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Internet of Things: an overview

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This is the presentation I use as a support to my 9 hour-long talk to postgraduate students of a French Telecom and Electronics Master. The idea is to provide them with a broad view, including some non-technical domains.

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Internet of Things: an overview

  1. 1. Internet of Things An overview Pascal BODIN 11-Feb-2017 V20170211
  2. 2. 2/256 contents functional technical business project management part 0 foreword part 1 definition? part 2 functional vs technical part 3 practicals 1 - consumer part 4 practicals 2 - business part 5 architecture part 6 devices part 7 positioning part 8 identification part 9 communications part 10 platforms part 11 central side part 12 big data part 13 security part 14 standardization part 15 ecosystem part 16 project perspective part 17 want to play? part 18 conclusion
  3. 3. 3/256 0. foreword
  4. 4. 4/256 who I am  Systev – Independent contractor – connected devices (4 months) and  Orange Labs – Senior Software Engineer (2 years)  before: – 11 years as M2M and IoT project manager + software engineer at Orange Labs – 4 years as co-founder + system developer + co-manager - home computing – 14 years as co-founder + system developer + manager - M2M/IoT – 4 years as team manager at France Telecom R&D – 10 years as software engineer and/or project leader (McDonnell Douglas then DEC) (several periods with 2 simultaneous jobs...)  Master of Science in Engineering from Telecom Bretagne (French Grande Ecole) - 1982
  5. 5. 5/256 point of view  integrator's point of view: – structuring constraints: – to deliver on committed date and committed budget – to deliver a working system – to integrate / rely on legacy subsystems – to have the broad view – target is customer satisfaction – solving technical problems is only a means
  6. 6. 6/256 1. definition?
  7. 7. 7/256 in the '70s - '80s [Def01] [Def02]
  8. 8. 8/256 in the '70s - '80s  SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)
  9. 9. 9/256 in the '90s
  10. 10. 10/256 in the '90s  M2M (Machine to Machine)  LBS (Location Based Services)
  11. 11. 11/256 in the '00s
  12. 12. 12/256 in the '00s  IoT (Internet of Things)
  13. 13. 13/256 one definition  Internet of things: the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices" and "smart devices"), buildings, and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.  many, many other ones... [Def03]
  14. 14. 14/256 definitions  many different definitions  related systems have been in use long before IoT acronym was invented  acronyms are successful because they simplify reality  reality: – on one side: (large diversity of) user needs – on the other side: (lot of) technologies
  15. 15. 15/256 2. functional vs technical
  16. 16. 16/256 some use cases – smart cities  Controlling shipping traffic in the Netherlands canals with wireless sensors  Saving water with Smart Irrigation System in Barcelona  Traffic and Road Conditions Monitoring in Malaga [Fct01]
  17. 17. 17/256 some use cases – smart agriculture  Precision Farming to control irrigation and improve fertilization strategies on corn crops  Improving banana crops production and agricultural sustainability in Colombia  Preventing environmental impact in wastewater irrigation area for the largest meat industry in Australia
  18. 18. 18/256 some use cases – smart environment  Rain forest monitoring for climate change control in Peru  Water and Air Quality Monitoring in Civil Works  Monitoring Bee Health and Global Pollination
  19. 19. 19/256 some use cases – smart home  Smart appliances: remote diagnostics, proactive alerts, etc.  Water treatment: automated consumable ordering, etc.  Fire and safety: property monitoring, emergency alert, etc. [Fct02]
  20. 20. 20/256 some use cases – smart xxx  many more use cases!!
  21. 21. 21/256 analysis  many different use cases, with many different functions  all markets are affected: – consumer – business  market push (for consumers?) / market pull (for business?)  provided value?  return on investment?
  22. 22. 22/256 supporting technical fields  Question: which technical fields?
  23. 23. 23/256 supporting technical fields  devices – connected embedded electronic boards – gateways  interface to the physical world – sensors – actuators – I/O, bus  embedded software  secure element  network – wired – wireless – protocols  positioning
  24. 24. 24/256 supporting technical fields  identification  mobile application  server-side application – container, virtual machine – application server – web server – database management system – data analytics tools – geographical information system – thin client, thick client – graphical user interface  etc.
  25. 25. 25/256 summary  many different use cases  many different technologies involved
  26. 26. 26/256 3. practicals 1 - consumer market
  27. 27. 27/256 home surveillance - specifications  the system must monitor the home  the home occupant informs the system when she leaves the home, and when she comes back  if somebody enters the home while the occupant is not supposed to be there, the system sends an alarm to the occupant's mobile phone. The occupant can then watch a video clip of the main room.  Questions: – do you need more specifications? – which technical components would you use? – what architecture would you design?
  28. 28. 28/256 home surveillance – some questions  does the occupant own a smartphone? Android or iOS?  should video clip actually be a live video?  should video clips be archived?  can system devices be AC powered or should they be autonomous?  etc.
  29. 29. 29/256 home surveillance – technical components wireless motion sensor wireless contact sensor (wireless) (IP) video camera (wireless) (IP) video camera with motion detection ADSL gateway / router cellular gateway / router server etc. cellular video camera with motion detection software [Pr101] [Pr102] [Pr103]
  30. 30. 30/256 Internet cellular network local wireless network home surveillance – one possible architecture
  31. 31. 31/256 existing ADSL modem / router Internet cellular network Wi-Fi network home surveillance – another possible architecture
  32. 32. 32/256 Internet cellular network home surveillance – another possible architecture
  33. 33. 33/256 summary  several different technical architectures are often possible  choice depends on various criteria: – detailed functional requirements – non functional requirements: – power consumption – ease of installation – cost – evolutivity – etc.  what’s the value for the customer?
  34. 34. 34/256 4. practicals 2 - business market
  35. 35. 35/256 vehicle convoy surveillance - specifications  a 5 vehicle convoy has to cross Europe  an alarm has to be triggered when: – distance between two successive vehicles exceeds 100 m – a button is pressed (one button per vehicle)  when an alarm is triggered: – origin of alarm is displayed at control center – real-time tracking of every vehicle  outdoor coverage must be global (Europe)  Questions: – do you need more specifications? – which technical components would you use? – what architecture would you design?
  36. 36. 36/256 vehicle convoy surveillance – some questions  how to handle convoy separations due to road rules (traffic lights, etc.)  time period allowed for control center to receive an alarm?  who stops an alarm?  100 m: which precision?  which constraints for antenna installation?  etc.
  37. 37. 37/256 vehicule convoy surveillance – technical components server etc. GNSS receiver short range transceiver cellular module satellite antenna and modem microcontroller board alarm button live tracking cartographic software software [Pr201] [Pr202] [Pr203] [Pr204] [Pr205] [Pr206] [Pr207]
  38. 38. 38/256 in every vehicle satellite network cellular network local wireless network vehicle convoy surveillance – one possible architecture
  39. 39. 39/256 summary  what about an architecture where distances would be computed at control center side?  what’s the value for the customer?
  40. 40. 40/256 5. architecture
  41. 41. 41/256 architecture?  defines: – functions – structure – behavior – deployment  different viewpoints: – enterprise viewpoint (business requirements) – information viewpoint (information semantics and processing) – computational viewpoint (functions, interfaces) – engineering viewpoint (distribution of processing) – technology viewpoint (technologies) [RM-ODP: Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing] [Arc01]
  42. 42. 42/256 computational viewpoint Central sideRemote side OS embedded device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipherals communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer-dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms management security communication services API  my own view - check standardization section for other views  incomplete!
  43. 43. 43/256 computational viewpoint  communication layer: – bidirectional messaging – file transfer – voice call – etc.  technical components layer (almost generic) – alarm with end to end acknowledgement – mission dispatch handling – software odometer – movement detection – etc.  application layer: – adaptation to end-user needs  this is an ideal view!
  44. 44. 44/256 engineering viewpoint item, “object” microcontroller board + communication module connected device
  45. 45. 45/256 engineering viewpoint  question: in home surveillance and vehicle convoy surveillance examples, what were the connected devices?
