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Pat Heslop-Harrison
phh@molcyt.com
www.molcyt.com
89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting
Centennial of the discovery of th...
H Kihara 1945
Hsu, Tao-Chiuh. Mammalian chromosomes in vitro. I. The karyotype of man. J. Hered. 1952.
TC (Tao-chiuh) Hsu
April 17, 1917...
CHAPTER 24:
THE FUTURE
“Probably the most pressing
problem in chromosome
research is the understanding of
the molecular ar...
Rye chromosomes 2n=2x=14
Satellite DNA probe green
45S rDNA probe (NORs) red
Wheat and wild relatives
Satellite DNA probe green
45S rDNA probe (NORs) red
Lodging in cereals
Triticum aestivum wheat ‘Rendezvous’
eyespot (Oculimacula/Pseudocercosporella) resistance from Aegilops ventricosa
pSc119....
Inheritance of Chromosome 5D
dpTa1
×Aegilopsventricosa DDNN
ABDN
AABBDDNN Marne
AABBDD
VPM1
×
Triticum persicum Ac.1510 AA...
Inheritance of Chromosome 5D
dpTa1
×Aegilopsventricosa DDNN
ABDN
AABBDDNN Marne
AABBDD
CWW1176-4
Rendezvous
Piko
VPM1 Dwar...
Highest yielding group1 breadmaking
wheat in UK, released 2013
Includes pch1
WHEAT EVOLUTION AND HYBRIDS
Triticum uratu
2n=2x=14
AA
Einkorn
Triticum monococcum
2n=2x=14
AA
Bread wheat
Triticum
aestiv...
Wheat 5AS.5RL at meiosis
Schwarzacher 1997 Plant Sexual Reproduction 10, 324-331
Meiotic interphase Leptotene
Zygotene Pac...
Saffron
Crocus sativus
2n=3x=24
Minimal if any genetic variation
Vegetatively propagated
Grown (China), Kashmir, Europe, I...
Identical patterns in fingerprint gel with
diverse Saffron accessions (18=garden-hyb)
Nouf Alsayied, HH et al Ann Bot 2015
Variable patterns in 11 Crocus species,
including intra-specific variation
(19-21 and 22-24)
Saffron 1-5
A garden plant in UK : Crocus ‘Golden Yellow’ triploid 2n=3x=14
C. flavus 2n=2x=8 (8 yellow) C. angustifolius 2n=2x=12 (6 ...
Metaphase I in triploid hybrid Golden Yellow Crocus
Four bivalents C. flavus (2n=2x=8)-origin chromosomes
Six univalents C...
Origins of Crocus sativus
(Not only from C. cartwrightianus by
autotriploidy)
C. cartwrightianus crossed with a related
sp...
Saffron: another triploid Crocus sativus
Pachytene: so no variation from meiosis
DAPI
Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene
Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis in
6x wheat
CENH3 centromere
ASY1 as...
(a) Interphase (b) Leptotene (c) Early Zygotene
CENH3TRSDAPICENH3ASY1CENH3ASY1
CENH3 centromere
ASY1 associated with the l...
Centromere dynamics and timing of chromosome synapsis (6x wheat)
Sepsi et al. Plant Journal 2017
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
...
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
ASY1CENH3DAPI
Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene
Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis
Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene
Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis
(b) Centromere depolarisation and SC formation during Zygotene
Interphase Leptotene Zygotene Late ZygoteneTelomere
bouquet...
Recombination in alien fragments
Th. intermedium DNA-green
AfaThin-red
Trude Schwarzacher, Niaz Ali
Ph-locus controls pair...
Thinopyrum (wheat grasses) is source for
biotic and abiotic stress tolerance
NO2Y5149 Mace Tomahawk
Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus resistance
From Thinopyrum intermedium in wheat
Th. intermedium
DNA
pSc119.2/CS13
4D
4D
4D T4DL*4Ai#2S
DAPI Afa Thin all
(blue) (green) (red)
Presence of T4DL recombinant...
SOME LINES ALSO
CARRY A THIN OR RYE
FRAGMENT ON
CHROMOSOME 1B
Th. intermedium
DNA
pSc119.2/CS13
Rye DNA
dpTa1/Afa
Ali N, H...
WHEAT TH. BESSARABICUM TRANSLOCATIONS
Patokar C, Sepsi A, Schwarzacher T, Kishii M, Heslop-
Harrison JS (2016) Molecular c...
