PLANTS: structure and function March 2008 Mrs.. Snyder
Plants: Grouped by characteristics Vascular Three main parts: roots, stems and leaves Roots can be different sizes: Fibrous and tap roots Storage roots; beets, carrots, sweet potatoes and turnips Roots have different functions: anchoring the plant, taking in water and minerals, and store food. Nonvascular Simple; most grow in moist places No vascular tissues.
a protectivecovering that makes seeds.surrounds theseed makes the plants food. carries water and food to the rest of the plant.anchor the plantin place andabsorb waterand otherminerals fromthe soil.
Vascular Plants: Stems Function of stems Support, transport of water & food Most stems grow upward Some stems grow sideward Types of stems Green Woody Transport of materials Xylem & phloem
Vascular Plants: Leaves Leaves come in variety of shapes and sizes Leaves are arranged in different ways
What do plants do? All plants are alike in one way. They need three things in order to survive Water carbon dioxide energy from sunlight Classify – to sort into groups What do you suppose the plants based on similarities and use these things for? differences
They turn it into sugar! photosynthesis – a process by which plants change light energy from the sun and use it to make sugar Plants and some protists conduct photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis A movie of photosynthesis As a plant makes sugar, oxygen is chlorophyll – thereleased green substance When the plant uses the sugar, found in plants that trapswater and carbon dioxide are energy from thereleased. sun and gives plants their green color carbon dioxide – a gas found in air
How Do Plants Get EnergyPlant leaves change light Stomata areenergy into energy tiny holes onthe plant can use. the bottom of the leaf that let air (CO2.) in and (O2)out. They get sunlight, Roots get water and minerals directly from the water, and air (CO2.) soil. The veins of a leaf bring water and minerals to the leaf from the stems and roots.
Because of this process Scientists are able to classify living things by the way they get their food. Plants are producers (autotrophs) producer – it is a living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar. This sugar feeds others.
What Are the Sepal – one of the leaf- like parts that protects Parts of a Flower a flower bud and that is usually green Most flowers have four Pistil – part of a flower parts that makes the eggs that grow into seeds Stamen – part of a flower that makes pollen Pollen – tiny grains Flower parts that make seeds when combined with a flower’s egg
Male cones Female cones (in clusters) (scattered)
Characteristics of Gymnospermstall evergreen trees roots, woody stemsneedle-shaped leavesvascular tissues (transport)cones with reproductive structuresnaked seeds in female conesdry places
Ovary – the bottom part of the pistilHow Do Flowers Make Seeds in which seeds and Fruits? form Ovule - the innerGreat Plant Escape- Plant parts part of an ovary that contains an egg embryo – tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plant
How Seeds Form After fertilization the flower dries up and petals fall off, leaving just the pistil and its ovary. The top of the pistil falls off and the ovary gets larger as one or more seeds form inside it. When the seeds are formed, the ovary dries up and the seeds fall out. Corn, Beans, and Peas are seeds that we eat
How Fertilization Occurs When a pollen grain reaches a pistil, it grows a thin tube to the ovary. Sperm from the pollen grain combines with an egg, and a seed forms. Fertilization – the combination of sperm from a pollen grain with an egg to form a seed
How Pollination Occurs Butterflies may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of the the same flower. Sometimes the butterfly may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of another flowerPollination- themovement of pollen of the same kind.from a stamen to a Pollen: Nothing to Sneeze Atpistil
Some flowering plants aremonocotseed – a dicot seed – aseed that seed that has twohas one seed leaves thatseed leaf contain storedand foodstoredfoodoutsidethe seedleaf
monocotseed – a dicot seed – aseed that seed that has twohas one seed leaves thatseed leaf contain storedand foodstoredfoodoutsidethe seedleaf
What is the Life Cycle of aFlowering Plant dormant – the resting stage of a seed Dormant Seed Takes in water and the seed coat gets soft. If the seed has enough oxygen and the right temperature, it will begin to germinate.
Geminating Seed First a root pushes through the seed coat and grows downward. The top part of the root grows upward and becomes the stem. The stem carries the seed coat and the seed leaves with it. The seed coat falls off. The seed leaves provide food for the plant. Two small leaves begin to grow from between the seed leaves.
Seedling When the stored food within the original seed leaves is used up, they dry up and drop off. More leaves grow from buds on the stem as the plant grows taller. The new leaves can trap energy from sunlight and make sugar. Plants use the energy in the sugar to grow.
How Do Other Living ThingsGet Energy? All living things need energy to surviveConsumer – a living thing that gets energy by eating plants and other animals
Animals cannot uselight energy to makesugar. Animalsdepend on plants forfood. Decomposer – a consumer that puts materials from dead plants and animals back into the soil, air, and water
Consider this…. What is one way to classify all plants into two groups How do plants that do not make seeds reproduce? In what part of a flower are seeds made? How are flowers pollinated? How is a monocot seed different from a dicot seed?