Use the tutorial to show how different pieced are integrated into one case
Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction
Design Decisions Informed by Theory Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Self- Directed Online Instruction Heng Luo (Patrick), Syracuse University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tiffany A. Koszalka, Syracuse University. E-mail: email@example.com
The importance of theory informed design Case-basedDiscussion method in online instruction The design decisions informed Preliminary Results by theory and technology
The importance of theory informed design Problem The capacity of technology • more interactive • Customizable • Multi-functional • Easy-to-use Technology integration in education • Minor supplement • New tools in old model • Used inconsistently and infrequently • Little conclusive effect
The importance of theory informed design Reason Existing theory in ID and psychology The development and refinement of its application Their contribution Technology to an Rationale behind design functions and existing decisions supported by data affordances instructional solution Cutting-edge technologies Design implications
Design decisions informed by theory Existing instruction What do we Gap have problem What Design What Technology Designed we we can affordances instruction need decisions do solution integration What works Theories
Case-based method in online instruction Why the case-based method? Well-established theory Easily supported by technologies The gap in research
Case-based method in online instruction What do we know about it?Table 1: Preliminary results from literature review on the case-based method.Definition It embraces an array of pedagogical practices with no precise connotation (Dooley & Skinner, 1977). Some well-cited definitions include the ones coined by Matejka & Cosse (1981), and Ertmer & Russel (1995).Key characteristics Cases are used as exemplars, as opportunities to practice analysis and contemplate action, and as stimulant for personal reflection (Merseth, 1996)Theoretical roots It is rooted in the learning theory that sees human mind as a pattern recognizer (Churchland, 1995; Clark, 1997, 2003; Elman et al., 1996); it is also considered as a type of problem-based instruction (Jonassen & Hernandez-Serrano, 2002).Benefits It enhances learner’s understanding of concepts and problem-solving skills, promotes discussion, reflection and critical thinking, increases motivation and retention.Limitations Cases are expensive and time consuming to develop; they place high demand on teachers and can be inefficient, episodic, discontinuous and unstructured in some contexts (Shulman, 1992).Factors affecting Learner characteristics like self-awareness, goal-orientation, priortechnology-supported knowledge and leaning styles (Ertmer et al., 1996; Choi et al., 2008); casecase-based instruction modality, user control and instructor’s role (Baker, 2009).
Case-based method in online instruction How to study it? The research method is guided by the formative Phase One: Define key research methodology proposed by Reigeluth and Frick characteristics of the case-based method (1999). The study will be conducted in the following four and provide interrelated phases to address the research questions: implications for design Phase Four: Revise the Phase Two: Develop a theory of case-based self-directed online method for designing tutorial as an instance self-directed online of the case-based instruction method.http://entrepforkid.syr.edu/index.html Phase Three: Refine the online tutorial through iterative cycles of tests and revisions.
Design decisions informed by theoryFor detailed information regarding the design and development of theCase-based online tutorial, please visit the International Journal of Designs forLearning. http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/ijdl/article/view/1102/1296 content layout source Case development
Content: five componentsA typical online tutorial Case-based tutorial
Component 1: definition of entrepreneurial skills
Component 2 : multimedia casesComponent 3: text description of strategies, activities and techniques
Source: where to find case materialsCuriosity Creek After School Program: What is it?Curiosity Creek: why is it? Many important entrepreneurial skills can be developed in the program activities. The club is based on the concept that students’ subject- matter expertise and skills can be developed through fun, hands-on and themed activities. Curiosity Creek as a good example showing that an entrepreneurship program can embrace different themes and formats appropriate for children. Our facilitating experience provided us with abundant first- hand materials for case development, which made cases more vivid, interesting and rich in context; it also made case development much easier for us.
Case Development: what are effective cases and how to create them? criteria materials Presentation Purpose • authentic • Conversation • image • grounded in • representative • problems • video skill • relevant • worksheets • animation development • interesting • student works • based on learning • thought- • Reflection objectives provoking • other
A Case of Case Development: brainstorming activity
Preliminary results: Cases1. Cases to facilitate learning: most participants agreed that real cases helped them comprehend abstract concepts, and some cases furthered their understanding of a specific concept, and inspired new ideas for them. Artifacts such as worksheets, sample works were also effective cases.
Ratings on the Case and Non-Case Features of the Online Tutorial No Statement Sum Mean N=111 The content in the tutorial presented specific knowledge within the 14 1.27 context of an after-school program for elementary and middle school students.3 The scenarios discussed in the tutorial helped me understand my 8 0.73 instructional design context better.5 I often got bored during the tutorial. 1 0.09 (reversed)7 The cases discussed in the tutorial helped me focus on designing for 11 1.00 entrepreneurial skills development.9 My design ideas at the end of the tutorial were inspired by studying the 6 0.55 cases in the tutorial.11 I learned useful lessons of how to develop entrepreneurial skills for 11 1.00 children by completing the tutorial. 51 0.772 I needed to memorizes many facts during the tutorial -1 -0.094 I needed to assess my comprehension of the content in one tutorial 4 0.36 before moving to the next.6 I engaged in many hands-on activities during the tutorial. -6 -0.558 What I found the most useful in the tutorial were the definitions of key 6 0.55 concepts (e.g. entrepreneurial traits, innovation, etc.)10 My learning heavily relied on the external information sources (e.g. -14 -1.27 websites, database, linked documents) provided by the tutorial. -11 -0.2
Comprehension of tutorial content “it is not above my head, it is something that I can connect at a practical level and use that information to inform whatever my design is going to come out to be.” “I learned information from the context, and it also broadened my limited view on this whole entrepreneurial theme. Because I think the examples in the tutorial include doing something for the environment, something with insects; and I am like: ‘Mm, why I was thinking of this project in such a limited way!’ I didn’t even think of doing a project that can be focusing on the environment, or promoting that aspect of it.”Change on learning outcome From “business presentation” to “science fair”Artifacts like students’ work or instructionalworksheets are useful cases.
