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RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY
Meaning of Research   Is the pursuit of truth with help of study, observations, comparison and    experiment.            ...
Motivation in Research   Desire to get research degree   Desire to face challenges in solving the    unsolved problems ...
TYPES OF RESEARCH   Descriptive Research:-Means description of the state of    affairs as it exists at present. Researche...
   Empirical Research: - Relies on experience or    observations alone, often without due regard for    system and theory...
RESEARCH METHODS Vs.    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY    Research Methods:- Refers to the methods/     techniques researchers use ...
Difference between Methods and TechniquesTYPE                 METHODS                                       TECHNIQUESLibr...
DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGNSample design is the heart of research workSteps in Sample Design   Define the universe   Sampl...
METHODS OF SAMPLING    Samples may be grouped into two broad      classes according to their method of      selection. Nam...
Random or Probability SamplingMajor random or probability samples are Simple random sample Systematic sample Stratified...
Non –Random or Non-Probability               Sampling    Major Non-random or Non-probability    samples are:-   Purposive...
METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA    While deciding about the method of data      collection to be used for the study, the    ...
Collection of Primary Data    There are several methods of collecting primary     data. These are:-   Questionnaires   O...
Collection of Secondary Data    Secondary data means data that is already available i.e. it may be either      published o...
Sources of unpublished data are many and     they include:-   Diaries   Letters   Unpublished biographies and autobiogr...
PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA    After collection of data it has to be processed    and analyzed.              Process o...
Elements /Types of Analysis    Descriptive analysis    Correlation analysis    Multivariate analysis    Under multivari...
HYPOTHESIS TESTING    Hypothesis means a mere assumption or some supposition to be proved    or disapproved               ...
Types of Hypothesis   Null Hypothesis   Alternative Hypothesis
Testing of HypothesisProcedure of testing Hypothesis        Formulate a null or alternative Hypothesis        Choose the...
Methods of Testing Hypothesis       Parametric Tests or Standard tests of Hypothesis        The important parametric test...
Non –Parametric tests or Distribution              free test of HypothesisA.       One sample and Two sample tests       ...
INTERPRETATION   Interpretation of data means the task of    drawing conclusions and of explaining their    significance ...
Techniques of Interpretation    Interpretation requires a great skill on the part of the researcher. It is an art        t...
PRESENTATION OF REPORTA.   Preliminary pages    Title page    Certificate of supervisor    Table of contents    Prefac...
B.   Main text    Introduction    Objectives    Methodology    Findings    Limitations    Conclusion and recommendat...
C.   End matter    Appendix    Bibliography            Alphabetical order            books reports journals          ...
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Researchmethodology 127986209986-phpapp02

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Researchmethodology 127986209986-phpapp02

