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Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian
Linseed Accessions
Negash Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison
phh4@le.ac.uk
www.molcyt.com...
Ethiopia
• centre of diversity for linseed
• valued for culture, medicine, food & fibre
• limited amounts grown widely
• c...
Ethiopian Linseed
• 200 accessions
• How much diversity?
• What characters do they have?
• What is the potential for molec...
http://molcyt.org/2013/05/07/worku-mhiret-biodiversity-and-its-
exploitation-in-ethiopian-linseed/
Ethiopian linseed collection sites (symbols) and additional
on-farm collections numbers in yellow box; AgResCentre in ligh...
• Seedling variation in vigour and cotyledon
size. Ages: 2, 5, 7 & 17-days old
• 17 days old
• variation in
height and
basal branch
(axillary bud)
development
Seedling regeneration
When cut below cotyledons
valuable against goats!
V
Plant morphology variation relates
to end-use
- height (30 cm to 75 cm)
- systemic/technical stem ratio
- branching
Not scored: variation in biotic stress susceptibility
Orobanche
Rust (Canadian checks particularly bad)
Insect galls
Variation in
Boll morphology,
Seed dispersal (early
domestication char) and
segregation
Reduced
false septum
- Conjoined
(paired)
seeds or
twinning
• Biodiversity in linseed seed size and colour.
Lower panel, centre right shows twinned
seeds; cf Fig. 7. (Bar: 10 mm)
• F...
Preprint from www.molcyt.ORG
• Worku N, Heslop-Harrison JS, Wakjira A. 2015.
Diversity in 198 Ethiopian linseed (Linum
usi...
2n = 30 c. 9 intercrossable spp
Linum usitatissimum, L. angustifolium, L. bienne
2n = 16, 18, 36 and 60 c. 90 spp
L. austr...
Retroelement Markers: Amplify & Insert in Genome
Retrotransposon
LTRLTR
Retrotransposon
LTRLTR
RetrotransposonLTR LTR
Retr...
IRAP
DNA amplification
patterns from the
3PCT2 ISSR marker in
60 Linum accessions.
• Wild Linum species
• ISSR and IRAP data
L. hirsutumROU
L. volkensiiETH
L.trigynumFRA
L.austriacumRUS
L.austriacumDEU
L.f...
Tigray
Shewa
Gondar
100
Gojam
Illubabour
Gomugofa
Wellega
Sidamo
Kefa
78
99
49
77
58
Arsi
Bale
100
67
Wollo
Hararghe
39
88...
PCAs (principal component
analyses) of morphology
Altitude plot with 130 linseed
accessions assigned to 8 altitude
ranges:...
Ethiopian Linseed
Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison
www.molcyt.com – pathh1
• No longer are there “orphan” crops
• Diversity i...
Worku: detailed summary
• The presence of different socio-cultural conditions and the highly desiccated topography in Ethi...
• Ethiopian landraces ranged from fibre (43%) to oil-seed (57%) types. Landrace oil quality was assessed; oil content
was ...
W295Diversity and Characters in
Ethiopian Linseed Accessions
• Date: Wednesday, January 14, 2015
Time: 12:10 PM
• Room: To...
Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian
Linseed Accessions
Negash Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison
phh4@le.ac.uk
www.molcyt.com...
Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison
Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison
Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison
Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison
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Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison

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Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian Linseed Accessions
Worku Negash Mhiret, , University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Pat Heslop-Harrison , University of Leicester, UK
Ethiopia is a centre of diversity for linseed, where it is valued for cultural reasons as well as use as food and for export. Limited amounts of the crop are grown widely in Ethiopia, which includes the unique climatic conditions of the tropical highlands (3-15°N, >2000m). A range of some 200 accessions were evaluated for diverse quality, agronomic and morphological traits. They were also genotyped with IRAP (InterRetroelement Amplified Polymorphisms). It is probable that the genetic diversity in this area has not been exploited in breeding programmes. The results show a range of characters which can be exploited, some appropriate for smallholder and commercial farmers in Ethiopia, producing a sustainable, secure, high-value crop meeting agricultural, economic and cultural needs. Analysis of sequence data is likely to allow identification of probes suitable for chromosome identification and potentially tracking chromosomes in breeding programmes.
see http://molcyt.org/2014/12/22/diversity-in-ethiopian-linseed-linum-usitatissimum-morphology-and-seed-oil/ for 2015 paper
and http://molcyt.org/2013/05/07/worku-mhiret-biodiversity-and-its-exploitation-in-ethiopian-linseed/ for farmer participation

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Linseed Linum or Flax Morphological & Molecular Diversity in Ethiopia: PAGXXIII talk Worku & Heslop-Harrison

  1. 1. Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian Linseed Accessions Negash Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com UserID/PW ‘visitor’ @Pathh1 Slideshare.com pathh
  2. 2. Ethiopia • centre of diversity for linseed • valued for culture, medicine, food & fibre • limited amounts grown widely • climatic conditions of the tropical highlands • 3 to 15°N, -125m to 4500m
  3. 3. Ethiopian Linseed • 200 accessions • How much diversity? • What characters do they have? • What is the potential for molecular markers? • What is the potential for the crop? Is it useful?
