‹ å Œr‰”—1‹j 1ž ¢—1äV¢—1Žj—1«’—1Žj‰l•ð—1‰Ìe1Žj˜e—xë ˆŠ—1Ž±˜™1«’²A ™—1ŽV1 i— å — ·¹¸ ·}º …ÅÿežŸ—£•”‰¤²£1‹j iñ ‹j1ˆ ‹jŽj—¤æ¦ 1ŒrŽV1—ûˆÙ«˜²A1 i‰ÒŒrŽ¤˜™— Œ’¢—1‰ ¢— e1ŽjŽª¢—1—¡£ŒrŽ7•T«’1Ž°‰” 1ŒäðŒrˆ å 1— 1ˆÙ² å U 1«’—b¢Œ å ž ¢—1‰”‹7e— 1‹ ·¹¸ ·¹º —1‰ ¢Œ å žŒr« ¢— å ˆŠ1 eŒr‰”ˆŠ1ŽÞ1—£•7 i1‹j‰”ˆŠŽj—£•¤e—±•”ˆŠ«’‹ å Œr‰PˆÙ1Ž7… §x‹7ŒrŽVu‹jŽj—u²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —˜êVŒr ™æV¢—1—²»Œ •l•—9Œr‹’‰” eŒ!䦗1 e•1— å Œ ’ “uÿV©Å— åŠå —ºˆŠ1Ž¤ˆ•”— å —u怌¦¥r… ‘T—£•7˜êVŒr ™æ¦—£•¤ŒrˆŠŽ7•”ˆð˜i €¢—1—£•Ìä1Žj‰¤e¢—1 iˆŠä¦—1 ó䦗1 e• å —£•ÃŒrŽ¤£1—£•Ã1— å Œ ’ “uÿ ²£1‹j  U —1‰” ™— å ‹j—£•i… ‘Œõ˜™ê7Œr«’ë  i—¬—1é‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j i——£•”‰§eˆŠäˆP•¦¢—1—¬—1ŽÉ½ âø•”—1˜i‰”—1‹j e•i©AŒrŽ7•9˜™ê7Œrñ ‹j—´•—1˜™‰”—1‹j ¬•”— ‰” ™1‹¤ä— ¤râùŒrŽj£e—£•i…»‘Œ§²üŒr i‰PˆÙ— ˆŠŽ¤‰¦¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹¤ ™—ö—£•”‰eˆŠä¦ˆ• ¢—1—ö—1Ž à ½ô•”—1˜i‰”—1‹j e•˜e—ʧ’› å •i… ‘tžŒr«’² å ˆÙ‰P‹V1—ç1‹ •ˆŠæŽVŒ å —£•‰h²£ i1²£1 i‰”ˆŠ1Žj— åŠå —©¢Œ å Œ ˜™ê7Œr iæ—ç1žŸˆŠ1Ž¤ˆ•lŒr‰”ˆŠ1Ž7…¦“ åŠå — —£•‰h—1Ž7þ  i—1成•‰P €¢—1—¬²üŒr §‹jŽ H ¥9ÿV…7‘Œúeˆ•”‰” iˆŠë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Ž 1—¬˜™ê7Œr iæ—ù•”‹jˆŠ‰ å Œ å 1ˆ91žŸ‹jŽj—Þ²»•”—1‹7e£þ ‘ŒrŽ7AŒr‹7… § Ä©¨¦È · í ú Ý ¸ Ï Î ¨ªÐ¬í Ý ¨ Ñ ü ¨ · æ Ý æ ¬ ¬ ß ½¤…¢½¤ã RxŽ²£—1‹j‰e i—1榠™1‹¤²£—1 ó˜i—£•òr½‡› å •T—1Žñ ‹7Œr‰” ™—ºš”Œr«’ˆ åÙå —£•ü¿ òˆŠŽj‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j e•i©r½¡ˆŠŽ¤‰¦¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹¤ 1•!þ µ7©ÅâF¤º—1馉¦¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹¤ 1•V—1‰¤ƒº—1é‰ ¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j e•lþµ7…7H å žŸˆŠŽj‰¦¢—1 iˆŠ—1‹j  1—˜êVŒrñ ‹j—š”Œr«’ˆ åŠå — © å Œ®1ˆ•‰P iˆŠë ‹Vþ ‰”ˆŠ1Ž„1—˜™ê7Œr i旇—£•”‰ å Œ« U —1«’— ß ä¦1ˆŠ ›j榋j i— à § 㜅n†t‹¤ˆŠä€ŒrŽ¤‰ å Œu‰” 1Œ ~—1˜i‰”1ˆŠ i—1— å Œ‰” 1Œr˜i— © ‹jŽÞŽ¤1«˜ë  i—¬1—–› å •±•”1Žj‰¨°p± !#­%$ …n”֍1‹j  ˜i1Ž7•”‰” i‹jˆŠ i— å Œ®ä€Œ å —1‹¤ ¡«’ ¡ —1ŽjŽ¤— 1‹ ·¹¸ ·}º ©
  24. 24. t' Inner-TEC (wire 1) 0 ( 50 ) 100 150 200 250 0 ( 500 ) 1000 1500 2000 117.9 / 83 A 396.8 x0 117.1 w0 46.21 Inner-TEC Z (wire 2) 0 (20 40 60 080 1100 120 140 0 ( 500 ) 1000 1500 2000 157.3 / 126 A 204.2 x0 306.1 w0 62.46 Outer-TEC (wire 9) 0 (10 220 330 440 550 )60 070 680 190 7 0 ( 500 ) 1000 2 1500 2 2000 3 90.26 / 87 A 132.8 x0 227.2 w0 75.56 Outer-TEC Z (wire 10) 0 ( 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50 ) 60 0 0 ( 500 ) 1000 2 1500 2 2000 3 144.6 / 149 A 74.81 x0 495.7 w0 128.3 {|~}€•V‚ à §€… ¥ºˆ•‰P iˆŠë ‹¤‰PˆÙ1ŽÞ1—û˜™ê7Œr i榗u²A1‹j  å —£•Ìñ ‹VŒr‰P i—u‰ ¡ ²A—£•Ãe—º› å • …‡†ˆn‘fqrˆijup~˜g–w•—•—†ˆ‡˜g† dF˜¦“†gˆ†hir†ghfikr†ˆn€)pf–¦ij˜†”mfqlˆgij˜qr‚)pfijqluvhfˆ‡mf†n‰’‘f–¦˜Õ~†wdFuspf˜nkl†gˆF€)p–wij˜†„ –¦•—qlkrkr†ˆ‡mf† hkrˆÐ|5’©h‡dF†mpfi†vuvql˜€)pf†‡kr–3dFˆ†mpmfuxrkluvqwm†1sF–whfm–Œp¨‰uv˜˜†gˆ dFuhfmƒir˜7Ÿ†ˆ‚}qr†h¨–upyzˆmfuhfh”“††gˆÐ| 1Žì‹j‰”ˆ å ˆP•”— å —£•987 © ² å ‹7•²A—1‰PˆÙ‰P—£•uäðŒ å —1‹j e•1—£•dHƒ¥®ÿV…ð‘T—皌rˆŠ‰°1—ç i—‡ ~—1‰”—1  Ï © 1—£• äðŒ å —1‹j e•²A—1 ™«’—1‰Ã‹jŽj—91²£‰”ˆŠ«’ˆ•!Œr‰PˆÙ1Ž´1— å Œ±äðŒ å —1‹j  «’ ¡ —1ŽjŽj—§1‹ ·¹¸ ·}º ¼Ü½ „ ¾”…£‘Œ§eˆ•”‰” iˆþ ë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Žú1—±˜™ê7Œrñ ‹j—9› å —£•”‰˜1Œ å ˆŠë  n¢—1—’1—±‰P— åÙå —§•”1 i‰P—±ñ ‹j—ç•lŒ‡«’ ¡ —1ŽjŽ¤—‡äðŒr‹j‰ à …Öÿe—1‰”‰”— ˜eŒ å ˆŠë  eŒr‰”ˆŠ1Ž—£•”‰hšŒrˆŠ‰”—’Œä¦—1˜‡1—£•ó«’‹j1Ž7•ó—1‰û1—£•°¢— å —1˜i‰” ™1ŽV•x²A ™1䦗1Ž7ŒrŽj‰u1‹ö²£ i1˜i—£•l•”‹7• í î í ï ¦ @¤¬V¦ ¦€î¦Öï 1‹§í î í ï …!‘T—ªšŒrˆŠ‰ó1žŸ‹j‰”ˆ å ˆ•”—1 x‹jŽ¤— 1ˆ•”‰” iˆŠë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Ž˜1ë ‰”—1Žj‹j— ¢Œ¤²üŒr i‰PˆÙ  1— å —1²£‰”1Ž7•ü‹ å ‰P eŒ þ i— å Œr‰”ˆŠäˆP•”‰”—£•Ì—1‰xe— å žŒr²£² å ˆŠñ ‹j—1 uŒr‹jé ê7Œ 1 i1Ž7•TŽjžŸ—£•”‰ü²»Œ •T‹jŽj——1馘i— å þ å —1Žj‰”—Œr²A²£ i1馈Š«¬Œr‰PˆÙ1Ž7… “óŽ —1šœšÇ—1‰l©ë ˆŠ—1Ž ñ ‹¤— å Œ¡ä€Œ å —1‹¤ û«’ ¡ —1Ž¤Žj—1— å Œeˆ•”‰” iˆŠë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Ž äðŒr‹j‰T‰”1‹' ~1‹j e• å ŒûäðŒ å —1‹j ºe— ºó—1‰”êj—û—1‰©º å 1˜™ê7©r榠 U Œr˜i—®Œr‹‰”ꪢ—11 ¢—1«’— 1— å Œ å ˆŠ«’ˆŠ‰”—û˜i—1Ž7þ ‰” eŒ å — © å Œ å Œr i榗1‹j ue— å Œ‡1ˆ•”‰” iˆŠë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Ž’²A—1‹j‰e䀌r iˆŠ—1  •”ˆ å žŸ1Ž˜²£ i—1Ž791—£•Tê7Œ 1 i1Ž7•i…¦¡¡1‹7• 䦗1 ™ i1Ž7•7²üŒr  å Œ9•”‹jˆÙ‰P—º˜i—ºñ ‹jžŸˆ å —1Ž˜—£•‰Ò… ‘Œ eˆ•”‰” iˆŠë ‹j‰”ˆŠ1Ž¬1—û˜ê7Œr i榗º²A1‹j h˜™ê7Œrñ ‹j—û› å «’žŒç¢—1‰ ¢— e1ŽjŽª¢—1—ª²üŒr  å —û i—£•”²A1Ž7•lŒrë å — 1— å Œº˜eŒ å ˆŠë  eŒr‰”ˆŠ1Ž„1‹ ·¹¸ ·}º © †»Œä—1 iˆŠIº 1Œr˜i˜iˆŠŽjˆ ß ä¦1ˆŠ ›¤æ‹j i— à § 㜅 ‘T—’²£1ˆŠŽ¤‰±e¢— å ˆŠ˜eŒr‰®Œ´¢—1‰ ¢—öežŒ ~‹7•”‰”—1  å —£•u²»Œr eŒr« ¢—1‰” ™—£•9e— å Œ–šÇ1Žj˜i‰”ˆŠ1ŽÉ1—¤ºó—1‰”êj——1‰ º å 1˜ê7…r”֍1‹j  å —£•Ì˜i1ŽjŽVŒ Us ‰” ™— ©v ~žŒrˆÌ• ¢— å —1˜i‰”ˆŠ1ŽjŽ ¢—û‹jŽ˜—1Ž7•”—1«’ë å —91—u²£ˆŠ1Ž7•i© e—û²£ i1‰”1Ž7•Ì—1‰ 1ž ¢— å —1˜™‰” i1Ž7•7²»Œr i«’ˆ å —£•¤11ŽjŽª¢—1—£•T²A ™ˆP•”—£•V²£—1Ž7AŒrŽj‰ å Œª²ó¢—1 ™ˆÙ£1—dºø1— à ƒ ƒr⤅ ”¤1‹j u1ë ‰”—1ŽjˆŠ  å —£•¢— å —1˜i‰” ™1ŽV•™©£ ~žŒrˆ• ¢— å —1˜i‰PˆÙ1ŽjŽª¢— å —£•¢—1ä7¢—1Ž¤—1«˜—1Ž¤‰Ò•óñ ‹jˆe1Žj‰ó‹jŽ ¥9ÿ”H ² å ‹7•²£—1‰”ˆŠ‰ñ ‹j— à9„ «’« —1‰9e1Žj‰‰”1‹j‰”— å ž ¢—1Ž¤—1 ™æ¦ˆŠ—§—£•‰u²üŒ •l• ¢—1—ޏAŒrŽ7• å —)ºI! R Î A ¸ Ý ¸B'CEDGFIHQPSR TVU A ÷ XW ¸ Ñ … ”¤1‹j  å —£•Ã²AˆŠ1Ž7•Ã—1‰ å —£•Ã²£ i1‰”1Ž7•˜ižŸ—£•”‰Ã‹jŽ²£—1‹² å ‹7•Ã˜i1«’² å ˆŠñ ‹ ¢—£… ”¤1‹¤ u1ë ‰”—1ŽjˆÙ º‹jŽ Žj1«’ë  i—õ•‹jšœ›V•lŒrŽj‰®1—’²£ i1‰”1Ž7•i© ~žŒrˆó‹j‰”ˆ å ˆP•¦¢— å —£• ¢—1ä7¢—1Ž¤—1«˜—1Ž¤‰Ò•`Y¦­bacedgfhapiqi …AQ å •žŒr戊‰ 1žŸ‹¤Ž ¢— å —1˜i‰” ™1Ž÷1‹úšŒrˆ•”˜i—£Œr‹¶ñ ‹¤ˆx—1Žú‰”1‹j˜™ê7ŒrŽj‰ å Œ˜²»Œr i1ˆ1‹ú‰”‹jë — ¢Œ˜ä¦ˆ1—’˜™ €¢—1—ç‹jŽ¤—