• Recent polyploidy
• Revealed by cytogenetics and hybridization
• Recent rearrangements or duplications
• Revealed by mol...
Dasypyrum breviaristatum
2n=4x=28
Is it AAAA or AABB?
D. villosum (genomic DNA
green) × D. breviaristatum
(red)
Meiotic me...
B. nigra
BB
2n=2x=16
760Mbp
B. rapa
AA
2n=2x=20
564Mbp
B. juncea
AABB
2n=4x=36
1495Mbp
B. carinata
BBCC
2n=4x=34
1544Mbp
B...
Fertility restorer
Rfk1 gene BAC
(yellow probe) in
turnip rape
(Brassica rapa)
2n=2x=20A+2R
metaphase with
radish (Raphanu...
• Recent polyploidy
• Revealed by cytogenetics and hybridization
• Recent rearrangements or duplications
• Revealed by mol...
BIODIVERSITY and genetic resources
Red - AAA
Palayam codan AAB (two bunch yellow, one green)
Peyan ABB (green cooking bana...
THE BANANA GENOME• Seven countries + international organization coordinated by Angelique D’Hont - France (CIRAD,
Genoscope)
A D’Hont et al. Nature 000, 1-5 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11241
Whole-genome duplication events.
Bryophytes
(ca. 20,000 species)
green plants
land plants
vascular plants
seed plants
flowering plants
diversification of a...
Petunia hybrida
P. inflata X P. axillaris
2n=14 x 2n=14
Bomberley, Kuhlemeier et al. 2016 Insight into the
evolution of th...
Sol-alpha:
Palaeohexaploidy in
Solanaceae
Paleopolyploidy events
followed by massive gene
loss and chromosomal
structural ...
• Alix et al. 2017. Annals of Botany
NASA
The Blue Marble
Apollo 17 7 Dec 1972
Apollo 17 – The Blue Marble December 7, 1972
Use biodiversity in germplasm
to meet challenges
Population increase
higher living standards / health
fossil fuel use
clim...
Outputs
–CROPS
– Fixed energy
Inputs
–Light
–Heat
–Water
–Gasses
–NutrientsLand
Inputs
–Light
–Heat
–Water
–Gasses
–Nutrients
–Light
–Heat
–Water
–Gasses
–Nutrients
(Ecosystem services)
Outputs
–CROPS
–...
Outputs
–Crops
(Chemical energy)
– Food
– Feed
– Fuel
– Fibre
– Flowers
– Pharmaceuticals
– Fun61
2 End hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition & promote
sustainable agriculture
15 Protect, restore and promote s...
Legislation: European Parliament & Commission
EVOLUTION OF WHEATS - POLYPLOIDY
Common Ancestor
2n=2x=14
Aegilops ventricosa
2n=4x=28
DDNN
Triticum tauschii
2n=2x=14
DD
...
Nothing special about crop genomes?
Crop Genome size 2n Ploidy Food
Rice 400 Mb 24 2 3x endosperm
Wheat 17,000 Mbp 42 6 3x...
From Chromosome to Nucleus
Pat Heslop-Harrison phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com
Pat Heslop-Harrison
phh@molcyt.com
www.molcyt.com
89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting
Centennial of the discovery of th...
How to use diversity
• Cross two varieties
• Genome manipulations
• Cross two species and make a new one
• Cell fusion hyb...
• Abiotic stresses – water, wind, nitrogen, plant
nutrition
• Biotic stresses – disease – competition,
nematodes, fungi, b...
• 50% of the world's protein needs are
derived from atmospheric nitrogen fixed
by the Haber-Bosch process and its
successo...
Conventional Breeding
Superdomestication
• Cross the best with the best and hope for something
better
• Decide what is wan...
Economic growth
• Separate into increases in inputs
(resources, labour and capital) and
technical progress
• 90% of the gr...
Are there many candidates?
• 250,000 plants
• 4,629 mammals
• 9,200 birds
• 10,000,000 insects
• But only 200 plants, 15 m...
Probably not many more
(at least for plants)
• Spread of the few species
• Little change since early agriculture
• Repeate...
(Some text deleted to focus for IAEA/FAO CRP)
Pat Heslop-Harrison
phh@molcyt.com
www.molcyt.com
89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting
Centennial of the discovery of th...
