Meaning of Research Is the pursuit of truth with help of study, observations, comparison and experiment. Objectives of Research Research comprises Defining and redefining the problems Formulating the hypotheses or suggested solutions. Collecting, organizing and evaluating data. Making deductions and reading conclusions And at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypotheses
Motivation in Research Desire to get research degree Desire to face challenges in solving the unsolved problems Desire to get intellectual joy doing some creative work Desire to be of service to the society Desire to get responsibility
TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive Research:-Means description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Researcher only reports only what has happened or what is happening Applied Research:- Aims at finding solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry/ business organizations Quantitative Research:-Based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Conceptual Research: - Related to some abstract ideas or theory. Used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or re-interpret existing ones.
Empirical Research: - Relies on experience or observations alone, often without due regard for system and theory. Qualitative Research: - Concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. Fundamental Research: - Mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Analytical Research: - Researcher has to use facts on information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
RESEARCH METHODS Vs. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methods:- Refers to the methods/ techniques researchers use in performing research operations. Research Methodology:- It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.
Difference between Methods and TechniquesTYPE METHODS TECHNIQUESLibrary Research (i)Analysis of historical records Recording of notes, Contents analysis, Tape and listening (ii)Analysis of documents and analysis. Statistical compilation and manipulations, references and abstract guides, contents analysis.2. Field Research (i) Non-participant direct observation Observational behavioral scales, use of score cards, (ii) participant observation etc.Interactional recording possible use of tape recorders, (iii) Mass observation photo graphic techniques.Recording mass behaviour, interview using independent observers in public (iv) Mail questionnaire placesIdentification of social and economic background of (v) Opinionnaire respondentsUse of attitude scales, projective techniques, (vi) Personal interview use of sociometric scales.Interviewer uses a detailed (vii) Focused interview schedule with open and closed questionsInterviewer focuses attention upon a given experience and its (ix) Telephone survey effectsUsed as a survey technique for information and for (x) Case study and life history discerning opinion may also be used as a follow up of questionnaireCross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, longitudinal collection of data of intensive character3. Laboratory Small groups study of random behavior, play Small groups study of random behavior, play and roleResearch and role analysis analysis
DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGNSample design is the heart of research workSteps in Sample Design Define the universe Sampling unit Source list or sampling frame Size of sample Sampling method or technique Parameters of interest Budgetary constraint Select the sample
METHODS OF SAMPLING Samples may be grouped into two broad classes according to their method of selection. Namely: Random or Probability Sampling Non- Random or Non-Probability Sampling.
Random or Probability SamplingMajor random or probability samples are Simple random sample Systematic sample Stratified random sample Multi-stage random sample Cluster sample or area sample Sequential sample or sample in installments Replicated or interpenetrating sample
Non –Random or Non-Probability Sampling Major Non-random or Non-probability samples are:- Purposive sample Quota sample Convenience sample
METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types. i.e. Primary Data Secondary Data
Collection of Primary Data There are several methods of collecting primary data. These are:- Questionnaires Observations Interviews Schedules
Collection of Secondary Data Secondary data means data that is already available i.e. it may be either published or unpublished. Published data are available in:- Various publications of the central, state or local governments Various publications by foreign governments or international bodies and their subsidiary organizations Technical and trade journals Books, magazines and newspapers Reports and publications of various organizations connected with business and industry, Banks, Stock exchanges etc. Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc in different fields Public records and statistics, historical documents and other sources of published information
Sources of unpublished data are many and they include:- Diaries Letters Unpublished biographies and autobiographies Data available with research scholars and research workers, trade associations, labour bureaus and other public/ private individuals and organizations
PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA After collection of data it has to be processed and analyzed. Process of Analysis Editing Coding Classification Tabulation
Elements /Types of Analysis Descriptive analysis Correlation analysis Multivariate analysis Under multivariate we have the following analysis Multiple regression analysis Multiple discriminant analysis Multivariate analysis of variance (or Multi-ANOVA) Canonical analysis • Inferential analysis
HYPOTHESIS TESTING Hypothesis means a mere assumption or some supposition to be proved or disapproved Characteristics of Hypothesis It should be clear and precise Should be capable of being tested It should state the relationship between variables It should be limited by scope and be specific It should be stated as far as possible with most simple terms so that the same is easily understandable by all concerned It should be consisted with most known facts It should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time Must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation
Types of Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis
Testing of HypothesisProcedure of testing Hypothesis Formulate a null or alternative Hypothesis Choose the level of significance of the test Choose the location of the critical region Choose the appropriate test statistics Compute from the sample observations for the observed value of the chosen statistics using the relevant formula Compare the sample value of the chosen statistics with the theoretical (table) value that defines the critical region.
Methods of Testing Hypothesis Parametric Tests or Standard tests of Hypothesis The important parametric tests are:- Z- Test T-Test X- Test and F- Test
Non –Parametric tests or Distribution free test of HypothesisA. One sample and Two sample tests Binomial test Chi- square test McNemar testA. K- sample tests ( K > 3) Kruskal-Wallis test : H Friedman test Kendall`s coefficient of concordance: W
INTERPRETATION Interpretation of data means the task of drawing conclusions and of explaining their significance after a careful analysis of data
Techniques of Interpretation Interpretation requires a great skill on the part of the researcher. It is an art that one learns through practice and experience The technique of interpretation often involves the following steps:- Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relations which he has found Extraneous information, if collected during the study must be considered while interpreting the final result Its advisable before embarking upon final interpretation to consult someone having insight into the study Researchers must accomplish the task of interpretation only after considering all relevant factors affecting the problem.
PRESENTATION OF REPORTA. Preliminary pages Title page Certificate of supervisor Table of contents Preface Acknowledgement Listing of tables Listing of figures Abbreviations
B. Main text Introduction Objectives Methodology Findings Limitations Conclusion and recommendations
C. End matter Appendix Bibliography Alphabetical order books reports journals name of author ,title ,place publisher volume ,page number Glossary