  46. 46. 46/256 engineering viewpoint gateway central side connected device local wireless network long distance network
  47. 47. 47/256 engineering viewpoint central side connected device long distance network
  48. 48. 48/256 engineering viewpoint personal side connected device long distance network
  49. 49. 49/256 engineering viewpoint  many other architectures possible!
  50. 50. 50/256 summary (and some observations)  many different architectures  electronics + communication + software => complexity  processing is distributed over various components => complexity  wireless network => possible loss of connectivity
  51. 51. 51/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  52. 52. 52/256 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  53. 53. 53/256 device architecture [Dev01] [Dev02] [Dev03] [Dev04] microcontr. board: $12.50 GSM/GPS module: $49.95 GSM antenna: $2.95 GPS antenna: $3.95 analog inputs digital I/O microcontroller + memory location + communication module
  54. 54. 54/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  55. 55. 55/256 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  56. 56. 56/256 important microcontroller characteristics  what is a microcontroller? – on same chip: CPU + (some) memory + clock generator + peripherals  architecture: – von Neumann, Harvard, modified Harvard – one core or multicore  memory types and sizes: – read-only memory (program): ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM/Flash... – read/write memory (data): RAM/SRAM/DRAM/MRAM/FRAM... – data memory and program memory can be separated  memory width: – 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit – data memory width may be different from program memory width – etc.
  57. 57. 57/256 important microcontroller characteristics  processing power – depends on clock speed and architecture – options: floating point operations, digital signal processing, etc.  power consumption – various low-power modes  cost  supporting hardware tools – development board – programmer / debugger – open source schematic  supporting software tools – integrated development environment – open source code  support
  58. 58. 58/256 legacy microcontroller - example  Freescale 68HC11E1 – 8 bits – 3 MHz – RAM: 512 bytes - EEPROM: 512 bytes – 38 General Purpose I/O (GPIO) – 1 x Asynchronous Serial Communications Interface (SCI) – 1 x Synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) – 8 x 8-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) – 16-bit Timer System – address / data bus for external memory – bootstrap mode – price: ⋍ US$7 (10 000) [Mic01]
  59. 59. 59/256 recent microcontroller - example 1  Microchip PIC16F1705 – 8-bit data memory, 14-bit program memory – 32 MHz – RAM: 1 KB - Flash: 14 KB – 2 x Capture / Compare / Pulse Width Modulation – 1 x Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) – 1 x SCI - 1 x Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) – 8 x 10-bit ADC – timers: 4 x 8-bit, 1 x 16-bit – price: ⋍ US$0.88 (10 000) [Mic02]
  60. 60. 60/256 recent microcontroller - example 2  NXP LPC1837JET256 – 32 bits - ARM Cortex-M3 core – 3-stage pipeline, modified Harvard architecture – 180 MHz – RAM: 136 KB - Flash: 1024 KB – 6 x PWM – 4 x UART - 2 x I2C - 2 x SPI – 2 x CAN - 2 x USB - 1 x Ethernet – 8 x 10-bit ADC – 4 x 32-bit timers – price: ⋍ US$8 (10 000) [Mic03]
  61. 61. 61/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  62. 62. 62/256 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  63. 63. 63/256 interfacing with peripherals  sensors: pressure, temperature, light level, heat, magnetic field, airflow, tilt, acceleration, switch, push button, etc.  actuators: relay, motor, stepper motor, servomotor, etc.  other devices: printer, display, On-Board Diagnostics connector, RFId tag reader, etc.  interface can be wired or wireless.
  64. 64. 64/256 interfacing with peripherals - GPIO  general purpose digital input/output (GPIO): – read or set a voltage (high / low) [Per01]
  65. 65. 65/256 interfacing with peripherals - GPIO  an optocoupler may be required  software debounce may be required (a hardware debouncer is sometimes provided by the microcontroller)
  66. 66. 66/256 interfacing with peripherals - ADC / DAC  important parameters: resolution and sampling rate  analog to digital converter (ADC): – converts an analog voltage to a digital value – signal conditioning may be required – some microcontrollers provide integrated Op Amp (e.g. PIC16F527)  digital to analog converter (DAC): – converts a digital value to an analog voltage [Per02]
  67. 67. 67/256 interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  V.24 / RS-232 – minimum 3 wires: transmitted data, received data, signal ground – asynchronous communication (start bit, stop bit) – additional wires for control signals (request to send, ready for sending, data set ready, calling indicator, etc.) – voltage level: – V.28: – bit to 1: -15 V < voltage < -3 V – bit to 0: +3 V > voltage > +15 V – distance: < 15 m – connectors: DB-25, DB-9 – USA: RS-232 (TIA-232) [Per03]
  68. 68. 68/256 interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  bytes are serialized using an UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)  voltage levels are shifted from board voltage to V.28 UART Address bus Control bus RX TTL TX TTL GND level shifter TX V.24 RX V.24 GND CPU microcontroller for short distances, level shifting may be omitted
  69. 69. 69/256 interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  interface characteristics: – asynchronous => a byte starts with a start bit and ends with stop bit(s) – speed (b/s) – byte format (number of data bits, parity, number of stop bits)  a byte is framed. Similar to message framing described in communications section. mark or previous stop bit start bit data bits (5 to 8) + parity (E, O, M, S, N) stop bit(s)
  70. 70. 70/256 interfacing with peripherals - SPI  Serial Peripheral Interface – defined by Motorola (then Freescale, then NXP Semiconductors, now Qualcomm) (1985?) MOSI: Master Output, Slave Input SCLK: Serial Clock MISO: Master Input, Slave Output SS: Slave Select [Per04] [Per05]
  71. 71. 71/256 interfacing with peripherals - SPI  synchronous communication  full duplex, clock up to a few MHz  one master, one chip select per slave  4 wires  Applications: – short distance communication (in main board vicinity) – exemples: – sensors (temperature, pressure, etc.) – memory (EEPROM, etc.) – LCD – etc.
  72. 72. 72/256 interfacing with peripherals - I2 C  Inter-Integrated Circuit – defined by Philips (the NXP Semincoductors now Qualcomm) (1980's) [Per06] [Per07]
  73. 73. 73/256 interfacing with peripherals - I2 C  multi-master  clock up to a few MHz  2 wires  applications: – same than SPI
  74. 74. 74/256 interfacing with peripherals - CAN  Controller Area Network – defined by Bosch (1986) [Per08]
  75. 75. 75/256 interfacing with peripherals - CAN  mainly for vehicles  2-wire bus  multi-master, message broadcast system with asynchronous communication  bus access: CSMA/CD+AMP (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection with Arbitration on Message Priority)  maximum speed: 1 Mb/s  distance: up to several hundreds of meters (with “low” bit rate) [Ser03]
  76. 76. 76/256 interfacing with peripherals - Bluetooth  Bluetooth: – designed in 1994 by Ericsson – originally: to replace RS-232 cables – range: less than 100 m – Serial Port Profile (SPP). Many other profiles (audio, file, telephony, etc.) [Blu01]
  77. 77. 77/256 at a software point of view  writing low-level code to handle interfaces: – serial interface: not too complex – SPI, I2C: not too complex either – CAN, Bluetooth: use existing drivers!
  78. 78. 78/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  79. 79. 79/256 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  80. 80. 80/256 storage  when on-chip memory is not enough  additional memory: – important parameters: – bus type (serial, parallel) – max number of program / erase cycles (e.g. 3 000, 100 000) – write time (e.g. page erase - word / page write) – soldered IC: – EEPROM 512 Kb (<=> 64 KB) - 8 pins - SPI - ⋍ US$1.3 – 8 Gb (<=> 1 GB) - 48 pins - multiplexed A/D buses - ⋍ US$8.0 – memory card: – MMC, SD, miniSD, microSD, etc. – ex.: microSD 1 GB ⋍ US$27
  81. 81. 81/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  82. 82. 82/256 development environment ● source code edition ● compilation / link ● simulation ● debugging ● load / run ● emulation ● debugging LPCXpresso VxWorks GNU toolchain TASKING ... PC running Linux, OSX, Windows microcontroller board Atmel Studio
  83. 83. 83/256 execution environment Morpheus3 VxWorks RTX OS RTOS specific runtime interrupt handlers + background task ... ... ... Esterel Lustre bare metal Ada
  84. 84. 84/256 bare metal  let's look more closely at a microcontroller architecture
  85. 85. 85/256 bare metal  some events generated by peripherals input level changed character sent character received counter limit reached end of conversion bit received frame received frame sent watchdog timeout
  86. 86. 86/256 bare metal  an event generates an interrupt  attach an interrupt handler to the interrupt you want to handle  example: analog to digital conversion time background task end of conversion interrupt handler background task interruption save context restore context start conversion
  87. 87. 87/256 bare metal  usual OS services not available: – process – thread – synchronized access to shared resources (memory, peripherals) – inter-thread communication – device drivers – file system – etc.
  88. 88. 88/256 bare metal  it's less complex than it appears for small applications  very useful for some classes of requirements: – (very) small memory footprint – low power consumption – low cost  available tools: – some commercial or open source code is available (flash file system, TCP/IP stack, etc.) – macro definitions preventing use of assembly language – hardware debugger with trace capture
  89. 89. 89/256 bare metal  available tools (cont'd): – well known design patterns: – ring buffer – finite state machine (FSM) – etc.  Note: ring buffer and FSM can be used in OS context
  90. 90. 90/256 outPtr inPtr data bare metal  ring buffer (or circular buffer): – fixed-size memory array, used as an interface between a producer and a consumer – pointer outPtr points to first non empty element – pointer inPtr points to first empty element – to get next element: read outPtr, read data, increment outPtr – to put a new element: read inPtr, write data, increment inPtr – when at the end of the array, pointer is reset to start of array
  91. 91. 91/256 bare metal  ring buffer (cont'd): – a ring buffer is a FIFO (First In, First Out) – when put rate is greater than get rate, buffer gets full: – new data overwrites oldest one, or – put is not performed – beware: put and get operations must be atomic  examples of use: – receive buffer for a serial interface – message queue for communication between two different pieces of code
  92. 92. 92/256 state S1 state S2 event E1 (+ condition C1) actions A to perform bare metal  finite state machine: – an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states – the machine is in only one state at a time (current state) – transition from one state to another one is triggered by an event (possibly guarded by a condition) – one possible way to graphically depict an FSM:
  93. 93. 93/256 RTOS  an RTOS (or an OS) provides many services: – tasks – task notifications – queues – semaphores – mutexes – timers – memory protection – etc.  easier to write feature-rich applications but: – experience is still required – debugging can be more complex (but easier as well!) – an RTOS must be configured for the hardware platform – larger footprint – etc.
  94. 94. 94/256 6. devices 6.1. device architecture 6.2. important microcontroller characteristics 6.3. interfacing with peripherals 6.4. storage 6.5. software development 6.6. summary
  95. 95. 95/256 summary  complex technical subset of IoT: – analog electronics – digital electronics – bus – software  device software ≠ web server software!!!!  if you can reuse an existing design, do it!  more and more open source designs are available  location, communication: see next sections communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage
  96. 96. 96/256 7. positioning
  97. 97. 97/256 positioning - GNSS  GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System  mostly for outdoor use  working principles: – constellation of satellites – every satellite sends messages: satellite position, message time – satellite time is very accurate (atomic clock) – listening to 3 satellites, the GNSS receiver estimates its location on earth (distance = difference of time x speed of light) – that's only an estimate (the receiver does not have an atomic clock) – using a 4th satellite, the receiver synchronizes its clock – => real location can be computed  satellite orbits: MEO (20 000 km), GEO (36 000 km)  speed of light (approx.): 3 x 108 m/s: 10 m <=> 33 ns  fix: position
  98. 98. 98/256 positioning - GPS  GPS: US system – 31 operational satellites – MEO orbit: 20 200 km – accuracy: – depends on receiver quality, on satellites being used, etc. – documented as better than 8 m with 95% confidence level – usual accuracy: 20 m – Dilution of Precision (DOP – PDOP/HDOP/VDOP): – how error in measures impact error in computed location – good when < 6
  99. 99. 99/256 positioning - other GNSS  GLONASS: Russia (formerly USSR) system – 24 operational satellites – MEO: 19 100 km  Galileo: Europe – target: 24 satellites + 6 spares – MEO: 23 200 km – accuracy: 8 m horiz. 9 m vert. 95% of time – 12 operational satellites, 4 testing, 2 not fully available – operational (15-Dec-2016)  BeiDou ( 北斗 ): China – target: 5 GEO satellites + 30 MEO satellites – currently: 17 satellites – operational over China  Japan (QZSS), India (NAVIC)
  100. 100. 100/256 positioning - GNSS accuracy  example of accuracy: – GPS receiver indoor, not far from a window => lower reception quality – one location every 2 s, for 15 minutes – several locations are more than 60 m far from the real location
  101. 101. 101/256 positioning - GNSS augmentation systems  To increase accuracy (and integrity): – differential GPS – a GPS receiver placed at a location known with very good accuracy is used to generate corrections send to other GPS receivers – another receiver is required – => ⋍ 3 – 5 m accuracy – SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems) – additional satellites broadcast corrections – no other receiver required – => ⋍ 1 – 3 m accuracy – USA: WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) – Europe: EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) – India: GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation – Japan: MSAS (Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System)
  102. 102. 102/256 positioning - GNSS augmentation systems  A-GPS (Assisted GPS) – mainly for PLMN terminals (your mobile phone...) – almanac (coarse orbit and status information for all satellites) and ephemeris (precise orbit for one satellite) data are sent to the GPS receiver using the mobile network – this reduces TTFF (Time To First Fix) – data generated by mobile operators, or by OTT players (Google, etc.)  RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) – signal phase is used, to get an accuracy up to a few centimeters – fix computation can be quite long
  103. 103. 103/256 positioning - interface command + data interface communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage
  104. 104. 104/256 positioning - interface  interface: – usually: serial (V.28 or board voltage) – usually: implements subset of NMEA 0183 standard – most manufacturers provide their own protocol: – SiRF (then CSR, now Samsung) – u-blox - SkyTraq – ST – Broadcom – etc. $GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47 Where: GGA Global Positioning System Fix Data 123519 Fix taken at 12:35:19 UTC 4807.038,N Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N 01131.000,E Longitude 11 deg 31.000' E 1 Fix quality: 0 = invalid 1 = GPS fix (SPS) 2 = DGPS fix 3 = PPS fix 4 = Real Time Kinematic 5 = Float RTK 6 = estimated (dead reckoning) (2.3 feature) 7 = Manual input mode 8 = Simulation mode 08 Number of satellites being tracked 0.9 Horizontal dilution of position 545.4,M Altitude, Meters, above mean sea level 46.9,M Height of geoid (mean sea level) above WGS84 ellipsoid (empty field) time in seconds since last DGPS update
  105. 105. 105/256 positioning - interface  most receivers are multi-constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou)  important: antenna placement  may be important: tamper protection – antenna cable short circuit and antenna removal events
  106. 106. 106/256 positioning - network - misc.  network positioning: – trilateration (several time measures) – triangulation (several angle measures) – cell identification – “fingerprinting” – beacons  dead reckoning: first known position then inertial sensor fusion (accelerometer + magnetometer and filtering)  position may be available at – device side – network side
  107. 107. 107/256 positioning - indoor  all previous technologies may be used for indoor positioning, depending on constraints  but no easy-to-integrate, generic system exists today  domain still open to more innovation
  108. 108. 108/256 summary  GPS is not the only GNSS!  accuracy increases  time to first fix decreases  other systems: keep an eye on  how to communicate with a GNSS receiver: check communications section
  109. 109. 109/256 8. identification
  110. 110. 110/256 identification  some systems have to identify / authenticate external objects: – truck trailers – shipping containers – bottles of perfumes – bottles of wine – etc.
  111. 111. 111/256 identification  RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): – tag / label with (almost) unique identity – passive (no battery) or active (battery) – read-only or read/write – reader: transmits – a passive tag uses incoming energy to transmit back its data – as usual, distance depends on power, antenna and frequency – from a few tens of centimeters up to a few meters (more is possible)  NFC (Near-Field Communication): – purposely short distances only (a few centimeters) – for secure applications (e.g., contactless payment)
  112. 112. 112/256 identification  questions: how to identify objects on a global basis, and let every organization exchange object data?  part of the answer: GS1 – international not-for-profit organization – delivers standards, services and solutions – standards: – barcodes – EPCglobal: tag data, tag protocols, reader protocols, ONS (Object Name Service), discovery services, etc. – etc.  a world in itself...
  113. 113. 113/256 9. communications 9.1. overview 9.2. framing 9.3. wireless networks 9.4. wired networks 9.5. messaging protocols
  114. 114. 114/256 communications - overview  central part of IoT systems  wireless or wired  a given system can use several network technologies – to increase connectivity reliability – to increase connectivity coverage – to provide specific properties (low power, QoS, etc.) – to support legacy equipments – to lower operating costs / capital costs – etc.
  115. 115. 115/256 communications - important characteristics  shared or not  geographic coverage + possibility to adapt it  latency  connectivity setup time  addressability  required power for transmission  terminal cost  communication cost  ease of integration  throughput  confidentiality  reliability  availability  etc.
  116. 116. 116/256 9. communications 9.1. overview 9.2. framing 9.3. wireless networks 9.4. wired networks 9.5. messaging protocols
  117. 117. 117/256 framing  before going farther, let’s look at how to transmit messages over a serial link, for instance to – use a location module – use a communication module
  118. 118. 118/256 framing communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage command + data interfaces command + data interfaces
  119. 119. 119/256 framing  control bytes: – to configure the module (link speed, power mode, etc.) – to signal specific events  data bytes: – for a GNSS receiver: location, satellite information, etc. – for a communication module: data to be sent to / received from remote side  multiplex control bytes and data bytes  error control  sequence control  flow control  time-out control  transparency  => framing + acknowledgement + possible repetition
  120. 120. 120/256 framing header payload check sequence  detailed frame structure depends on protocol  header may contain: – packet numbering – number of last good packet received – frame class – etc.  check sequence: – result of a mathematical operation performed on payload bytes – receiver performs the same operation and compares result  Questions: – how to know when a frame starts and when it stops? – how to ensure transparency for payload?
  121. 121. 121/256 framing - delimitation  several solutions for delimitation: – byte count – flag bytes – etc.  byte count:  flag bytes: header payload check sequence payload size header payload check sequence B E
  122. 122. 122/256 framing - delimitation  byte count: in case of error in the middle of a frame or in the count itself, how to re-synchronize?  flag byte: how to allow E byte to be present in payload?  => transparency
  123. 123. 123/256 framing - transparency  use a predefined escape byte, ESC for instance  on transmission side: – when E is in payload, insert an ESC before it – when ESC is in payload, insert another ESC before it  on reception side: – when ESC is received, delete it and keep following byte  another solution: reduce payload allowed byte set!  etc.
  124. 124. 124/256 framing - always required?  framing is always required  but error processing may be ignored in some environments (typically on short links in non-noisy environments)
  125. 125. 125/256 framing - NMEA 0183 example $GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47 flag byte only readable ASCII characters (no CR) flag byte: CR check sequence
  126. 126. 126/256 9. communications 9.1. overview 9.2. framing 9.3. wireless networks 9.4. wired networks 9.5. messaging protocols
  127. 127. 127/256 wireless - PMR  Professional Mobile Radio – not accessible to consumer – frequency + associated bandwidth allocated to a user for a given period – user: private or public organization (company, city, association, etc.) – cost: annual fee (“license fee”) per terminal. In France: – fee = I x bf x c x k4 + n x G – I: bandwidth, in MHz – bf: depends on frequency – c: depends on coverage – k4: constant – n: number of mobile users – G: constant
  128. 128. 128/256 wireless - PMR  Frequency (bands): – 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 150 MHz, 400 MHz, etc.  Technology: – analog – voice + data (modem) – 6,25 or 12,5 kHz channels – 1200 b/s – digital: – DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) – 2 slot TDMA over 12,5 kHz channels – 9000 kb/s for 2 slots – dPMR – FDMA over 6,25 kHz channels – 4800 b/s – TETRA (TErrestrial Trunk RAdio) – 4 slot TDMA over 25 kHz channels – 7200 b/s per slot – for shared networks – TETRAPOL – FDMA – for shared networks – TEDS, GSM-R  Coverage: – from ⋍ 30 km (mono-site) up to wide area coverage (multi-sites / trunk) TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
  129. 129. 129/256 wireless - PMR - data  data communication: – usually, using a dedicated connector on transceiver – analog: – let's forget about it... – digital: – DMR: status messages (≤ 128 bytes) - short messages (≤ 36 bytes) – packet data – dPMR: short messages (≤ 100 bytes) - packet data – TETRA: short messages (≤140 bytes) - packet data
  130. 130. 130/256 wireless - PMR  in 2012: – around 26.000 PMR networks in France  users: – taxis, public transports, ambulances, airports, highways, security, industry, constructions, etc. – public organizations: cities, hospitals, etc.
  131. 131. 131/256 wireless - unlicensed  France regulation: – AFP = Appareils de Faible Puissance et de Faible Portée – freely accessible – 6.8 MHz, 13.6 MHz, 27.0 MHz, 40.7 MHz, 433.0 MHz, 434.0 MHz, 863- 868... MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.7-5.9 GHz, 24... GHz, 61 GHz, 122-123 GHz, 244- 246 GHz – ERP: depends on frequency - from 1 mW to 500 mW – some restrictions on duty cycle, on channel spacing, etc. – some other frequencies, for specific equipments – usual range: up to a few kilometers, unobstructed LoS – throughput: from several 100s of b/s to several 1000s of b/s ERP: Effective Radiated Power LoS: Line of Sight
  132. 132. 132/256 wireless - unlicensed long range  for a given radiated power and a given bit error rate, range can be increased either by: – using lower bit rate with traditional modulation technologies. But this narrows spectrum => precise frequency reference is required to decode received modulation.  or by – using spread spectrum modulation. But processing is complex.  Examples: – SIGFOX (choice 1) - technology + network operator – range: documented as up to 40 km LoS – LoRa (Semtech) (choice 2) - technology (chipsets) – range: documented as up to 15 km LoS
  133. 133. 133/256 interfacing with comm. module  example: Microchip LoRaWAN RN2483  serial link: 57600 b/s, 8 bits, no parity  frame: – ASCII, terminated by CR LF – three command types: sys mac radio – examples: – sys sleep 100 – sys set nvm 300 AA – mac reset 868 – radio set mod lora [Com01]
  134. 134. 134/256 wireless - PLMN  Public Land Mobile Network  two main families of standards / technologies: – 3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project – GSM, GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, HSUPA, MBMS, LTE, LTE Advanced... – 3GPP2: 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 – CDMA2000, UMB, LTE...  shared between anybody who subscribes  broad coverage, but target is population, not territory
  135. 135. 135/256 wireless - 3GPP  data services: – CSD (Circuit Switched Data): obsolete – SMS (Short Message Service) – 140 to 160 characters / bytes – USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) – specific services – packet data - IP compatible – throughputs (beware: uplink ≪ downlink): – 2.5G: 8 to 40 kb/s (GPRS) – EDGE = GPRS x 3 – 3G: 2 Mb/s non-moving, 384 kb/s moving – 3.5G: 14.4 Mb/s (HSDPA) – 4G: 100 Mb/s and more (LTE)... GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access LTE: Long Term Evolution
  136. 136. 136/256 wireless - 3GPP IoT-oriented  three LPWA technologies in Release 13: – NB-IoT (Narrow-Band IoT) – EC-GSM-IoT (Extended Coverage GSM for the IoT) – LTE-M (LTE for Machines) LPWA : Low Power Wide Area
  137. 137. 137/256 wireless - NB-IoT  power consumption decreased => battery life > 10 years (!)  spectrum efficiency improved  extended coverage (rural and deep indoors)  low device complexity => low cost
  138. 138. 138/256 wireless - EC-GSM-IoT  based on eGPRS (EDGE for GPRS)  software upgrade of existing GSM networks  battery life > 10 years (!)