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama
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Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama

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Polyploidy, its occurrence in plants, consequences and evolutionary significance. Lecture to Japanese Genetics Society, Okayama, September 2017. Covering wheat and its evolution

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Polyploids and Chromosomes Lecture Japanese Genetics Society Heslop-Harrison Okayama

  1. 1. Pat Heslop-Harrison phh@molcyt.com www.molcyt.com 89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting Centennial of the discovery of the correct chromosome number and polyploidy in wheat Polyploidy, its distribution and evolutionary significance
  2. 2. H Kihara 1945
  3. 3. Hsu, Tao-Chiuh. Mammalian chromosomes in vitro. I. The karyotype of man. J. Hered. 1952. TC (Tao-chiuh) Hsu April 17, 1917 – July 9, 2003 Tjio & Levan 1956: 2n=46
  4. 4. CHAPTER 24: THE FUTURE “Probably the most pressing problem in chromosome research is the understanding of the molecular architecture of the chromosomes” “Evolutionary studies using cytogenetic characteristics should gain more sophistication and momentum” 1979
  5. 5. Rye chromosomes 2n=2x=14 Satellite DNA probe green 45S rDNA probe (NORs) red
  6. 6. Wheat and wild relatives
  7. 7. Satellite DNA probe green 45S rDNA probe (NORs) red
  8. 8. Lodging in cereals
  9. 9. Triticum aestivum wheat ‘Rendezvous’ eyespot (Oculimacula/Pseudocercosporella) resistance from Aegilops ventricosa pSc119.2 dpTa1
  10. 10. Inheritance of Chromosome 5D dpTa1 ×Aegilopsventricosa DDNN ABDN AABBDDNN Marne AABBDD VPM1 × Triticum persicum Ac.1510 AABB VPM1: The entire original chromosome from Ae. ventricosa is not transferred, but a small is translocated to the Marne 5D
  11. 11. Inheritance of Chromosome 5D dpTa1 ×Aegilopsventricosa DDNN ABDN AABBDDNN Marne AABBDD CWW1176-4 Rendezvous Piko VPM1 Dwarf A 96ST61 Virtue × × × Hobbit × {Kraka×(Huntsman × Fruhgold)} Triticum persicum Ac.1510 AABB VPM1: The original chromosome from Ae. ventricosa is not transferred, but a small segment is translocated to the Marne 5D transferred to further recombinant 5D chromosomes
  12. 12. Highest yielding group1 breadmaking wheat in UK, released 2013 Includes pch1
  13. 13. WHEAT EVOLUTION AND HYBRIDS Triticum uratu 2n=2x=14 AA Einkorn Triticum monococcum 2n=2x=14 AA Bread wheat Triticum aestivum 2n=6x=42 AABBDD Durum/Spaghetti Triticum turgidum ssp durum 2n=4x=28 AABB Triticum dicoccoides 2n=4x=28 AABB Aegilops speltoides relative 2n=2x=14 BB Triticum tauschii (Aegilops squarrosa) 2n=2x=14 DD Triticale xTriticosecale 2n=6x=42 AABBRR Rye Secale cereale 2n=2x=14 RR
  14. 14. Wheat 5AS.5RL at meiosis Schwarzacher 1997 Plant Sexual Reproduction 10, 324-331 Meiotic interphase Leptotene Zygotene Pachytene MI
  15. 15. Saffron Crocus sativus 2n=3x=24 Minimal if any genetic variation Vegetatively propagated Grown (China), Kashmir, Europe, Iran Most valuable agricultural/farmed product AlSayied, HH et al. 2015. Ann Bot
  16. 16. Identical patterns in fingerprint gel with diverse Saffron accessions (18=garden-hyb) Nouf Alsayied, HH et al Ann Bot 2015
  17. 17. Variable patterns in 11 Crocus species, including intra-specific variation (19-21 and 22-24) Saffron 1-5
  18. 18. A garden plant in UK : Crocus ‘Golden Yellow’ triploid 2n=3x=14 C. flavus 2n=2x=8 (8 yellow) C. angustifolius 2n=2x=12 (6 green) Orgaard, Jacobsen & HH ‘Stellaris’ hybrid diploid 2n=2x=10 C. flavus 2n=2x=8 (4 green) C. angustifolius 2n=2x=12 (6 blue) Orgaard & HH, Ann Bot
  19. 19. Metaphase I in triploid hybrid Golden Yellow Crocus Four bivalents C. flavus (2n=2x=8)-origin chromosomes Six univalents C. angustifolius (2n=2x=12)