Preliminary results: Multimedia2. Multimedia as effective delivery format: multimedia cases were preferred by the participants, who spent more time on pages with animations or videos. Many participants identified themselves as visual learners and claimed the use of multimedia activated multiple senses for learning thus enhanced long-term memory. However, some considered the use of images or animations as “elementary” and were annoyed by the “popped-up stuff”.
Rating on the Usefulness of Multimedia in the Online Tutorial: No Statement Sum Mean N=1112 Multimedia elements (e.g. video, audio, images, and animation) 15 1.36 used in the tutorial increased the authenticity of the cases. (authenticity: the quality of being real or true)13 Multimedia elements like the help-aids and examples of student 13 1.18 products helped me better understand the concepts presented in the tutorial14 Some of my design ideas were inspired by studying multimedia 7 0.64 elements (video, image, or animation, etc.) presented in the tutorial15 I prefer cases to be presented in text with less multimedia. 13 1.18 (reversed)16 I like how the cases were presented in an online tutorial. 7 0.6417 Multimedia elements used in the tutorial made the cases more 11 1.00 interesting18 I think the use of multimedia in the case descriptions was 9 0.82 distracting (reversed)19 Use of multimedia enhanced my understanding of the cases. 12 1.0920 Use of multimedia prolonged my process of studying a case. 5 0.45 (reversed) 92 0.93
During the interview, the participants described theirlearning experience with both the paper-based tutorial andthe multimedia online tutorial. The common reasonsparticipants gave for their preference for the multimediaone are 1) it fits their learning style; 2) it seems moreinteresting and stimulating; 3) it activates multiple sensesand enhanced information storage and retrieval.However, multimedia is not the solution for everyone. “I didn’t need the ‘elementary’ part on the left; I felt like, you know, I am not a little kid, I can understand from reading of what it is; I don’t need see a picture.” “Well, the only thing that I thought was weird was, when I was reading on the tutorial; and later the picture on the side, you guys would have talking bubbles (emerging captions) … I would be reading, and the talking bubbles would start to appear, so I couldn’t keep up with reading what I was trying to read on the side (laugh)...I want to see what they (bubbles) were saying, but I wanted to finish reading the information first.”
Preliminary results: Interactive features3. Mixed findings about interactive features:Participants were aware of the interactive features andactively responded to them. The most appreciatedfeatures were those providing learner controls.However, participants considered the interaction asinadequate to facilitate a two-way communication andprovide useful feedback.
Participants’ Ratings on the Usefulness of Interactions in the Online Tutorial No Statement Sum Mean N=1121 The tutorial offered me a wide range of hints and help options to help me 9 0.82 understand the case.22 I felt like I was having a conversation with the tutorial during my learning -7 -.064 process.23 The case narrations included enough interactions to help me reflect on 6 0.55 my learning process. (Interaction can be defined as learner controlled instructional engagement, such as controlling the learning progress, reflecting on the prompting questions, etc.)24 I responded to most of interaction cues offered in the tutorial during my 9 0.82 learning process. (an interaction cue is a sign for users to interact with the tutorial)25 I developed appropriate design ideas when responding to interaction 5 0.45 cues.26 The tutorial offered me useful feedback on my learning. -3 -0.2727 I was able to control my own learning speed during the tutorial. 15 1.36 34 0.44
learner control: “because sometimes when you look at things you can’t really (understand), you are like, ‘oh, how does this really relate to the step before?’ so you can click and go back there again”. “No problem controlling my learning” Versus “there I couldn’t control anything; I wanted to hit next when I wanted to hit next, and it wasn’t letting me bring it (the next button) up until I watched the example... Yeah, I was getting annoyed.”Get engaged: “click through” the tutorial gave me“mental breaks to go through more things in the next session”. “You could interact with the tutorial... I got bored from time to time, that helps to cut down my boredom”.Summary Page “because going through the first session of the tutorial, I wasn’t thinking like, okay, what are the entrepreneurial skills? like communication, teambuilding... I didn’t really think about that when I started to type stuff in, when I clicked on the summary page, that’s when it occurred to me, like, “okay…” and I started to think in these terms.”
Preliminary results: Navigation pattern4. Navigation pattern: generally participants wouldfollow the “top-down, left-right” natural tendency, andconstantly compared the text instruction with themultimedia content. They actually spent more time ontext content; and were likely to skip images withoutanimated effects.
Eye gaze within the firstsecond when an animated cue appears
Proposed guidelines for designing case-based online instruction1. Artifacts such as sample products, worksheets, and help-aids can also be used as cases; which provide evidence for instructional outcome and ready-to-use instructional materials for similar contexts.2. In general, cases should be presented in multimedia format, since multimedia cases provide more stimuli, convey more information, and accommodate for different learning preferences. However, the quantity, length and style of multimedia cases should adjust accordingly based on the characteristics of the target users, if known.3. Use animations with caution. Although animation is very effective to attract learners’ attention, it can cause a sense of confusion or surprise if not well designed.4. Embed different interactive features to offer great learner control in online CBI. Interactive features should allow learners to locate information, adjust speed, skim or skip certain content with great ease. Instruction for using such interactive features should be made explicit and visible.5. Incorporate interactive features that provide feedback. Learners need adequate and immediate feedback in online instruction, especially when instructors are not available. Certain interactive feature should engage students in self-assessment, provide evaluative result, and prompt reflection.
Questions?Heng Luo (Patrick), Syracuse University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTiffany A. Koszalka, Syracuse University. E-mail: email@example.com