  139. 139. 139/256 wireless - LTE-M  simplified term for LTE-MTC CatM1  lower device complexity - cost reduced to 25% of current eGPRS modules  extended coverage  battery life > 10 years (!)
  140. 140. 140/256 wireless - LPWA comparison  10 year life impossible if received signal too low  data rate can be decreased => longer TX => lower battery life [Com04]
  141. 141. 141/256 interfacing with 3GPP module  AT commands, defined in 3GPP TS 27.007 (and TS 07.07)  commands: [Com02]
  142. 142. 142/256 interfacing with 3GPP module  responses:
  143. 143. 143/256 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity  APN (Access Point Name): – name of gateway between 3GPP network and the Internet - real name: GGSN – defined by the operator – defines following gateway characteristics: – static or dynamic IP address – public or private IP address – allowed protocols (TCP, UDP, etc.) – allowed ports
  144. 144. 144/256 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity with IP stack in µc board mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – start a PPP session => IP address assigned to remote device communication module microcontroller board AT commands GGSN: GPRS Gateway Support Node[Com03] [Com04]
  145. 145. 145/256 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity  1/ attach: AT+CGATT=1 OK  2/ define PDP context 3: AT+CGDCONT=3,"IP","orange.m2m.spec" OK  activate PDP context 3: AT+CGACT=1,3 OK  establish communication using PDP context 3: ATD*99***3# CONNECT  3/ start a PPP session
  146. 146. 146/256 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity with IP stack in µc board - router mobile network the Internet GGSN 1 - register 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module AT commands 3 – define NAT / PAT rule => comm. module performs NAT / PAT communication module microcontroller board
  147. 147. 147/256 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity without IP stack in µc board mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – send / receive data communication module microcontroller board AT commands
  148. 148. 148/256 wireless - 3GPP - programmable comm. module mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – send / receive data communication module + application API
  149. 149. 149/256 wireless - satellites  geostationary orbits – characteristics: – 36.000 km above the Earth – satellite seen from Earth as stationary – coverage restricted to desired zone – minimum end-to-end latency: 2 x 36.000 km / 300.000 km/s => 240 ms – Inmarsat: – BGAN M2M: IP at up to 448 kb/s – latency from 800 ms – global coverage except polar regions – IsatM2M: messages of 25 (up) / 100 (down) bytes – latency 30 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions – IsatData Pro: messages of 6.4 (up) / 10 (down) kB – latency 15 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions – Thuraya BGAN: Broadband Global Area Network
  150. 150. 150/256 wireless - satellites  low earth orbit (LEO) – characteristics: – satellites constantly in motion around the Earth – altitude: 170 – 2000 km => period: 90 – 130 min. – low power – higher latency ! – Orbcomm: – messages of 6 to 30 bytes – average latency: 6 min. – global coverage – Globalstar – Iridium – Argos
  151. 151. 151/256 wireless - short distance  Wi-Fi – wireless local area network (WLAN) technology based on IEEE802.11 standards – Wi-Fi Alliance owns the brand (not an abbreviation...) – range: usually up to 100 m outdoors  Bluetooth – originally designed to replace serial cables – personal area network (PAN) – managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group – range: less than 100 m – many profiles – Bluetooth Low Energy (part of V4.0)
  152. 152. 152/256 wireless - short distance  ZigBee – managed by ZigBee Alliance – low-power – range: up to 100 m – mesh network => long distance by retransmitting data  Z-Wave – managed by Z-Wave Alliance - for home automation – low-power – range: around 30 m – mesh network
  153. 153. 153/256 wireless - comparison Techno Shared Range Latency Setup time PMR no from 30 km up to wide area depends on architecture 0 unlicensed yes up to 10 (40) km depends on architecture 0 2.5G/3G yes wide area from 100 ms up to 1 s from 2 s to 5 s 4G yes wide area 50 ms 1 s satellites geo yes global 800 ms to 60 s depends satellites LEO yes global min depends Wi-Fi yes local ms s
  154. 154. 154/256 wireless - comparison - 2/2 Techno Addressability TX power Equipment cost Comm. cost PMR full W 100s € 0 € unlicensed full mW 10s € 0 € 2.5G/3G restricted W 100s € flat rate 4G restricted W 100s € --> 10s € flat rate satellites geo restriced W 1000s € high satellites LEO restricted W 100s € high Wi-Fi full mW 10s € 0 €
  155. 155. 155/256 wireless - 3 dimensions  3 dimensions, for wireless networks: – technology – regulations – operator  example 1: – 4G is a technology mainly used for public cellular networks – operators (Orange, Verizon, etc.) have to buy licenses – 4G can be used on private networks as well  example 2: – Sigfox is an operator using its proprietary technology on license-free bands – the technology could be used on licensed bands as well  example 3: – LoRa is a technology used on license-free bands – there are several operators (Orange, Bouygues Telecom, etc.) – the technology can be used by consumers as well – the technology can be used on licensed bands as well
  156. 156. 156/256 9. communications 9.1. overview 9.2. framing 9.3. wireless networks 9.4. wired networks 9.5. messaging protocols
  157. 157. 157/256 wired  leased lines – permanent connection between two locations – analog or digital – symmetric throughput (unlike ADSL) – example for France: – Orange Transfix: up to 2048 Kb/s – for IoT / M2M: more or less obsolete  Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) – requires a modem (modulator – demodulator) – up to 56 Kb/s – cost proportional to duration (depends on package) – long setup time (up to 20 or 30 s) – for IoT / M2M: not so used  Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) – pseudo permanent connection
  158. 158. 158/256 wired  Local Area Network (LAN) – Ethernet  field buses: – PROFIBUS – DeviceNet – INTERBUS – FOUNDATION – Modbus – Sercos – PROFINET – Powerlink – EtherCAT – etc.
  159. 159. 159/256 9. communications 9.1. overview 9.2. framing 9.3. wireless networks 9.4. wired networks 9.5. messaging protocols
  160. 160. 160/256 messaging protocols  just a few words about TCP: – TCP is a stream-oriented protocol: – “Hello world” can be received as “Hell” and then “o world” – “Hello” and then “ world” can be received as “Hello world” – => framing is required – see communications / framing section. Simpler, for TCP, thanks to TCP characteristics: – ordered data transfer – error-free data transfer
  161. 161. 161/256 messaging protocols  message framing: – ASN.1: defined 30 years ago by CCITT (now ITU-T) – not so used in M2M/IoT... – Google re-invented a solution in 2008: Protocol Buffers – not so used either in M2M/IoT... (but framing not provided...) – CBOR (Concise Binary Object Representation): IETF - 2013 – advantages: – reliable solutions – data endianness independency – transparent serialization/deserialization – forward compatibility – drawbacks: – some complexity – Protocol Buffers needs framing – libraries in various languages to encode / decode frames – not so difficult to define your own mechanism
  162. 162. 162/256 messaging protocols  applying web technologies to IoT / M2M communications is often not the right choice: – HTTP: request / response (=> polling), ASCII, complex parsing – XML: verbose – JSON: still too verbose  one benefit: – go through firewalls and proxies  but should IoT / M2M communications be transported along with web communications?
