Introduction to Management
Good management is the art of making problems so
interesting and their solutions so constructive that
everyone wants to get to work and deal with them.
- Paul Hawken
What do you think management is?
• Well the answer is so simple that it is
the work that managers do.
• So first lets us know who a manager is.
Who are Managers?
• Managers are those who work with and through other people
by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish a
Non- Managerial Employees
Middle line managers
First line managers
Definition of Management
• The process of coordinating work activities so that they are
completed efficiently and effectively with and through other
• Most output from less input
• Not to waste
capital, energy) because it is
limited for use.
• Doing right things
• Right things – Activities that
will help the organization to
reach its goal.
Principles of Management
• Different people gave different concept and principles of
management such as “Theory X and Y” by Douglas McGregor,
14 principles of management Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925), etc.
1. Division of labour 8. Initiative
2. Authority & responsibility 9. Remuneration
3. Unity of command 10. Stability of tenure
4. Unity of direction 11. Scalar chain
5. Equity 12. Individual interest in
6. Order 13. Espirit De’ Corps
7. Discipline 14. Centralization
14 principles of management by Henri Fayol.
•Planning is the primary function of
• Planning is deciding in advance what
is to be done, when is to be done, how
is to be done, and by whom it is to be
• It bridges the gap from where we are
and where we want to go.
•includes selection of objectives,
policies,procedures and programmes
from among alternatives.
Planning- Need and Importance
• Minimises risk and uncertainity
•To face increasing competition
•To provide for complex technological changes
•It leads to success
•It focusses on goals
•It facilitates control
In absence of Plans,it is difficult for the managers to organise people and
Characteristics of a good plan
The features of a good plan are:
• It is based on a clearly defined, unambiguous objectives
•It should be simple
•Should be able to define clear actions and standards
•Should be flexible to accommodate changes
•Should make best utilization of available resources
•Should lead the organization towards success
Advantages of planning
•Helps to make all activities purposeful
•It helps the manager identify future challenges and opportunities
•Helps the manager to analyze all the variables affecting the performance
•Basis for control
•Helps to visualize the organization in its entirety
•Achieve the maximum utilization of available resources at the discretion of
Limitations of Planning
•It is dependent on correctness of information
•Planning consumes a lot of resources including time and money
Some Important Elements in Planning
Organizing is the process of allocating and arranging work, authority and
resources to the members of the organization so that they can
successfully execute the plans.
1. Developing the organizational structure
2. Allocating human resource
3. Task Allocation & the division of responsibility
• The term organizational structure refers to how the people in an
organization are grouped and to whom they report.
Organizational Structure Type
• Bureaucratic Structures
– Bureaucratic (Strict Hierarchy)
– Post-bureaucratic (Involves Total Quality, Culture and Matrix
• Functional Structure: Grouped based on functional areas, such as IT,
finance, and marketing
• Divisional Structure: Several Parallel Teams focusing on a single product
• Matrix Structure: A mixture of functional and divisional structure
• The process by which a person exerts influence over others
and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve
group or organizational goals.
• Importance of Leadership?
What should a leader function?
• Help interpret the meaning of events
• Create alignment on objectives and strategies
• Build task commitment and optimism
• Build mutual trust and cooperation
• Strengthen collective identity
What should a leader function?
• Organize and coordinate activities
• Encourage subordinates
• Obtain necessary resources and support
• Develop and empower people
• Promote social justice and morality
PLANNING- sets goals (what is to be accomplished)
ORGANISING- brings people and resources together in the work units
LEADING - motivates and directs the people to carry out the tasks
CONTROLLING- ensures that everything goes well in accordance
with the plan
Thus Controlling is a process by which management ensures that actual
activities conform to the planned activities.
Control is the Regulatory function of management.
Without control, it is difficult for an organization to know how well they are
PURPOSE OF CONTROL
To ensure the efficient accomplishment of set of objectives of an organisation.
The Control provides ways to survive and grow.
FUNCTIONS OF CONTROL
Adapting to changing conditions
Minimising the errors
Coping with the organisational Complexity
Competency – a combination of knowledge,
skills, behaviors, and attitudes that contribute to
Managerial Competencies – sets of knowledge,
skill, behaviors, and attitudes that a person
needs to be effective in a wide range of positions
and various types of organizations
Why are Managerial Competencies
Important-both to you and the organization?
You need to use your strengths to do your best
You need to know your weaknesses
You need developmental experiences at work to become
successful leaders and address your weakness
You probably like to be challenged with new learning
Organizations do not want to waste human resources
Globalization deregulation, restructuring, and new
competitors add to the complexity of running a business
A Model of Managerial Competencies
Role of management in an organization!
Ultimate.ly..To drive the organization
toward the preset goals !
• List requirements for the following resources: