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010 tides


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010 tides

  1. 1. Tides
  2. 2. <ul><li>High water: a water level maximum (&quot;high tide&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Low water: a water level minimum (&quot;low tide&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal range: the difference between high and low tide </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Tide: full moon and new moon (14.77 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Neap Tide : 1 st quarter and 3 rd quarter (14.77 days) </li></ul>Description of tides Intertidal zone High tide Low tide
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gravitational pull of the moon and sun </li></ul><ul><li>Centripetal force of the rotating Earth </li></ul>Tides are generated by:
  4. 4. Tides are generated by: <ul><li>the gravitational pull of the moon and sun </li></ul><ul><li>- moon has 2x greater gravitational pull than the </li></ul><ul><li> sun </li></ul><ul><li>- sun is 10 million x more massive than the </li></ul><ul><li> moon and is 390 times farther away </li></ul>
  5. 5. Centripetal force
  7. 7. Why Two Tides? <ul><li>Tides are caused by the stretching of a planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching is caused by a difference in forces on the two sides of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Since gravitational force depends on distance , there is more gravitational force on the side of Earth closest to the Moon and less gravitational force on the side of Earth farther from the Moon. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Tidal Patterns Semidiurnal tides - two high and two low per day; Cape Cod, MA (high latitudes) Diurnal tides - one high and one low per day; Mobile, AL (low latitudes) Mixed pattern tides - Two high and two low tides per day BUT with successive high tide levels that are VERY DIFFERENT from each other; Hawaii (mid latitudes) <ul><li>Type of tide depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Position on the globe </li></ul><ul><li>Water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Contour- shape of ocean basins </li></ul>
  9. 10. Timing the Tides <ul><li>The moon revolves around Earth much more slowly than Earth rotates. </li></ul><ul><li>High and low tides at that place happen 50 min. later each day. </li></ul>
  10. 11. How do Tides Vary? <ul><li>A tidal range is the difference between levels of ocean water at high tide and low tide. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined forces of the sun and the moon on Earth produce different tidal ranges. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hide Tides & Low Tides
  12. 13. <ul><li>Second highest tidal range at Ancorage Alaska ~ 12 m </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><li>Diurnal Tide : 24 hr 50 min cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi Diurnal Tide: 12 hr 25 min cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Tide: 12 hr 25 min cycle </li></ul></ul>Tidal Cycles
  14. 17. The Bay of Fundy: Site of the world’s largest tidal range <ul><li>Tidal energy is focused by shape and shallowness of bay </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum spring tidal range in Minas Basin = 17 meters (56 feet) </li></ul>
  15. 18. Alma at High Tide Alma at Low Tide
  16. 19. La Rance tidal power plant at St. Malo, France.
  17. 20. Corals exposed to air at extreme low tide
  18. 21. Bay of Fundy – tide gets huge (15 m) because of resonance High tide Low tide (  6 hours later)
  19. 22. Earth’s Tides <ul><li>There are 2 high tides and 2 low tides per day. </li></ul><ul><li>The tides follow the Moon. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Tidal bore = a true tidal wave <ul><li>Wall of water that moves upriver </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by an incoming high tide </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in some low-lying rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Can be large enough to surf or raft </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>St. Michel, N. coast of France </li></ul><ul><li>~16.8 m highest tidal range in Nova Scotia </li></ul>
  22. 25. Nova Scotia Tides <ul><li>Wolfville, NS (16 m tidal range) </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal Tides (one high and one low every 12 hours and 25 minutes </li></ul>
  23. 26. Why the Moon ? <ul><li>The Sun’s gravitational pull on Earth is much larger than the Moon’s gravitational pull on Earth. So why do the tides follow the Moon and not the Sun? </li></ul>
  24. 27. Why the Moon ? <ul><li>Since the Sun is much farther from Earth than the Moon, the difference in distance across Earth is much less significant for the Sun than the Moon, therefore the difference in gravitational force on the two sides of Earth is less for the Sun than for the Moon (even though the Sun’s force on Earth is more). </li></ul>
  25. 28. Why the Moon ? <ul><li>The Sun does have a small effect on Earth’s tides, but the major effect is due to the Moon. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Different kind of tides <ul><li>Spring tides: tides that have the largest daily tidal range are spring tides. </li></ul><ul><li>Neap tides: tides that have the smallest daily tidal range are called neap tides. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Earth-Moon-Sun positions and the monthly tidal cycle Spring Tide Highest high tide and lowest low tide Neap Tide Moderate tidal range
  28. 31. Tides <ul><li>The rise and fall in sea level is called a tide . </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a giant wave . </li></ul><ul><li>One low-tide/high-tide cycle takes about 12 hrs and 25 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal range is the difference in ocean level between high-tide and low-tide </li></ul>
  29. 32. Gravitational Effect of the Sun <ul><li>Spring Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth, Moon, and Sun are lined up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Tides are higher and Low Tides are lower than normal </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Gravitational Effect of the Sun <ul><li>Neap Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth, Moon, and Sun form right angles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Tides are lower and Low Tides are higher than normal </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Why Tides Happen? <ul><li>The moon’s gravity pulls on every particle on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>However, the gravity doesn’t pull on every particle with the same length of strength. </li></ul><ul><li>The moon’s gravitational pull on Earth decreases with the distance from the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the pull on different parts of the Earth is stronger than on other parts. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Sun and moon effects can be additive or not…
  33. 36. By the time the Earth has completed one revolution (one day), the moon has moved slightly, so the Earth needs to rotate a bit more to catch up with the moon…
  34. 37. The monthly tidal cycle (29½ days) <ul><li>About every 7 days, Earth alternates between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring tide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment of Earth-Moon-Sun system (syzygy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lunar and solar bulges constructively interfere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large tidal range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neap tide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth-Moon-Sun system at right angles (quadrature) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lunar and solar bulges destructively interfere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small tidal range </li></ul></ul></ul>