  163. 163. 163/256 messaging protocols - MQTT  MQTT acronym comes from Message Queue (not present in MQTT!) and Telemetry Transport (but MQTT is not restricted to telemetry)  maintained by OASIS Consortium (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)  mixes messaging with publish / subscribe (one to many - application decoupling)  based on TCP/IP (MQTT-SN for non TCP/IP networks)  small transport overhead  abnormal disconnection notification  free open source implementations: – Eclipse Mosquitto (server) – Eclipse Paho (clients in various languages)
  164. 164. 164/256 messaging protocols - CoAP  Constrained Application Protocol  maintained by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) - RFC7252  request / response – designed to easily interface with HTTP  based on UDP or equivalent  low transport overhead  low parsing complexity  resource discovery (a client queries a server)  several free open source implementations of CoAP (client, server)
  165. 165. 165/256 messaging protocols - other  many other protocols: – Open Wireless Telematics Protocol (designed by Mobile Devices) – Cloud Connector (designed by Digi) – etc.  not so difficult (for really experienced developer) to define one's own protocol
  166. 166. 166/256 device management protocols  OMA DM: specified by Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)  OMA DM supports: – device provisioning (device initialization and configuration) – software updates (application and system software) – fault management (reporting faults, querying status)  for M2M: OMA Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) – based on CoAP – open source implementation: Eclipse Wakaama project
  167. 167. 167/256 summary  many different technologies  understanding real user needs is important, to choose right network technology/technologies  perhaps the most important part of a system, as it transfers data from on side to the other one  perhaps the most difficult part of a system, at a technical point of view
  168. 168. 168/256 10. platforms 10.1. architecture and services 10.2. RESTful API
  169. 169. 169/256 platforms  beware: the word « platform » may have different meanings – software development framework – software application providing communication (and possibly management and storage) services – a hosted application providing above services – hardware system – hardware system and associated software stack – etc.  in what follows: hosted application, that makes easier to integrate devices into applications
  170. 170. 170/256 platforms central side connected device long distance network
  171. 171. 171/256 platforms Central sideRemote side OS embedded device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipherals communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer-dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms management security communication services API
  172. 172. 172/256 platforms  functions usually provided by a platform (as seen by a user): – device provisioning – device management – device authentication – support of some communication protocols – user authentication – data persistence (raw data or decoded data?) – device groups – user groups – easy way to add new communication protocols – etc.  two logical interfaces: one for devices, one for applications
  173. 173. 173/256 platforms connected device central side platform platform code solving customer problem code solving customer problem customer pays for this, not for the platform relative sizes of software code, for a complex system
  174. 174. 174/256 platforms  perceived value is often not in the platform  a platform may prevent from using some devices (which do not implement a supported protocol)  a platform usually creates a protocol break  when updating the platform, ALL users are impacted  developing a communication layer + minimum device management is not complex for an experienced team  => think twice before deciding on using a platform  anyway, using a platform may be very nice, for some (simple) applications, to demonstrate a new service, or for very large sets of devices
  175. 175. 175/256 many platforms ? Afero deviceWISE Microtronics end-to-end platform Sine-Wave AggreGate dweet.io Mobius SIMPro AirVantage Electric Imp MODE SmartThings Ark Enterprise2Cloud mozaiq Solair ARTIK Cloud EVRYTHNG Murano TempoIQ AT&T's M2X Exosite myDevices The ThingBox AWS IoT FlowCloud Nabto thethings.iO Axeda IoT Platform Gaonic Neo ThingFabric AXON GoFactory Net4Things ThingPlug Ayla IoT Cloud Fabric Golgi Netatmo Connect ThingSpeak Beebotte IFTTT netObjex Thingsquare Berg iMotion NetPro ThingWorx Blynk Impact n.io UnificationEngine Bosch IoT Suite Initial State Octoblu Verizon's M2M platform Busit IoT Acceleration Platform OpenMTC Vortex Canopy Itron OpenSensorCloud Waygum Carriots Hologram Cellular Platform OpenSensors waylay CloudConnect Home2Cloud Open.Sen.se WyzBee Combicloud IBM IoT Cloud Parse Xively Concirrus IoTfy People Power - now FabrUX Yaler Connext DDS IoT lab Plat-One Zatar Coversant IoT Cloud IoT-X PubNub Dashboard of Things iQmenic REDtone IOT Canopy dataplicity Kii resin.io DeviceHive Datavenue Lelylan restack FI-WARE Deutsche Telekom's M2M Device Cloud Loop RuBAN Home*Star / IOTDB Device Connection Platform Lumata Samsung SAMIIO IoTivity DeviceCloud M2M Intelligence SAP HANA Kaa DeviceHub MachineShop SensorLogic macchina.io DevicePilot mbed Device Server SkyNet Nimbits Node-RED OpenIoT OpenRemotecheck http://www.monblocnotes.com/node/1979 opensource
  176. 176. 176/256 platforms - example - Sierra Wireless  connectivity management – SIM inventory – usage tracking – etc.  application enablement – RESTful API – data storage – rules engine – device protocol support – etc.  device management – device monitoring – command transmission – OTA firmware update – configuration deployment – etc. [Pla02]
  177. 177. 177/256 platforms - how to use one  usual steps, to use a platform for a new development: – register – check list of supported devices, and select one, possibly a simulated one – download client source code or library – build an « Hello World » client (send/receive data) – test it – check send/receive data using available web application – download central application source code or library – build an « Hello World » application (send/receive data) – test it – test the whole system
  178. 178. 178/256 10. platforms 10.1. architecture and services 10.2. RESTful API
  179. 179. 179/256 overview  REST: representational state transfer  invented in 2000 - an architecture, not a protocol – client-server – stateless – cacheable – layered system – uniform interface – [code on demand]  for web services: RESTful APIs – base URL – HTTP method (GET, HEAD, PUT, POST, DELETE, TRACE, CONNECT) – data elements - JSON
  180. 180. 180/256 example - when you visit google.com from France client server GET / HTTP/1.1 User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:10.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/10.0 Host: google.com Accept: */* open TCP socket with address google.com HTTP/1.1 302 Found Cache-Control: private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Location: https://www.google.fr/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=J8-MWPedMPL-8AePwISQDA Content-Length: 259 Date: Sat, 28 Jan 2017 17:04:39 GMT Alt-Svc: quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="35,34" <HTML><HEAD><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"> <TITLE>302 Moved</TITLE></HEAD><BODY> <H1>302 Moved</H1> The document has moved <A HREF="https://www.google.fr/?gfe_rd=cr&amp;ei=J8-MWPedMPL-8AePwISQDA">here</A>. </BODY></HTML>
  181. 181. 181/256 example - AirVantage API client server GET /api/v1/users/current?access_token={token} HTTP/1.1 .... { uid: "81210eca05484d34a29bc6c34dc31bf7", email: "dsciamma@sierrawireless.com", name: "David Sciamma", company: { uid: "97ba9e22078548a2847912a87152e3f4", name: "Sierra Wireless" }, profile: { uid: "df1c0f7d5f8c4db2b45978f98e1093ad", name: "Manager" } }
  182. 182. 182/256 example - AirVantage API  after authentication: – get received data – send command to a device – get monitoring data – etc.
  183. 183. 183/256 11. central side
  184. 184. 184/256 computational viewpoint Central sideRemote side OS embedded device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipherals communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer-dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms management security communication services API
  185. 185. 185/256 computational viewpoint  communication server  database  geographic information system (GIS) functions  data filtering and processing  user interface(s)  etc.
  186. 186. 186/256 communication server  communication server: – provides an interface to communicate with devices – may handle several different network technologies – switching to another network technology or supporting a new one should be easy and rapid – other usual requirements: – security concerns: authentication, integrity, privacy, (non-repudiation) – reliability – scalability – etc.
  187. 187. 187/256 communication server  example: – for PMR or unlicensed radio antennas transceivers + modems communication server [Cen01]
  188. 188. 188/256 communication server  example: – for 3GPP communication server Internet
  189. 189. 189/256 communication server  3GPP example (cont'd): – uplink (from devices to server): – server IP address must be reachable => public or VPN – downlink: – device IP address characteristics depend on APN – static or dynamic? – public or private? – several solutions depending on user need and required genericity: – device initiates and maintains a TCP session – server sends an SMS to device, requesting its connection – devices connects periodically – private APN => VPN – etc.
  190. 190. 190/256 databases  3 main technologies: – relational database – object database – NoSQL database  another dimension to be considered sometimes: – spatial database (but GIS function can be provided as a service)  a question may arise: – do application data have to be separated from “technical” data? – there is no one right answer  another question: – should all device generated data be mirrored in the central database? – again: there is no one right answer
  191. 191. 191/256 Geographic Information Systems  some applications need – to perform spatial operations and / or – to display spatial information  at a technical point of view, two different elements: – functions: – spatial queries against spatial database – spatial libraries – data: – digital maps – georeferenced data  at an architectural point of view: – web GIS – rich client
  192. 192. 192/256 Geographic Information Systems  all-in-one (functions + data) web GIS: – Google Maps JavaScript API – Bing Maps APIs – etc.  functions only web GIS: – MapServer (Open Source) – GeoServer (Open Source) – etc.  functions only rich client GIS: – GRASS GIS (Open Source) – QGIS (Open Source) – uDig (Open Source) – etc.