  25. 25. t'r 0 (1 2 3 44 5 )6 07 8 1 0 ( 0.5 ( 1 1.5 2 charge positive p s dE/dx 0 (1 2 3 44 5 )6 07 8 1 0 ( 0.5 ( 1 1.5 2 charge negative p s dE/dx 0 (1 22 33 44 55 )6 07 68 1 0 ( 0.5 ( 1 2 1.5 2 2 3 electrons p s dE/dx 0 (1 22 33 44 55 )6 07 68 1 0 ( 0.5 ( 1 2 1.5 2 2 3 protons p s dE/dx {|~}€••‚ à ƒ€… §ó‹j— å ñ ‹j—£• êjˆ•‰P1榠eŒr«’«˜—£• ñ ‹jˆ 1Ž¤‰ •”—1 i䦈 ¢Œ ²»Œr eŒr«p¢—1‰P iˆ•—1  å ŒºšÇ1Žj˜i‰PˆÙ1Že— º—1‰Pꤗû—1‰ º å 1˜ê æ—1 ië —˜ê7Œ 1 i1ŽjˆÙñ ‹j—õAŒrŽ7• å Œrñ ‹j— åŠå —•—–‰” i1‹j䗝‹jŽ Žj1«’ë  ™—ˆŠ«’²£1 i‰lŒrŽj‰±e—–²AˆŠ1Ž7•º—1‰ 1— ²A ™1‰”1Ž7•i…eýìŒrˆP•x˜i— ñ ‹jˆÖ—£•”‰•ˆŠŽj‰¦¢—1 i—£•l•lŒrŽj‰l© ˜™žŸ—£•‰hñ ‹jžŸˆ å ¡ Œ² å ‹7•ªe—¡²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å —£•x²££•”ˆPþ ‰”ˆŠä—£•ñ ‹j—‡Žª¢—1æðŒr‰PˆÙ䗣•i©©¢Œ ˜eŒr‹7•”—˜e— å žŸˆŠŽj‰”—1 eŒr˜™‰”ˆŠ1ŽúŒä¦—1˜ å —£•²£ i1‰”1Ž7•u1‹õŽj ¡ Œr‹7…ðÿežŸ—£•‰ ²£1‹j iñ ‹j1ˆÌ—1Ž²£ i—1Ž7ŒrŽj‰ å ŒçeˆŠšœšr¢—1 i—1Žj˜i— 1žŸ‹¤Ž¬êjˆ•”‰”1榠eŒr«˜«’—§1—tY¦­bapcudgfvaigiV²A£•”ˆŠ‰”ˆŠš•—1‰ 1žŸ‹jŽøŒr‹¤‰P i—’Ž ¢—1æðŒr‰”ˆŠš~©ð1Žì1ë ‰”ˆŠ—1Žj‰º‹jŽj—˜«Œr榎jˆŠ›¤ñ ‹j—ޏ1ˆ•‰P iˆŠë ‹¤‰PˆÙ1Ž ·¹¸ ·¹º ²A1‹j  å —£•u²£ i£þ ‰”1Ž7• ß ä1ˆÙ ’›j榋j i— à ƒ ãDžV‘Œp1ˆ•‰P iˆŠë ‹¤‰PˆÙ1Ž e—£•°²AˆŠ1Ž7•—£•”‰®1ë ‰”—1Žj‹j—„—1Žø²A ™—1ŽVŒrŽj‰ å Œ 1ˆŠšÇš¢—1 ™—1Ž¤˜™—¤—1Žj‰” i—¤‹jŽ9êjˆ•”‰”1榠eŒr«˜«’—¤˜i1«’²££• ¢— 1—£•u¢—1ä7¢—1Žj—1«’—1Žj‰l•Ö²££•”ˆŠ‰”ˆŠš•ü—1‰ÖŽ¢—1怌r‰”ˆŠš•i© —1‰ å žŸêjˆ•”‰”1榠1Œr«’«’—¡1—£•ü²A i1‰P1ŽV•™©Òñ ‹j— å žŸ1Ž°ä¦ˆŠ—1Žj‰3  ‹V•”‰”— 1žŸ1ë ‰”—1ŽjˆŠ  …Ò‘Ì—£•wY¦­bacedqfvaigi€1Žj‰ ¢—1‰¦¢—û1ë ‰”—1Žj‹7•Ì—1Ž’²£ i—1Ž7ŒrŽj‰ å —£•Ì‰” eŒr˜i—£•Vñ ‹jˆ€1Žj‰T‹jŽ¤¥®ÿ”Hè—1Žj‰” ™—º½ „ «˜« —1‰Ì§ „ «’«¬… “óŽç˜i—ºñ ‹¤ˆð˜™1Ž¤˜™—1 