Dyeing & Printing as Fabric Finishes


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A brief into the processes of dyeing and printing as a functional fabric finish. Aimed for basic understanding(introduction) of the subject.

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  • Well done! Very informative and nicely structured slides. Would you be kind enough to email me the presentation? sofia.stahl@varunik.se
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  • hlw Parul Kapur i will be gratefull if u give me option to download ur presentation.
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  • This is wonderful and very resourceful work please email to ethairu@kyu.ac.ke
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  • MAM,Can you send me the copy of this ppt as it is important for my textile studies.My gmail address is ayeshas830@gmail.com........PLEASE SEND IT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE...It is very urgent.
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  • Hi - would you be able to e-mail this to me? It is a fantastic resource I could use with my A-level students. My address is elg@buttershaw.net I really would appreciate it.
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Dyeing & Printing as Fabric Finishes

  1. 1. Dyeing and Printing 1 as Fabric FinishParul Kapur
  2. 2. 2  “Colour” is a sensation evoked as a response to the stimulation of the eye & its attached nervous mechanisms by radiant energy of certain wavelengths and intensities.  “Dye”, through which the sensation of colour is evoked, is recognized as a component that can be fixed on a substance with more or less permanence in the form of a colour.Parul Kapur
  3. 3. Dyes and Pigments 3  Dyes and pigments are substances that impart color to a material.  The major difference between dyes and pigments is solubility. Dyes are usually soluble, or can be made to be soluble, in water. Pigments are generally not soluble in water, oil, or other common solvents.  Once a dye is dissolved in water, the material to be dyed can be immersed in the dye solution. As the material soaks up the dye and dries, it develops a color.  To apply pigments to a material, they have to be first ground into a fine powder and thoroughly mixed with some liquid, called the dispersing agent or vehicle.Parul Kapur
  4. 4. Dyeing v/s Printing 4 Fiber, yarn or fabric is  A pattern is generally impregnated with the imprinted on the fabric dyestuff. surface. Dyeing gives solid shades  Printing is application of all over the fiber. colour on the surface of Aqueous solution or dye- the cloth in selected bath is used in the areas only. process.  A thick paste of the dye The outline of the design is prepared that usually is same on both sides of contains sizing. the fabric.  The outline of the design is sharply defined on the right side. Parul Kapur
  5. 5. Selection of dyes 5 Affinity – towards the vegetable, animal or manmade fiber. E.g. dyes used for cotton & linen may be used for rayon but may not be able to colour polyester…Direct dyes. Degree of colour fastness- Fastness of colour refers to its ability to remain unchanged.1. Different dyes have different degrees of fastness to various conditions. E.g. a colour may have good wash fastness but poor light fastness.2. Colour fastness may be affected by perspiration, dry cleaning, bleach, salt water, swimming pool additives, atmospheric gases, air pollutants, perfumes and body sprays etc.3. Consequently selection of dye depends on the end use of the textile. E.g. fastness to light is important for draperies as they must hang in strong light daily. Parul Kapur
  6. 6. When dyeing is done? 6 Selection of dyeing method:1. Stock dyeing in the fiber stage2. Top dyeing in the combed sliver stage3. Yarn dyeing after the fiber has been spun into yarn4. Piece dyeing after the yarn has been constructed into fabrics.5. Solution pigmenting/ dope dyeing before man-made fibers are extruded through the spinnerets.6. Garment dyeing after certain kinds of apparel are knitted.7. Gel state, when fibers have begun to form but before they have been set.8. Tow form, the mass filaments are formation but before cutting into staple lengths. Parul Kapur
  7. 7. Stock dyeing 7 The older method is that of removing the packed fiber from the bales and then packing the stock in large vats & circulating dye liquor through the mass of fiber. The newer method is that of splitting the bale covering on all six sides, placing the entire bale in a specially designed machine & then forcing the dye liquor through the bale fiber. This method saves time and labor cost. In this process the colour is well penetrated into the fiber and does not crock readily. Stock dyed fibers does not spin as readily as un-dyed fiber because it loses some of its flexibility, but lubricants added in the final rinsing overcome most of this difficulty. Parul Kapur