  193. 193. 193/256 Geographic Information Systems  data: – OpenStreetMap (Open Source)
  194. 194. 194/256 Geographic Information Systems  many providers of commercial products: – rich client / desktop GIS – web GIS – data (vector, bitmap, additional layers)  GIS is a complex matter: – do not try to reinvent the wheel – take some time to get some experience
  195. 195. 195/256 User Interface  as for GIS: web or rich client  web: – ⊕ good for large number of distributed users – ⊕ can be good for supporting multi-device / multi-OS – ⊕ good for software updates – ⊖ usually bad for user-perceived response time – ⊖ usually bad for « real-time » or complex user interfaces – ⊖ usually bad for license cost – etc.  rich client: – almost the other way round...  mixing the two of them can be a good solution
  196. 196. 196/256 12. big data
  197. 197. 197/256 big data  data sets too large / too complex to be processed with traditional tools  we are not talking about Terabyte (1012 bytes)  we are talking about Petabyte (1015 bytes), Exabyte (1018 bytes), etc.  Volume, Velocity, Variety  some tools: – Hadoop (distributed processing - MapReduce, YARN, HDFS) – Spark (analytics over Hadoop file system) – Cassandra (distributed NoSQL) – ElasticSearch (analytics) – many, many, many more tools – check http://bigdata.andreamostosi.name/
  198. 198. 198/256 where is big data?  Q: why big data is not addressed in the central side section?
  199. 199. 199/256 where is big data?  A: – currently, big data technologies are used at central side – remember: an IoT system is a whole – more power processing available on the edge and in devices – => big data processing could be distributed over devices soon
  200. 200. 200/256 an example cellular network 400 MB / vehicle / month
  201. 201. 201/256 an example  for electric vehicle prototypes: data about battery, electric engine, location, speed, etc.  for 100 vehicles during one year: – 400 MB x 100 x 12 = 480 GB - this is not big data!  for 1 million vehicles during one year: – 400 MB x 1 000 000 x 12 = 4.8 x 1015 B (4.8 Petabytes) - this is big data  but...
  202. 202. 202/256 an example  but – current mobile data plans are currently too expansive for such volumes – mobile network coverage is currently not full => buffering is required => memory cost – there is enough processing power AND energy in a vehicle => processing can be performed on the fly, so that only main results are sent to the central side
  203. 203. 203/256 more generally  there is no one fits all architecture
  204. 204. 204/256 13. security
  205. 205. 205/256 information security  we talk about information security only  three objectives, according to the CIA triad: – confidentiality – integrity – availability
  206. 206. 206/256 checklist  business processes: – who is in charge? – how to address security?  device hardware and physical security: – secure boot process – no active debug interface – physical protection against tampering – etc.  device application: – signed software – signed remote software updates – unused ports are disabled – good practice coding standard – well define source code management – safe failures – etc. [Sec01]
  207. 207. 207/256 checklist  device operating system: – most current patches – plan for remote update – non-essential services are remoed – etc.  device wired and wireless interfaces: – unauthorized connections are prevented – IP packets forwarding between interfaces is disabled – unused ports are closed – if existing, default connection password is unique to each device – connections are secured (TLS...) – etc.
  208. 208. 208/256 checklist  authentication and authorization: – code and data are binded to a specific devie hardware – a password can’t be null or blank – protection against repeated login attempts – stored passwords are encrypted – etc.  encryption and key management for hardware: – true random number generator – tamper proof location for sensitive data – etc.  web user interface: – strong user authentication – automatic session timeout – input validation – etc.
  209. 209. 209/256 checklist  mobile application: – minimum required amount of personal information is stored – personal user data is encrypted – stored passwords are encrypted – etc.  privacy: – only authorised personnel have access to personal data of users – personal data is anonymized – data retention policy – product owner is informed about data collection – etc.  cloud and network elements: – latest security patches – webserver identification switched off – etc.
  210. 210. 210/256 checklist  secure supply chain and production: – test and calibration software erased before dispatch – duplicate serial numbers are detected – securely controlled area may be required – etc.
  211. 211. 211/256 summary  security is a world by itself  it applies to all subcomponents  a broad view is required  rely on real experience
  212. 212. 212/256 14. standardization
  213. 213. 213/256 standardization  some “old” standards: – V.24, V.28, etc. – MODBUS, Fieldbus, etc. – SPI, I2C, etc.  but that's really far from being enough  let's dream: – any remote side should be able to communicate with any central side – any central side should be able to communicate with any central side – any side receiving a new type of data should be able to know whether it has to process this data, and/or what it means (semantics, ontology)
  214. 214. 214/256 standardization  in Europe: ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)  most of ETSI M2M standardization work has been transferred to oneM2M in 2012  oneM2M is a global partnership project (China, Japan, Europe, North America, etc.)  OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) is member of oneM2M  goal: develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software
  215. 215. 215/256 standardization  AE: Application Entity - CSE: Common Services Entity - NSE: Network Services Entity [Sta01]]
  216. 216. 216/256 ITU-T - technical overview [Sta02]
  217. 217. 217/256 ITU-T - types of devices and relationship with physical things
  218. 218. 218/256 standardization  many other standardization organizations: – Open Connectivity Foundation – Thread Group – Hypercat Consortium – Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) – Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) – ITU Joint Coordination Activity on IoT (JCA-IoT) – TIA TR-50 – Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) – OMG Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) – IEEE IoT Architecture Working Group
  219. 219. 219/256 standardization  many other standardization organizations (cont'd): – Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – IPSO Alliance – W3C Web of Things Community Group – W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group – ZigBee Alliance – ULE Alliance – Z-Wave Alliance – etc. (see http://www.monblocnotes.com/node/2034)
  220. 220. 220/256 standardization  Q: so many standards... What to do with them?  A: what you want  more seriously: – for an integrator: – try to use standardized interfaces and products – stay informed
  221. 221. 221/256 15. ecosystem
  222. 222. 222/256 ecosystem  what we saw: – many different use cases – several different technologies  => ecosystem and value chain are complex
  223. 223. 223/256 ecosystem  usually, value chain is depicted like this: Devices Connectivity Integration Applications Customers
  224. 224. 224/256 ecosystem  more realistic view: Software developer Middleware developer Software component developer Device manufacturer Location technology provider Wireless module manufacturer Network operator Integrator Installer Geocoded data provider Customer Service provider Embedded OS developer User Sensor / actuator manufacturer Embedded software developer Electronic board manufacturer Hosting
  225. 225. 225/256 ecosystem  many different type of activities – it's quite common that one company runs several activities  important activity: integration – the integrator tries to get a working system!  another important activity, often forgotten about: – installation (at home, in a vehicle, in a factory...) – bad installation => lot of glitches, very difficult to diagnose
  226. 226. 226/256 16. project perspective
  227. 227. 227/256 usual difficulties  a project must deliver a technical solution that matches user needs  difficulties: – complex ecosystem – user needs not defined correctly – too many standards / lack of standards – unreliable communication network – system distributed over several physical components – electronics and software do not obey same life cycles – some specific software expertise required – high reliability sometimes required – etc.  following examples: how some difficulties were handled (or not)
  228. 228. 228/256 example - user needs - 1/4 A
  229. 229. 229/256 example - user needs - 1/4 B  project: RFP for a waste collection management system  time spent talking with the customer led project team to understand that there was no need for real-time data transmission  proposal: truck data downloaded by wire at the end of the day – => lower operating cost than competitors' proposals – contract signed, while the provider had no experience about waste collection management system  understand customer needs better than himself