  20. 20. Origins of Crocus sativus (Not only from C. cartwrightianus by autotriploidy) C. cartwrightianus crossed with a related species involving unreduced gamete F1 hybrid between 2 species crossed with 3rd species with an unreduced gamete AAA AA’B ABC 5 III + 3 II + 3 I 8 III ? John Bailey, Farah Badakshi, Nouf Alsayied, Trude Schwarzacher Genomic constitution
  21. 21. Saffron: another triploid Crocus sativus Pachytene: so no variation from meiosis DAPI
  22. 22. Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis in 6x wheat CENH3 centromere ASY1 associated with the lateral elements ZYP1 central element of the synaptonemal complex CENH3 centromere ASY1 associated with the lateral elements ZYP1 central element of the synaptonemal complex Sepsi, Heslop-Harrison, Schwarzacher et al. Plant Journal 2017
  23. 23. (a) Interphase (b) Leptotene (c) Early Zygotene CENH3TRSDAPICENH3ASY1CENH3ASY1 CENH3 centromere ASY1 associated with the lateral elements ZYP1 central element of the synaptonemal complex
  24. 24. Centromere dynamics and timing of chromosome synapsis (6x wheat) Sepsi et al. Plant Journal 2017 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Interphase Leptotene Early Mid-late Pachytene Diplotene Zygotene Zygotene 2n=42 3 x 14 chromosomes 21 bivalents 3 x 7 pairs of chromosomes
  25. 25. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) ASY1CENH3DAPI
  26. 26. Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis
  27. 27. Mid Zygotene Pachytene DiploteneEarly Zygotene Dynamics of centromeres during meiosis
  28. 28. (b) Centromere depolarisation and SC formation during Zygotene Interphase Leptotene Zygotene Late ZygoteneTelomere bouquet Homologue chromosome pairs Centromeres ZYP1 Early Zygotene 1 2 3 Subtelomeric synapsis Interstitial alignment Interstitial elongation (a) Centromere, telomere and chromosome arm dynamics in meiotic prophase I Sepsi et al. Plant Journal 2017
  29. 29. Recombination in alien fragments Th. intermedium DNA-green AfaThin-red Trude Schwarzacher, Niaz Ali Ph-locus controls pairing with strict homologous chromosomes forming bivalents
  30. 30. Thinopyrum (wheat grasses) is source for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance
  31. 31. NO2Y5149 Mace Tomahawk Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus resistance From Thinopyrum intermedium in wheat
  32. 32. Th. intermedium DNA pSc119.2/CS13 4D 4D 4D T4DL*4Ai#2S DAPI Afa Thin all (blue) (green) (red) Presence of T4DL recombinant chromosome correlated with resistance … but some lines showed some resistance without T4DL Ali N, Heslop-Harrison JS, Ahmad H, Graybosch RA, Hein GL, Schwarzacher T. (2016) Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance. Heredity 117: 114–123 10.1038/hdy.2016.36
  33. 33. SOME LINES ALSO CARRY A THIN OR RYE FRAGMENT ON CHROMOSOME 1B Th. intermedium DNA pSc119.2/CS13 Rye DNA dpTa1/Afa Ali N, Heslop-Harrison JS, Ahmad H, Graybosch RA, Hein GL, Schwarzacher T. (2016) Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance. Heredity 117: 114–123 10.1038/hdy.2016.36
  34. 34. WHEAT TH. BESSARABICUM TRANSLOCATIONS Patokar C, Sepsi A, Schwarzacher T, Kishii M, Heslop- Harrison JS (2016) Molecular cytogenetic characterization of novel wheat-Thinopyrum bessarabicum recombinant lines carrying intercalary translocations. Chromosoma 125: 163- 172. 10.1007/s00412-015-0537-6
  35. 35. • Recent polyploidy • Revealed by cytogenetics and hybridization • Recent rearrangements or duplications • Revealed by molecular cytogenetics • Ancient, evolutionary polyploidy • Revealed by sequencing • Understanding polyploidy is important for speciation, evolution and breeding • Different sequence classes evolve at different rates and many are saltatory rather than clocks • Consequences and applications
  36. 36. Dasypyrum breviaristatum 2n=4x=28 Is it AAAA or AABB? D. villosum (genomic DNA green) × D. breviaristatum (red) Meiotic metaphase I in a F1 hybrid showing autotetraploid nature Galasso, Heslop-Harrison et al.
