The technology of future. Submitted by, Guided by,Joshi Pathik V. Miss A. D. Bhople
Contents Introduction History Present Future Procedure of Working Features of different parameters Application Conclusion References
Introduction Information security is concerned with the assurance of confidentially, integrity and availability of information in all forms. This is the ancient Greek word: bios = “life” and metron = “measure.” Biometric systems based on single source of information are called unicode system.
History European Explorer Joao de Barros recorded the first known example of fingerprinting in China during the 14th century. 1980:- Alphonse Bertillon studied body mechanics and measurements to help in identifying criminals. Karl Pearson, an applied mathematician studied biometric research early in 20th century at University college of London. In the 1960 and 1970, signature biometric, authentication procedures were
Present Today, biometric lows and regulations are in process and biometric industry standard are being tested. It divided in two parts, Behavioural Parameters Behavioural Parameters•Fingerprint •Gait•Palmprint •Voice•Hand Veins •Signature•Face •Keystroke•Iris•Retina•DNA
Future A biometric system can provide two functions. One of which is verification and the other is Authentication. In the near future, these biometric techniques can be the solution for the current threats in the world of information security. Due to dynamic modification of the proposed metric, the rejection ration for a some person reduces by a lot.
Features of Different Parameters Fingerprint Iris Technology Retina Geometry Technology Face Recognition Technology Hand Geometry Technology Voice Recognition Techniques Signature Verification Technique
Fingerprint The size of fingerprint is around 10*10*15. Arch Loop Whorl Ridge ending Bifurcation Short Ridge
In this way the total features and template of Fingerprint is as following. The matcher matches any two templates as following image.
Iris Recognition This can be a combination of specific characteristics known as corona, crypts, filaments, freckles, pits, furr ows, striations and rings.
Retina Geometry Technology A retinal scan involves the use of a low-intensity coherent light source, which is projected onto the retina to illuminate the blood vessels which are then photographed and analyzed. A retinal scan has an error rate of 1 in 10,000,000, compared to fingerprint identification error being sometimes as high as 1 in 500.
Face Recognition Technology Facial metric technology on the manufacture of the specific facial features. Eigen Face
Hand Geometry Technology There techniques include the estimation of length, width, thickness and surface area of the hand.
Voice Recognition Techniques Voice verification focuses on the vocal characteristics that produce speeches and not on the sound or the pronunciation of speech itself. The vocal characteristics depend on the dimensions of the vocal tract, mouth, nasal cavities and the other speech processing mechanism of the human body.
Signature Verification Technique The dynamics is measured as a means of the pressure, direction, acceleration and the length of the strokes, dynamics number of strokes and their duration. These are either traditional tablets or special purpose devices. Tablets capture 2D coordinates and the pressure.
Application of Biometrics Security Authentication E-commerce and E-governments Secure Banking and Financial Transaction Digital Rights Management Healthcare Application Crime Investigation Social Services
Conclusion While Biometric authentication can offer a high degree of security, they are far from perfect solution. The influences of biometric technology on society and the risks to privacy and threat to identify will require meditation through legislation.
References Smart Cart Alliance Identity Council (2007): Identity and Smart Card Technology and Application Glossary, http://www.smartcardalliances.org Langenburg, Glenn (January 24, 2005). "Are ones fingerprints similar to those of his or her parents in any discernable way?". Scientific American. Retrieved 28 August 2010. Thornton, John (May 9, 2000). "Latent Fingerprints, Setting Standards In The Comparison and Identification". 84th Annual Training Conference of the California State Division of IAI. Retrieved 30 August 2010. Wikipedia Image http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biometric_system_diagram.png Sanjay R. Ganorkar, Ashok A. Ghatol, “Iris Recognition: An Emerging Biometrics Technology”, In Proc. of The sixth WSEAS International Conference on Single Processing, Robotics and Automation, Greece, Feb. 2007, pp. 91 – 96 J. L. Wayman, A. K. Jain, D. Maltoni, and D. Maio, Eds, “Biometrics Systems: Technology, Design and Performance Evolution”, New York: Spinger Verlag, 2005 M. A. Dabbah, W. L. Woo, and S. S. Dlay, “Secure Authentication for Face Recognition”, In Proc. of IEEE Symposium on computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing, April 2007, USA, pp. 121 – 126 A. Kumar, D. C. Wong, H. C. Shen and A. K. Jain , “Personal Verification using Palmprinnt and Hand Geometry Biometrics”, In Proc. of fourth International Conference on Audio and Video based Biometric Person Authentication, Guildford, U.K. January 2003, pp 668-678 S. Furui, “Recent Advances in Speaker Recognition”, In Proc. of first International Conference on Audio and video based Biometric person Authentication, UK, March 1997, pp 859 – 872 A.K. Jain, A. Ross, and S. Prabhakar, “An Introduction to Biometrics Recognition,” IEEE Trans. Circuit Syst. Video Technology, Special Issue Image and Video based Biometrics, Volume 14, Issue 1st January 2004, pp. 4 – 20