Internationalization process of the university of missouri
International higher education has existed in one form or another in the United States since the inception of the first postsecondary institutions. In fact, the University of Missouri welcomed international students before women and African Americans (MU Diversity, 2015). This research paper uses archival artifacts to make meaning of past events and identify clear internationalization stages at MU.
Internationalization process of the university of missouri
Internationalization Process of the
University of Missouri-Columbia
Primary Source Paper Summary
History of Higher Education
By: Patrick Arsenault
• Definition of Internationalization in the Higher Education Context
• Research Question
• Rationales for Research
• Significance of MU’s Internationalization
• Historical Context
• Research Methods & Researcher’s lenses
• Opportunities for Future Research Projects
Definition of Internationalization in
the Higher Education Context
• International higher education has existed in one form or
another in the United States since the inception of the
first postsecondary institutions
• International Higher Education can mean different things
to different people; it is multifaceted.
• For the purpose of my paper internationalization of
higher education will be: “the increase in the number
of international students enrolled or adapting
practices to better support international students
(recruitment, involvement, retention, etc.)”.
What does it mean?
Historically, what have
What do I want to find out?
Rationales for Research
• Green and Olson (2003) argued that internationalization of
education was a process that is slow and cumulative, which is why
I have chosen to retrace the “stages” of the internationalization
process of MU.
• Eckel and King (2008) argue that international higher education
came to be and developed in a plethora of different ways given the
heterogeneous higher education setting in the United States. As a
result, there are not standard practices and this validates the
value of looking specifically at one institution.
• Education policy makers tend to look more at the future than the
past. Making valid predictions with limited data available is
difficult. Increased understanding about the work that has already
been done in terms of internationalizing its student body will help
inform future policies at MU and provide valuable insights to other
institutions who are involved in internationalization projects
(American Council on Education, 1982).
Why is this question important?
Significance of MU’s
• 3,000 international students from more than 110 countries at MU
(around 10% vs. 7% for African Americans) in 2015 only (MU
International Center, 2015).
• $615,146,159 injected in the local economy through direct
expenditure of international students in Missouri (MU has the most
international students) (Institute of International Education, 2015).
• That is especially important given the highly competitive and market-
driven American ecosystem; private businesses, governments
and institutions value campus internationalization for its
economic benefit (Green and Olson, 2003).
• Above and beyond financial reasons, “the millions of people who
have studied in the United States over the years constitute a
remarkable reservoir of goodwill for [the U.S.], perhaps [its] most
undervalued foreign policy asset” (NAFSA, 2003, p.5)
Why does international education
• The first international student came in 1849; the
historical context is hard to pin down, as it covers more
than 160 years of immense social change in the U.S.
(Foreign Students at M. U.).
• The United States has consistently been the top host
country for international students in the world (data
available from 1968) (Gürüz, 2008)
• The four drivers of internationalization are:
Social/cultural, Political, Economic and Academic
How did internationalization of
higher education happen?
• Secondary data: Using published studies and books
that talk about higher education policies and how that
relate to MU.
• Primary data through archival research (qualitative
e.g. memorandums, newspaper articles, enrollment lists
and a program review.
How did I collect data?
• International student (in several countries before coming
to the U.S.)
• Non-native English speaker
• I grew up in the 1990’s
What are my intrinsic biases?
• Coincidental (1849-1967)
MU did not invest significant time or resources in attracting
students from abroad and there is evidence that several
students had not originally planned to attend MU.
• Deliberate to Structured (1968-1995)
Internationalization became more deliberate, but also better
structured with key stakeholders in place like the President
of the Student Association, strong internationally themed
programs like IEP, the steady increase of the number of
international students, the growth of the Center for
International Programs and Studies, the introduction of an
international student fee, and the strategic alignment of
internationalization activities with the core mission of the
• Internally and Externally Monitored (1996-2015)
Following the terrorist attacks of 2001, the Immigration and
Naturalization Services (INS) became much more
interested in international students and invested $36.1
million to develop the Student and Exchange Visitor
Information System (SEVIS). From that point on,
internationalization of higher education at MU and across
the nation became closely monitored by the federal
government. MU was one of the first institutions to use
• Availability of archival materials (sometimes incomplete
• The way data was tracked at the earlier stages. The only
way to know if a student is an international student is
often to look at home address.