iŽj— å —£•7²AˆŠ1Ž7•i©v ~žŒrˆ7Œr‹7•l•ˆj i—1‰P—1Ž¤‹7© £ŒrŽ7• å —£•Vêjˆ•”‰”1榠1Œr«’«’—£•7²££•”ˆPþ ‰”ˆŠš”•±—1‰‡Žª¢—1æðŒr‰PˆÙš”•i© å —£• ¢—1äV¢—1Žj—1«’—1Žj‰l• Ê Ó …»“Žô—1šœšÇ—1‰l©x£ŒrŽV• å —£•‡ñ ‹7Œr‰” ™—õ‰” eŒr˜i—£•™©Tˆ å ¡ Œ ‹jŽj—ªšÇ1 i‰”—±11«’ˆŠŽVŒrŽj˜i—±1—º²£ˆŠ1ŽV•™…r‘ÃŒ • ¢— å —1˜i‰”ˆŠ1Ž¬1—£•Ìñ ‹7Œr‰” i—û‰” eŒr˜i—£•Œ§¢—1‰¦¢—ª1ë ‰”—1Žj‹j—ª—1Ž ²£ i—1Ž7ŒrŽj‰7âxY¦±p¯F¯f­b$‰” eŒr˜™—£•i©r“¢‹’˜™ê7Œrñ ‹j—d¥9ÿ”H藣•”‰7² å ‹7•7²A—1‰PˆÙ‰Ìñ ‹j— à9„ «’«¬… ¡Žj—yY¦±p¯f¯F­¤‰” eŒr˜i—¡—£•”‰ª ¢—1›¤ŽjˆŠ‰•²»Œr 7¿€ƒ‚…„ U‡†Ù T û…ˆ £ XW‰8Å©p’‘”“ ږ• £ ¸ Ï —1‰ A˜—Ð Ú A £ XW ¸ !󗦥̅tÿe— ñ ‹jˆe•”ˆŠæ¦ŽjˆŠ›j—uñ ‹j— å Œ‰” eŒr˜™—9Œ§¢—1‰ ¢—ª i—1˜i1Ž7•”‰” i‹jˆŠ‰”—‡Œä¦—1˜ó² å ‹7•Ã1— à ½±› å •Ìñ ‹jˆe•”—±•‹jˆŠä¦—1Žj‰`™a d ­S d ³™­b$—1‰7‹jŽj—ûñ ‹VŒrŽj‰”ˆŠ‰¦¢—9e—û«’1‹j䦗1«˜—1Ž¤‰T‰” 1ŒrŽV•”ä—1 e•”—®•”‹jšÇ›7•lŒrŽ¤‰P— … H󈊎7•ˆ© Žj1‹7•1ë ‰”—1Žj1Ž7•ó‰” i1ˆ•êjˆ•”‰”1榠1Œr«’«’—£• ·¹¸ ·}º —1Žõšœ1Žj˜i‰”ˆŠ1Žì1—ùУ…1¬ žŒrˆóe¢—1˜i1‹j²ó¢— å žŸêjˆ•‰P1榠eŒr«’«˜—1—£•¢— å —1˜i‰P i1Ž7•j—1‰ð˜i— å ‹jˆð1—£•ð²AˆŠ1Ž7•j—1Ž ⠄ ‰” eŒrŽj˜™êj—£•i©—1‰ å žŸêjˆ•”‰”1榠eŒr«˜«’— 1—£•–²£ i1‰”1Ž7•–—1Žø½ „ ‰P eŒrŽj˜™êj—£• ß ä¦1ˆŠ  ›j拤 ™— ½ „ ãDžV”¤1‹j  ˜ê7Œrñ ‹¤—„‰” eŒrŽj˜™êj— ©F ~žŒ ~‹7•”‰”— ‹jŽj—çæðŒr‹7•l•”ˆÙ—1ŽjŽj—§²A1‹j §Œ!䦍1ˆŠ  å Œ’䀌 å —1‹j ®«’ ¡ —1ŽjŽ¤— ·m¸ ·}º …f¬¦—ç²£ i—1Ž7 Œr‹7•l•ˆ å Œ’äðŒ å —1‹j  «’ ¡ —1ŽjŽ¤—˜—1Ž В—1‰˜i1«’«’—®  —ç˜i1ŽjŽVŒrˆ• å žŸˆP1—1Žj‰”ˆŠ‰ ¢—„e— å Œ’²»Œr i‰”ˆŠ˜i‹ å — ©3 ~žŸ1ë ‰”ˆŠ—1Ž7•–ŒrˆÙŽ7•”ˆ

×