  8. 8. Top Dyeing 8 Top is wool that has been combed to take out the short fibers, they are delivered in a ropelike form. This top is wound on perforated spools and the dye liquor is circulated through it. Very even dyeing is possible with this method. Parul Kapur
  9. 9. Yarn dyeing 9 Fabric made with dyed yarns is called “yarn dyed”. These fabrics are usually deeper & richer in colour. Different methods of yarn dyeing include:i. Skein dyeing- yarn may be prepared in hank/ skein form and then hung over a rung and immersed in a dye bath.ii. Package dyeing- yarns wound on spools, cones or similar units are stacked on perforated rods and then dye liquor is forced outward through the rod under pressure thereby dyeing the yarns.iii. Warp beam dyeing – yarn is wound on perforated warp beam, immersed in the dye tank and dyed under pressure. It is then directly taken to be woven into a fabric.iv. Space dyeing- yarn that is space-dyed is dyed at intervals along its length. One procedure is knit-deknit, in which the yarn is knitted into a fabric, dyed and then subsequently deknitted. The dye penetrates the loops of the yarn but since it does not readily penetrate the areas of the yarn where it crosses itself, alternating dyed and undyed spaces appear. Parul Kapur
  10. 10. 10 Parul Kapur
  11. 11. Piece dyeing 11 This method is used to obtain fabrics with solid shades. Normally piece dyed fabrics are a single colour, but when a fabric contains more than one fiber a pattern can result from different absorption rates of the fibers & different levels of attraction or reaction between dyes & fibers. Further different types of dyestuffs may be used so that 1 fiber is coloured by 1 type of dye & another fiber by a different dye. The two piece dyeing methods for dyeing blended fabrics are:1. Union dyeing – the appropriate colour dye specific to each type of fiber is put into the same dye bath and the fabric is dyes.2. Cross dyeing - could be combination of stock and piece dyeing, or a two bath process of separate dye-stuff, or a single dye-bath with two different dye-stuffs can be used one specific to each fiber type. Parul Kapur
  12. 12. Solution pigmenting / dope dyeing12 Parul Kapur
  13. 13. Garment dyeing 13 Certain kinds of non-tailored apparel, such as hosiery, pantyhose and sweaters can be dyes as completed garments because they are each made of a single component and will not be readily distorted. However, allowance must be made for anticipated shrinkage. A number of garments are loosely packed into a large nylon bag and then put into a paddle dyer, which is a tub with motor driven paddle that agitates the dye bath. Parul Kapur
  14. 14. Classification of Dyes Fabric 14 Dyes Natural Synthetic Dyes Dyes Vegetable Animal Mineral Basic Acid Dyes Dyes Dyes Dyes Dyes Direct Mordant Dyes Dyes Azoic Disperse Reactive Sulphur Vat Pigment Fluorescent Dyes Dyes Dyes Dyes Dyes Dyes BrightenersParul Kapur
  15. 15. Natural Dyes Vegetable Animal Mineral origin Origin Origin •Indigo •Cochineal Iron Buffs •Alizarin •Tyrian Purple •Log Wood15 Parul Kapur
  16. 16. Synthetic dyes 161. Basic dyes These dyes are basic/ alkaline in character & have the power to neutralize acids. They are used successfully on proteinic fibers, nylon, polyester, acrylics, printing of acetate and on cellulosic fibers with help of a mordant. They have poor fastness to light, washing (natural fibers), dry cleaning, bleeding, perspiration. However it has good fastness towards hot pressing, gas fading and crocking. They give good fastness and bright shades to acrylics for which they are principally used. Parul Kapur
  17. 17. 2. Acid Dyes / anionic dyes 17 The dyes are so called because they are usually applied under acidic conditions. The fibers readily coloured with acid dyes are man-made fibers and natural proteinic fibers. The dyes dissolve in water & produce coloured anions and sodium cations. The anionic dye molecule unites with the basic component of the proteinic fibers. The acid dyed textiles have generally got good fastness to light, hot pressing, dry cleaning and crocking. It has fair fastness to perspiration and sea water and poor to washing. Parul Kapur
  18. 18. Direct Dyes 18 Are also called substantive colours because of their excellent substantivity for cellulosic fibers. The process of application of this dye stuff is absorption rather than chemical reaction. They are readily soluble in water hence have poor fastness unless given some treatment. The dyeing process:a) Dye powder is mixed with a small quantity of water and this paste is then dissolved in the measure quantity of water.b) The fabric to be dyed is added and slowly the temperature is raised. If the dyeing is started at elevated temperatures in presence of salt, the dye rushes on to the fibers & results in uneven dyeing. Therefore the dye bath is slowly heated & salt is added later.c) If common salt is added during dyeing more dye is taken up by the fiber. Thus common salt acts as an electrolyte.d) At end of dyeing the material is rinsed with cold water to remove the any superficial dye molecules present. Parul Kapur
  19. 19. Mechanism of dyeing with direct dyes: 191. The size of the direct dye molecule is such that it can enter the amorphous region of the fiber structure but not the crystalline region.2. When cellulosic fibers are dyed for sufficiently long time the dye enters the fiber structure & is generally distributed in the interior, which does not happen when dyed for a short time.3. At a given temperature, the dyestuff molecules are present in the dye-bath as singles and clusters. The aggregates are too big to enter the inter-fiber spaces. As the temperature is raised, the aggregates break into singles in order to maintain the equilibrium between the singles and clusters. Parul Kapur
  20. 20. 20 As the fabric is immersed in the dye-bath, the single molecules are absorbed by it. At elevated temperatures more single molecules rush into the fiber, thus disturbing the equilibrium between the single and clusters in the dye-bath. Hence more aggregates are broken down. The previous absorbed singles start diffusing into the interior of the fiber. Some molecules present on surface of material start leaving it and entering back into the solution to maintain another equilibrium between the dye in the fiber and in solution. This is known as de-aggregation. Parul Kapur
  21. 21. Mechanism of dyeing with direct dyes 21Parul Kapur
  22. 22. Mordant Dyes 22 The mordant dye is attached to the textile fiber by a mordant, which could be organic or inorganic. Most commonly used mordant being chromium these dyes are also called “Chrome dyes”. They are the fastest dyes for wet processing of wool. They are used with less effective fastness for cotton, linen, silk, rayon and nylon. These dyes have good fastness towards light, washing, perspiration and seawater & fair to good fastness towards dry cleaning and crocking. Method of application involves treating the textile with the mordant and the dye either separately or together in the same dye bath (Meta chrome process). Treating the fabric with mordant can be either before (Chrome Mordant process) or after the dyeing process (After Chrome process). Disadv. Of using mordant dyes - colour matching is difficult as the colour gradually builds up with the process of mordanting. Parul Kapur
  23. 23. Azoic dyes: 23 Are so called because they contain the “Azo” molecule. They may also be referred to as “Naphthol dyes”, “Ice colour” or “developed colour”. Colouring textile materials with azoic dyes involves the reaction within the fiber polymer system of 2 components - the naphthols and „diazo‟ component. Textiles dyed with azoic dyes have good fastness properties except for staining and crocking where their fastness depends on the dyeing technique. A complete colour range is available for cotton, rayon, acetate, nylon and discharge printing. Parul Kapur
  24. 24. Disperse dyes: 24 These dyes derive their name from their insoluble aqueous properties & the need to apply them from an aqueous dispersion. The fibers most readily coloured using disperse dyes are synthetic man-made fibers. Disperse dyes are added to water with a surface active agent to form an aqueous dispersion. Heating the dye bath swells the fiber to an extent & assists the dye molecule to penetrate the fiber polymer & get located in the amorphous region of the fiber. Once within the fiber polymer it is held within by strong bonds thus giving the textile fair - good fastness properties. Parul Kapur
  25. 25. Sulphur dyes:- 25 Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water & must be made soluble with the aid of caustic soda and sodium sulphide. Sulphur dyeing is done at high temperatures & with a large quantity of salt, which helps drive the colour into the fabric. After immersion in the dye-bath, followed by rinsing, the fabric is oxidized to the desired shade by exposure to air or chemically. The sulphur dyed textiles have good fastness to hot pressing, dry cleaning, perspiration and seawater It has a poor fastness towards light, washing, gas fading, bleeding and crocking. If stored for a great length of time, fabrics become tender. This dye is used for black more than any other dye. Parul Kapur