  4. 4. http://molcyt.org/2013/05/07/worku-mhiret-biodiversity-and-its- exploitation-in-ethiopian-linseed/
  5. 5. Ethiopian linseed collection sites (symbols) and additional on-farm collections numbers in yellow box; AgResCentre in light box
  6. 6. • Seedling variation in vigour and cotyledon size. Ages: 2, 5, 7 & 17-days old
  7. 7. • 17 days old • variation in height and basal branch (axillary bud) development
  8. 8. Seedling regeneration When cut below cotyledons valuable against goats!
  9. 9. V Plant morphology variation relates to end-use - height (30 cm to 75 cm) - systemic/technical stem ratio - branching
  10. 10. Not scored: variation in biotic stress susceptibility Orobanche Rust (Canadian checks particularly bad) Insect galls
  11. 11. Variation in Boll morphology, Seed dispersal (early domestication char) and segregation
  12. 12. Reduced false septum - Conjoined (paired) seeds or twinning
  13. 13. • Biodiversity in linseed seed size and colour. Lower panel, centre right shows twinned seeds; cf Fig. 7. (Bar: 10 mm) • Fig. 7. Cross-section of bolls of linseed with A) normal; and B) twin-seeds (bar = 3 mm), showing the difference in development with much reduced false septum resulting in conjoined (paired) seeds (cf Fig. 6) or twinning. Variation in accessions and segregating population (below)
  14. 14. Preprint from www.molcyt.ORG • Worku N, Heslop-Harrison JS, Wakjira A. 2015. Diversity in 198 Ethiopian linseed (Linum usitatissimum) accessions based on morphological characterization and seed oil characteristics. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (GRACE) in press Jan 2015. doi:10.1007/s10722-014-0207- 1 (coming soon). And Worku: Linum / Linseed Morphological Diversity in Ethiopia – Author Version.
  15. 15. 2n = 30 c. 9 intercrossable spp Linum usitatissimum, L. angustifolium, L. bienne 2n = 16, 18, 36 and 60 c. 90 spp L. austriacum L. (2n = 18)
  16. 16. Retroelement Markers: Amplify & Insert in Genome Retrotransposon LTRLTR Retrotransposon LTRLTR RetrotransposonLTR LTR Retrotransposon LTRLTR IRAP – InterRetroelement Amplified Polymorphisms PCR Retrotransposon LTRLTR RetrotransposonLTR LTR
  17. 17. IRAP DNA amplification patterns from the 3PCT2 ISSR marker in 60 Linum accessions.
  18. 18. • Wild Linum species • ISSR and IRAP data L. hirsutumROU L. volkensiiETH L.trigynumFRA L.austriacumRUS L.austriacumDEU L.flavumDNK L.narbonenseCHE 64 35 L.bienneBEL L.bienneIRQb L.bienneIRQa 48 100 L.bienneUSA 85 54 85 100
  19. 19. Tigray Shewa Gondar 100 Gojam Illubabour Gomugofa Wellega Sidamo Kefa 78 99 49 77 58 Arsi Bale 100 67 Wollo Hararghe 39 88 100
  20. 20. PCAs (principal component analyses) of morphology Altitude plot with 130 linseed accessions assigned to 8 altitude ranges: 1 = 1410-1664m … 8 = 3195-3449m. Low attitude accessions (1 to 5) show little grouping, Mid-altitudes grouped B (altitude 7), C (altitude 6) and the highest altitude 8 (group D) Collection regions for 198 linseed accessions: 1 = Tigray; 2 = Gondar; 3 = Gojjam; 4 = Wellega; 5 = Illubabor; 6 = Keffa; 7 = Gamu Gofa; 8 = Sidamo; 9 = Bale; 10 = Arsi; 11= Shewa; 12 = Hararghe; 13 = Wollo; 14 = Holetta (ARC). G A Western regions 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; B East-central regions 11 and 12; C1 to C2 = North-west region 2 D North region 1; E Central-south regions 9 and 10; F North-central regions 13 and ARC collections 14.