  37. 37. B. nigra BB 2n=2x=16 760Mbp B. rapa AA 2n=2x=20 564Mbp B. juncea AABB 2n=4x=36 1495Mbp B. carinata BBCC 2n=4x=34 1544Mbp B. oleracea CC 2n=2x=18 760Mbp B. napus AACC 2n=4x=38 1324Mbp
  38. 38. Fertility restorer Rfk1 gene BAC (yellow probe) in turnip rape (Brassica rapa) 2n=2x=20A+2R metaphase with radish (Raphanus) chromosomes (red) Radish genomic red (labels 2 radish chromosomes and 45S rDNA) Rfk1 carrying BAC green labels sites on radish and homoeologous pair in Brassica Tarja Niemelä, Seppänen, Badakshi, Rokka HH Chromosome Research 2012
  39. 39. • Recent polyploidy • Revealed by cytogenetics and hybridization • Recent rearrangements or duplications • Revealed by molecular cytogenetics • Ancient, evolutionary polyploidy • Revealed by sequencing • Understanding polyploidy is important for speciation, evolution and breeding • Different sequence classes evolve at different rates and many are saltatory rather than clocks • Consequences and applications
  40. 40. BIODIVERSITY and genetic resources Red - AAA Palayam codan AAB (two bunch yellow, one green) Peyan ABB (green cooking banana), Njalipoovan AB (yellow) Robusta AAA (green ripe) Nendran AAB Poovan AAB (one yellow bunch) Red AAA PeyanVarkala, Kerala, India
  41. 41. THE BANANA GENOME• Seven countries + international organization coordinated by Angelique D’Hont - France (CIRAD, Genoscope)
  42. 42. A D’Hont et al. Nature 000, 1-5 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11241 Whole-genome duplication events.
  43. 43. Bryophytes (ca. 20,000 species) green plants land plants vascular plants seed plants flowering plants diversification of angiosperms Gymnosperms (ca. 1000 species) ANITA ε Ginkgo Taxus Pinus Cedrus Sequoia sempervirens Welwitschia Ephedra Lycophytes (ca. 1200 species) Physcomitrium sp. Chlorophytes (ca. 4300 species) 01002003004001500 -700 Mya500 AGF Charophytes (ca. 12,000 species) Sphagnum sp. Physcomitrella patens Green algae Monilophytes (ca. 13,000 species) ‘Pteridophytes’ Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event Vitis vinifera Solanum Arabidopsis thaliana Carica papaya Populus trichocarpa Linum usitatissimum Brassica rapa Glycine max Malus domestica Musa acuminata Oryza sativa Triticum aestivum Zea mays β α γ ρσ τ Angiosperms (ca. 400,000 species) Nicotiana Petunia ζ Eudicots Monocots Basal Angiosperms 337. Alix K, Gérard PR, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS. 2017. Polyploidy and interspecific hybridisation: partners for adaptation, speciation and evolution in plants. Annals of Botany 120: 183-194. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcx079 (freely available) α
  44. 44. Petunia hybrida P. inflata X P. axillaris 2n=14 x 2n=14 Bomberley, Kuhlemeier et al. 2016 Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida. Nature Plants 2: article number 16074. See Supplementary paper 2 - Heslop-Harrison, Schwarzacher, Richert-Poeggeler www.molcyt.org/tag/Petunia Diploid hybrid Petunia Genome Landscape
  45. 45. Sol-alpha: Palaeohexaploidy in Solanaceae Paleopolyploidy events followed by massive gene loss and chromosomal structural rearrangements Gene fractionation is less profound in Petunia compared to tomato Supplementary Paper 5 Incomplete gene fractionation after paleopolyploidy: Petunia Grandont, Tang, Johns, Lyons and Schranz To Bomberley et al. 2016 Genomes of Petunia hybrida. Nature Plants 2: article number 16074
  46. 46. • Alix et al. 2017. Annals of Botany
  47. 47. NASA The Blue Marble Apollo 17 7 Dec 1972 Apollo 17 – The Blue Marble December 7, 1972
  48. 48. Use biodiversity in germplasm to meet challenges Population increase higher living standards / health fossil fuel use climate change water …
  49. 49. Outputs –CROPS – Fixed energy Inputs –Light –Heat –Water –Gasses –NutrientsLand
  50. 50. Inputs –Light –Heat –Water –Gasses –Nutrients –Light –Heat –Water –Gasses –Nutrients (Ecosystem services) Outputs –CROPS – Fixed energy
  51. 51. Outputs –Crops (Chemical energy) – Food – Feed – Fuel – Fibre – Flowers – Pharmaceuticals – Fun61