  1. 1. RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY
  2. 2. Meaning of Research Is the pursuit of truth with help of study, observations, comparison and experiment. Objectives of Research Research comprises Defining and redefining the problems Formulating the hypotheses or suggested solutions. Collecting, organizing and evaluating data. Making deductions and reading conclusions And at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypotheses
  3. 3. Motivation in Research Desire to get research degree Desire to face challenges in solving the unsolved problems Desire to get intellectual joy doing some creative work Desire to be of service to the society Desire to get responsibility
  4. 4. TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive Research:-Means description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Researcher only reports only what has happened or what is happening Applied Research:- Aims at finding solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry/ business organizations Quantitative Research:-Based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Conceptual Research: - Related to some abstract ideas or theory. Used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or re-interpret existing ones.
  5. 5.  Empirical Research: - Relies on experience or observations alone, often without due regard for system and theory. Qualitative Research: - Concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. Fundamental Research: - Mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Analytical Research: - Researcher has to use facts on information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
  6. 6. RESEARCH METHODS Vs. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methods:- Refers to the methods/ techniques researchers use in performing research operations. Research Methodology:- It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.
  7. 7. Difference between Methods and TechniquesTYPE METHODS TECHNIQUESLibrary Research (i)Analysis of historical records Recording of notes, Contents analysis, Tape and listening (ii)Analysis of documents and analysis. Statistical compilation and manipulations, references and abstract guides, contents analysis.2. Field Research (i) Non-participant direct observation Observational behavioral scales, use of score cards, (ii) participant observation etc.Interactional recording possible use of tape recorders, (iii) Mass observation photo graphic techniques.Recording mass behaviour, interview using independent observers in public (iv) Mail questionnaire placesIdentification of social and economic background of (v) Opinionnaire respondentsUse of attitude scales, projective techniques, (vi) Personal interview use of sociometric scales.Interviewer uses a detailed (vii) Focused interview schedule with open and closed questionsInterviewer focuses attention upon a given experience and its (ix) Telephone survey effectsUsed as a survey technique for information and for (x) Case study and life history discerning opinion may also be used as a follow up of questionnaireCross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, longitudinal collection of data of intensive character3. Laboratory Small groups study of random behavior, play Small groups study of random behavior, play and roleResearch and role analysis analysis
  8. 8. DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGNSample design is the heart of research workSteps in Sample Design Define the universe Sampling unit Source list or sampling frame Size of sample Sampling method or technique Parameters of interest Budgetary constraint Select the sample
  9. 9. METHODS OF SAMPLING Samples may be grouped into two broad classes according to their method of selection. Namely: Random or Probability Sampling Non- Random or Non-Probability Sampling.
  10. 10. Random or Probability SamplingMajor random or probability samples are Simple random sample Systematic sample Stratified random sample Multi-stage random sample Cluster sample or area sample Sequential sample or sample in installments Replicated or interpenetrating sample
  11. 11. Non –Random or Non-Probability Sampling Major Non-random or Non-probability samples are:- Purposive sample Quota sample Convenience sample
  12. 12. METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types. i.e. Primary Data Secondary Data
  13. 13. Collection of Primary Data There are several methods of collecting primary data. These are:- Questionnaires Observations Interviews Schedules
  14. 14. Collection of Secondary Data Secondary data means data that is already available i.e. it may be either published or unpublished. Published data are available in:- Various publications of the central, state or local governments Various publications by foreign governments or international bodies and their subsidiary organizations Technical and trade journals Books, magazines and newspapers Reports and publications of various organizations connected with business and industry, Banks, Stock exchanges etc. Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc in different fields Public records and statistics, historical documents and other sources of published information
  15. 15. Sources of unpublished data are many and they include:- Diaries Letters Unpublished biographies and autobiographies Data available with research scholars and research workers, trade associations, labour bureaus and other public/ private individuals and organizations
  16. 16. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA After collection of data it has to be processed and analyzed. Process of Analysis Editing Coding Classification Tabulation
  17. 17. Elements /Types of Analysis Descriptive analysis Correlation analysis Multivariate analysis Under multivariate we have the following analysis  Multiple regression analysis  Multiple discriminant analysis  Multivariate analysis of variance (or Multi-ANOVA)  Canonical analysis • Inferential analysis
  18. 18. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Hypothesis means a mere assumption or some supposition to be proved or disapproved Characteristics of Hypothesis It should be clear and precise Should be capable of being tested It should state the relationship between variables It should be limited by scope and be specific It should be stated as far as possible with most simple terms so that the same is easily understandable by all concerned It should be consisted with most known facts It should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time Must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation
  19. 19. Types of Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis
  20. 20. Testing of HypothesisProcedure of testing Hypothesis  Formulate a null or alternative Hypothesis  Choose the level of significance of the test  Choose the location of the critical region  Choose the appropriate test statistics  Compute from the sample observations for the observed value of the chosen statistics using the relevant formula  Compare the sample value of the chosen statistics with the theoretical (table) value that defines the critical region.
  21. 21. Methods of Testing Hypothesis Parametric Tests or Standard tests of Hypothesis The important parametric tests are:-  Z- Test  T-Test  X- Test and  F- Test
  22. 22. Non –Parametric tests or Distribution free test of HypothesisA. One sample and Two sample tests  Binomial test  Chi- square test  McNemar testA. K- sample tests ( K > 3) Kruskal-Wallis test : H Friedman test Kendall`s coefficient of concordance: W
  23. 23. INTERPRETATION Interpretation of data means the task of drawing conclusions and of explaining their significance after a careful analysis of data
  24. 24. Techniques of Interpretation Interpretation requires a great skill on the part of the researcher. It is an art that one learns through practice and experience The technique of interpretation often involves the following steps:- Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relations which he has found Extraneous information, if collected during the study must be considered while interpreting the final result Its advisable before embarking upon final interpretation to consult someone having insight into the study Researchers must accomplish the task of interpretation only after considering all relevant factors affecting the problem.
  25. 25. PRESENTATION OF REPORTA. Preliminary pages Title page Certificate of supervisor Table of contents Preface Acknowledgement Listing of tables Listing of figures Abbreviations
  26. 26. B. Main text Introduction Objectives Methodology Findings Limitations Conclusion and recommendations
  27. 27. C. End matter Appendix Bibliography  Alphabetical order  books reports journals  name of author ,title ,place publisher volume ,page number Glossary

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