  230. 230. 230/256 example - user needs - 2/4 A
  231. 231. 231/256 example - user needs - 2/4 B  project: RFP for a taxi dispatch system  taxi drivers had no experience of a dispatch system  neither the provider  agreement about « agility »: – minimum viable product delivered as soon as possible – feedback from drivers and dispatch people – => modification of some delivered functions – => decision about new ones to be added – => new version – several successive versions  be agile
  232. 232. 232/256 example - user needs - 3/4 A
  233. 233. 233/256 example - user needs - 3/4 B  project: RFP for a bus schedule checking system  « big brother » feeling: bus drivers could decide to go on strike – => first delivered functions were providing immediate value to bus drivers (free voice calls, attack alarm) – => no more problem with trade unions  rapidly deliver value to the users
  234. 234. 234/256 example - user needs - 4/4 A
  235. 235. 235/256 example - user needs - 4/4 B  project: for a customer, develop a system allowing to check inner workings of several car prototypes  provider's Business Unit asked their R&D to develop the system. They decided on a monthly 40 MB data package (usual data packages: 10 MB).  R&D work was done by beginners in the domain. They implemented a thin client architecture, and were very proud of it (M2M 2.0!) But monthly data volume was more than 400 MB! And data was lost for every lengthy loss of connectivity.  keep broad view in mind  don't think you are clever than other people when you enter a new domain
  236. 236. 236/256 example - technology - 1/4 A
  237. 237. 237/256 example - technology - 1/4 B  GPRS was documented as THE solution for packet data over GSM networks  one undocumented trap: – connectivity reset by the operator on a periodic basis  not a big deal for developers used to wireless technology  but a problem for many developers used to LAN  never assume things work as documented
  238. 238. 238/256 example - technology - 2/4 A
  239. 239. 239/256 example - technology - 2/4 B  for a taxi dispatch system: – the provider ordered an onboard device from a very well known company (new product) – two design flaws appeared after first tests (HW + SW)  no time for correction: a software workaround had to be implemented  never assume things work as documented (bis)  plan for contingencies
  240. 240. 240/256 example - technology - 3/4 A
  241. 241. 241/256 example - technology - 3/4 B  for corrected version of previous device, manufacturer introduced new functions required by other customers – => design too complex – => cost too high  it was decided to perform design in-house.  costly effort: – => skills ramp-up – => development of an SDK + testing tools  but return on investment: – control over roadmap – cost reduction by using device for all projects (some components not assembled, depending on project) – etc.  control core technology
  242. 242. 242/256 example - technology - 4/4 A
  243. 243. 243/256 example - technology - 4/4 B  request to an electronic design company: design a low power consumption device, sending some sensor data to a central application, on a periodic basis.  they designed a board with: – a low power microcontroller – a low power communication module  but, to upload the few KB of data on a periodic basis, they used FTP (instead of byte streaming over TCP for instance) – => longer connections – => data overhead – => more power used!  keep the broad view in mind
  244. 244. 244/256 example - legal aspects - A
  245. 245. 245/256 example - legal aspects - B  project: first french « Pay As You Drive » service, for a car insurance company  the system was designed and developed  then, authorization was requested from CNIL (French Personal Data Protection Agency) – answer was: « no »  system had to be re-designed  think about legal aspects before it's too late
  246. 246. 246/256 17. want to play?
  247. 247. 247/256 hardware for devices  many, many, many open source and/or free (or low cost) materials  microcontroller boards: – BeagleBone Black Wireless (Wi-Fi BT) 69 € – ESP-WROVER-KIT (Wi-Fi, camera interface) 44 € – CHIP Pro (Wi-Fi BT - open source) US$ 16 – Arduino  check http://systev.com/iot-device-dev-kits/  electronics: – https://www.adafruit.com/ – http://www.cooking-hacks.com/ – http://www.seeedstudio.com/ – https://www.tindie.com/ – Farnell, Mouser, RS  check http://www.monblocnotes.com/node/2114
  248. 248. 248/256 software for devices  software development tools for devices: – BeagleBone Black Wireless: Linux – ESP-WROVER-KIT: dedicated RTOS SDK – CHIP Pro: Linux – Arduino: Arduino IDE  various software stacks: – protocols (refer to previous slides) – etc.
  249. 249. 249/256 software for central side and communications  open source platforms – DeviceHive – FI-WARE – Home*Star – IoTivity – Kaa – Nimbits – Node-RED – OpenIoT – OpenRemote – SiteWhere – thinger.io
  250. 250. 250/256 18. conclusion
  251. 251. 251/256 conclusion  developing IoT systems can be challenging because: – large diversity of user needs – sometimes difficult to get real user needs – different software development paradigms – integration of technologies from different fields
  252. 252. 252/256 conclusion  perhaps more than in other domains: – spend time with users – get (really) experienced with involved technologies – get the overall view – be agile – design/use hardware that allows for agility (easy (remote) update)  but, in any case, if you choose this domain, you'll have fun!
  253. 253. 253/256 thanks! systev.com @PascalBod06 fr.linkedin.com/in/pascalbodin/ pascal.bodin@systev.com
  254. 254. 254/256 credits and references [Def01] https://material.io/icons/ [Def02] https://openclipart.org/detail/237859/factory [Def03] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things [Fct01] http://www.libelium.com/resources/top_50_iot_sensor_applications_ranking/ [Fct02] https://www.aylanetworks.com/iot-use-cases/connected-home [Pr101] http://homelive.orange.fr/accueil/ [Pr102] http://www.samsung.com/fr/consumer/mobile-devices/smartphones [Pr103] https://openclipart.org/detail/155101/server [Pr201] https://www.u-blox.com/en/product/neo-m8-series [Pr202] http://www.ti.com/product/CC3200MOD/description [Pr203] https://www.sierrawireless.com/products-and-solutions/embedded-solutions/automotive-modules/ [Pr204] https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/FRDM-K64F/ [Pr205] https://openclipart.org/detail/210237/misc-depression-button [Pr206] https://www.u-blox.com/en/product/c027 [Pr207] https://www.iridium.com/products/details/iridiumedge [Arc01] http://www.rm-odp.net/ [Arc01] https://openclipart.org/detail/232991/sedan [Arc02] https://openclipart.org/detail/177832/radiator [Arc03] https://openclipart.org/detail/24535/street-lamp [Arc04] https://openclipart.org/detail/202078/printer-inkjet
  255. 255. 255/256 credits and references [Dev01] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2590 [Dev02] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2542 [Dev03] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2461 [Dev04] https://www.adafruit.com/products/1991 [Per01] https://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/hardware/port.gpio [Per02] http://maxembedded.com/2011/06/the-adc-of-the-avr/ [Per03] [Per04] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus [Per05] https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/serial-peripheral-interface-spi [Per06] http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/i2cinter-integrated-circuittwitwo-wire-interface [Per07] http://maxembedded.com/2014/02/inter-integrated-circuits-i2c-basics/ [Per08] https://autoelectricalsystems.wordpress.com/2015/11/10/basics-of-controller-area-network-can-bus-part-1/ [Com01] http://www.microchip.com/wwwproducts/en/RN2483 [Com02] https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=1515 [Com03] http://www.wikiwand.com/it/Gateway_GPRS_Support_Node [Com04] http://www.robotshop.com/eu/fr/plateforme-developpement-beaglebone-black-beagleboard.html [Com05] [Pla01] http://www.aeris.com/technology/aercloud/ [Pla02] http://eu.mouser.com/Connectors/D-Sub-Connectors/D-Sub-Standard-Connectors/_/N-9gybx? No=50&P=1ytmhdqZ1yzv7x2Z1z0z812 https://www.sierrawireless.com/iot-blog/iot- blog/2016/08/lpwa_for_the_iot_part_2_standard_vs_proprietary_technologies/ https://www.sierrawireless.com/products-and-solutions/sims-connectivity-and-cloud-services/iot-cloud- platform/
  256. 256. 256/256 credits and references [Cen01] https://openclipart.org/detail/17312/antenna-square [Sec01] https://iotsecurityfoundation.org/ [Sta01] http://onem2m.org/images/files/deliverables/Release2/TS-0001-%20Functional_Architecture-V2_10_0.pdf [Sta02] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.2060-201206-I [Pro01] https://openclipart.org/detail/259142/garbage-truck [Pro02] https://openclipart.org/detail/204589/old-british-taxi [Pro03] https://openclipart.org/detail/144367/chiva [Pro04] https://openclipart.org/detail/139267/eco-car [Pro05] https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/gprs-modem.html [Pro06] https://openclipart.org/detail/116599/solar-panel [Pro07] https://openclipart.org/detail/181618/crashed-car

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