  52. 52. 2 End hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition & promote sustainable agriculture 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems … halt biodiversity loss
  53. 53. Legislation: European Parliament & Commission
  54. 54. EVOLUTION OF WHEATS - POLYPLOIDY Common Ancestor 2n=2x=14 Aegilops ventricosa 2n=4x=28 DDNN Triticum tauschii 2n=2x=14 DD Aegilops uniaristata 2n=2x=14 NN Triticum aestivum 2n=6x=42 AABBDD Triticum durum 2n=4x=28 AABB Triticum monococcum 2n=2x=14 AA Aegilops sp. 2n=2x=14 BB Aegilops 2n=2x=14 Triticum 2n=2x=14
  55. 55. Nothing special about crop genomes? Crop Genome size 2n Ploidy Food Rice 400 Mb 24 2 3x endosperm Wheat 17,000 Mbp 42 6 3x endosperm Maize 950 Mbp 10 4 (palaeo-tetraploid) 3x endosperm Rapeseed B. napus 1125 Mbp 38 4 Cotyledon oil/protein Sugar beet 758 Mbp 18 2 Modified root Cassava 770 Mbp 36 2 Tuber Soybean 1,100 Mbp 40 4 Seed cotyledon Oil palm 3,400 Mbp 32 2 Fruit mesocarp Banana 500 Mbp 33 3 Fruit mesocarp Heslop-Harrison & Schwarzacher 2012. Genetics and genomics of crop domestication. In Altman & Hasegawa Plant Biotech & Agriculture. 10.1016/B978- 0-12-381466-1.00001-8 Tinyurl.com/domest
  56. 56. From Chromosome to Nucleus Pat Heslop-Harrison phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com
  57. 57. Pat Heslop-Harrison phh@molcyt.com www.molcyt.com 89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting Centennial of the discovery of the correct chromosome number and polyploidy in wheat Polyploidy, its distribution and evolutionary significance Twitter: @pathh1 Slideshare pathh1
  58. 58. How to use diversity • Cross two varieties • Genome manipulations • Cross two species and make a new one • Cell fusion hybrids • Chromosome manipulation • Backcross a new species • Generate recombinants • Chromosome recombinations • Transgenic approaches • Use a new species
  59. 59. • Abiotic stresses – water, wind, nitrogen, plant nutrition • Biotic stresses – disease – competition, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, rodents • Environmental challenges – Soil, water, climate change, sustainability • Social challenges – Urbanization, population growth, mobility of people, under-/un-employment – Farming is hard, long work – increased standard of living
  60. 60. • 50% of the world's protein needs are derived from atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the Haber-Bosch process and its successors. • Global consumption of fertilizer (chemically fixed nitrogen) 80 million tonnes • <<200 million tonnes fixed naturally
  61. 61. Conventional Breeding Superdomestication • Cross the best with the best and hope for something better • Decide what is wanted and then plan how to get it – Variety crosses – Mutations – Hybrids (sexual or cell-fusion) – Genepool – Transformation
  62. 62. Economic growth • Separate into increases in inputs (resources, labour and capital) and technical progress • 90% of the growth in US output per worker is attributable to technical progress Robert Solow – Economist
  63. 63. Are there many candidates? • 250,000 plants • 4,629 mammals • 9,200 birds • 10,000,000 insects • But only 200 plants, 15 mammals, 5 birds and 2 insects are domesticated!
  64. 64. Probably not many more (at least for plants) • Spread of the few species • Little change since early agriculture • Repeated domestication of these species (sometimes) • But wider use of current species with suitable genetic changes, or of newly created hybrids • A few species where wild-collections must be replaced sustainably • New needs – biofuels, neutraceuticals
  65. 65. (Some text deleted to focus for IAEA/FAO CRP)
  66. 66. Pat Heslop-Harrison phh@molcyt.com www.molcyt.com 89th Genetics Society of Japan Meeting Centennial of the discovery of the correct chromosome number and polyploidy in wheat Polyploidy, its distribution and evolutionary significance Twitter: @pathh1 Slideshare pathh1

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