• Time to perform the study
• Length of the final paper (considering the large timespan
that had to be covered)
Opportunities for Future Research
• How does MU’s stages of internationalization align (or
not) with similar institutions?
• Was the experience of students at MU different from one
stage to another; if so, how?
• Historically, what are the stages of MU’s
internationalization, when specifically looking at study
• Baskin, C. (1979). International students: Super-glue for tomorrow’s world?. Missouri Alumnus, March-April Issue. Retrieved
• Brickman, W. W. (1965). Historical development of governmental interest in international higher education. In Fraser, S.
(Ed.), Governmental Policy and International Education (pp. 17-46). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
• Fledstein, J. F. (2001, November 1). INS seeks all MU foreign student records. Columbia Daily Tribune, p. 8.
• Green, M. F., & Olson, C. L. (2008). Internationalizing the campus: A user's guide. American Council on Education, Center
for Institutional and International Initiatives.
• Gürüz, K. (2008). Higher Education and international student mobility in the global knowledge Economy. Albany, NY: SUNY
• Hager, M. (2011). MU introduces new international student fee. The Maneater. Retrieved from
• Hser, M. P. (2005). Campus internationalization: a study of American universities’ internationalization efforts. International
Education, 35(1), 35-48.
• Institute of International Education. (2015). Open doors factsheet: Missouri. Retrieved from
• International Student Heads Student Body. (ca. 1976). OPI, Office of Visitor Relations, Committee and Professional
materials (cont'd) (UW: C:1/51/8, Box 6) . University of Missouri Archives, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
• Knight, J. (2001). Internationalisation of higher education; a conceptual framework. In J. Knight & H. de Wit (Ed.),
Internationalisation of higher education in Asia Pacific countries, 14, 249-259.
• Missouri’s Foreign Students. (1907, May 25). UMC; Student Life & Activities; Newspapers; MSU Independent (UW: C:22/3/5,
OSB 2). University of Missouri Archives, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
• MU Archives. (2015). University Archives, Retrieved from http://muarchives.missouri.edu/
• MU Diversity. (2015). Statistics and Demographics: Ethnic/Racial Distribution Comparisons at MU. Retrieved from
• MU International Center. (2015a). Global Mizzou: Facts and figures. Retrieved from
• MU International Center. (2015b). Council on International Initiatives. Retrieved from
• NAFSA. (2003). In America’s interest: Welcoming international students. Report of the Strategic Task Force on International
Student Access, January, 1-26.
• Our Foreign Enrollment. (1905, April 1). UMC; Student Life & Activities; Newspapers; MSU Independent (UW: C/22/35, OSB
2). University of Missouri Archives, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
• Paletta, D. (2001, November 2). MU to give student records to government. Columbia Missourian, p. 7.
• Program Review: Center for International Programs and Studies. (May 1984). Box 4, Program Review Advisory Committee
(UW: C:6/24/13, Box 4). University of Missouri Archives, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
• Raechele L. Pope, John A. Mueller, & Amy L. Reynolds. (2009). Looking back and moving forward: Future directions for
diversity research in student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6 November/December), 640–658.
• Ruther, N. L. (2014). Barely there, powerfully present: Years of US policy on international higher education. New York, NY:
• Thelin, J. R. (2011). A history of American higher education (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
• U.S. Department of Justice. (December 11, 2002). Student and Exchange Visitor Information System. Retrieved from
• U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2015). Student and Exchange Visitor Information System. Retrieved from
• University of Missouri. (2015a). History of the University of Missouri. Retrieved from http://missouri.edu/about/history/history-
• University of the State of Missouri. Foreign students at M.U. (1849-1900). [Annotated Registration list]. UMC; University
General; Catalogs, Bulletins and Other Publications (UW: C:0/51/1, Series 4). University of Missouri Archives, University of
Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
• Vermillon, M. (1989). Opening doors to a global classroom. Missouri Alumnus, Winter Issue. Retrieved from
• Vestal, T. M. (1994). International education: Its history and promise for today. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Patrick Arsenault, M.Sc.
* Full Bibliography Available Upon Request *