  21. 21. Ethiopian Linseed Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison www.molcyt.com – pathh1 • No longer are there “orphan” crops • Diversity is ready to meet challenges of climate & social changes • Ethiopian landraces fibre (43%) & oil-seed (57%) types; oil quality good but content low (30% vs 47%) • Days-to-maturity varied widely and heritable • Seed/boll physiological characters: dominance, twins, meristem • Molecular diversity was high (PIC, 0.16; GD, 0.19) • IRAP/ISSR genotyping results classified Linum species • Some clustering by altitudes and geographical regions • Descriptors, markers and hybrid-derivatives for mapping & selection • Breeding sustainable, high-value crop meeting agricultural, economic and cultural needs - disease, water, intensification, and cultural • Linseed food, fibre, feed, industrial uses smallholders to export
  22. 22. Worku: detailed summary • The presence of different socio-cultural conditions and the highly desiccated topography in Ethiopia help linseed to maintain the present genetic diversity both among regional and altitude groups. The molecular diversity reported here was high but in general grouped accessions according to regions and altitude (Figs V.3-V.5). The location of Ethiopia in the tropics and at the same time having several mountains and extensive variation in rainfall and temperature, contributes to the presence of crop genetic diversity and different types of crops in a given agro-ecological zone. • Linseed acquired from Canada has low genetic diversity and polymorphism as expected because of strong selection made by breeders, farmers and researchers for specific characters as end use. Relatively, the germplasm acquired from Ethiopian research centres had high genetic diversity and a high degree of polymorphism, and also showed that the collections were not yet pure (not inbred) for all traits that were targeted in this thesis work with both molecular and morphological characters. • Comparing with the Canadian lines, genetic diversity and reports from other research works, it is possible to conclude Ethiopian linseed germplasm has high genetic diversity. Most linseed accessions contained morphologically heterogeneous plant populations, and had high genetic variability which could result either from purposeful activities of farmers, or homologous recombination during meiosis from the rare cross fertilization.
  23. 23. • Ethiopian landraces ranged from fibre (43%) to oil-seed (57%) types. Landrace oil quality was assessed; oil content was as low as 30% compared to 47% reported elsewhere. Days-to-flowering and days-to-maturity varied widely and were highly heritable. Ethiopian linseed had dominant and recessive yellow seed genotypes; some had a recessive twinned-seed. Molecular diversity was high (PIC, 0.16; GD, 0.19) compared to other reports. • IRAP/ISSR genotyping results classified Linum species, separating the reference from landrace accessions, and clustered accessions from different altitudes and geographical regions. Collections showed evidence for distribution of new varieties in some regions. Evidence supported L. bienne as the progenitor of domesticated L. usitatissimum. • F1 hybrid seed size, boll size and seed colour were intermediate, growth habit and boll dehiscence wild type, and stem thickness and plant height cultivated type. Characters segregated in backcrosses and selfed lines. • The descriptors, markers and hybrid-derivatives developed here will be useful for genetic mapping and selection of breeding lines. The results show the range of characters which can be exploited in breeding lines appropriate for smallholder and commercial farmers in Ethiopia, producing a sustainable, secure, high-value crop meeting agricultural, economic and cultural needs. • linseed faces challenges from disease, water use, intensification, and cultural shifts such as movement from farmer-smallholders to urban and larger farms. Linseed oil has a long history of industrial use
  24. 24. W295Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian Linseed Accessions • Date: Wednesday, January 14, 2015 Time: 12:10 PM • Room: Towne - Meeting House • Worku Negash Mhiret, , University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia • Pat Heslop-Harrison , University of Leicester, Leicester, Leic, United Kingdom • Ethiopia is a centre of diversity for linseed, where it is valued for cultural reasons as well as use as food and for export. Limited amounts of the crop are grown widely in Ethiopia, which includes the unique climatic conditions of the tropical highlands (3-15°N, >2000m). A range of some 200 accessions were evaluated for diverse quality, agronomic and morphological traits. They were also genotyped with IRAP (InterRetroelement Amplified Polymorphisms). It is probable that the genetic diversity in this area has not been exploited in breeding programmes. The results show a range of characters which can be exploited, some appropriate for smallholder and commercial farmers in Ethiopia, producing a sustainable, secure, high-value crop meeting agricultural, economic and cultural needs. Analysis of sequence data is likely to allow identification of probes suitable for chromosome identification and potentially tracking chromosomes in breeding programmes. •
  25. 25. Diversity and Characters in Ethiopian Linseed Accessions Negash Worku and Pat Heslop-Harrison phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com UserID/PW ‘visitor’ @Pathh1 Slideshare.com pathh

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