  26. 26. Vat dyes:- 26 The old method of fermenting & steeping indigo in a vat gave vat dyes their name. Vat dyes are a group of insoluble compounds that are converted into an alkali soluble „leuco‟ derivative by means of sodium hydro-sulphite & caustic soda. Vat dyes have a drawback of photochemical tendering i.e. on exposure to direct sunlight these dyes absorb light energy in the presence of oxygen & cause the accelerated degradation of cotton. Vat dyes are not only resistant to light and to acids & alkalies, but are also equally resistant to the strong oxidizing bleaches used in commercial laundries. Parul Kapur
  27. 27. Reactive dyes:- 27 Originally reactive dyes were used primarily on cotton; types are now available for wool, silk, nylon, acrylics & blends of these fibers. Some advantages of reactive dyes are their excellent fastness to light & washing & their brilliant shades, which are rivaled only by acid dyes on silk. The reactive dye unites with the fiber molecule by addition or substitution. When the coupling agent is separate from the dye molecule, the dye combines with the coupling agent, which then reacts with the fiber molecule. Heat is also used to develop the shade. In all cases, the fabric is well soaped after dyeing to remove any unfixed dye. Parul Kapur
  28. 28. Pigment Dyes: 28 Technically pigments are not dyes, because they are insoluble in water or in the solvents typically used in dyeing. In addition to being insoluble in water, pigments have no affinity for fibers. To fix them on fibers some type of adhesive resin or bonding agent must be employed. The colours thus produced are relatively permanent, except that as the resin or bonding agent wears away the colour will also disappear. Incase on man-made fibers it is possible to mix pigments thoroughly with the fiber solution so that the fiber is coloured as it is formed and the pigment forms a part of the fiber. They hence have good fastness to light, washing, hot pressing, dry cleaning, bleeding, perspiration, crocking and also sea water. Parul Kapur
  29. 29. Fluorescent brighteners:- 29 Also known as optical brightening agents (OBA‟s). They are colorless dyes or dyes that give whiteness to textiles. The whiteness is caused by absorption of ultraviolet light and reflection of visible blue light. The OBA‟s may be applied during bleaching, before resin finishing, or with the resin. These compounds are not bleaches and are effective only when UV radiations, such as sunlight, is present. The poor overall light fastness of OBA‟s is due to their continuous absorption & emission of light which results in their chemical degradation. The fair wash fastness is due partly to their lack of substantivity for the textile materials & their gradual degradation by exposure to sunlight. Parul Kapur
  30. 30. TEXTILE PRINTING 30Parul Kapur
  31. 31. 31 Printed fabrics are defined as fabrics that have been decorated by a motif, pattern or design applied to the surface of the fabric after it has already been constructed. A form of applying colour decoration to a fabric after it has otherwise been finished is called Printing. Used to add color to localized areas only Allows for greater design flexibility and relatively inexpensive patterned fabric Wet prints use a thick, liquid paste Dry prints use a powder Foam prints use a colorant dispersed in foam Parul Kapur
  32. 32. Basic printing techniques 321. Direct Printing- the dye is imprinted on the fabric in paste form, and any desired pattern may be produced. The dyes are usually dissolved in a limited amount of water to which a thickening agent has been added to give it necessary viscosity.2. Discharge printing – the fabric is dyed in the piece and then printed with a chemical that will destroy the colour in designed areas. Sometimes the base colour is removed and another colour printed in its place. The discharged areas may literally fall out of the fabric if the goods have not been thoroughly washed after treating with the chemical.3. Resist printing – Bleached goods are printed with a resist paste that cannot be penetrated when the fabric is subsequently immersed in a dye. The dye will affect only the parts that are not covered by the resist paste. Later the resist paste is removed, leaving a pattern on a dark background. Parul Kapur
  33. 33. Classification of Printing Direct Printing Resist Printing Discharge Flocking Printing •Block printing •Batik •Roller printing •Tie- dyeing •Screen printing •Ikat •Stencil printing •Plangi dyeing •Transfer printing •Spray painting •TAK Dyeing •Blotch Printing •Duplex printing •Warp Printing •Jet-spray printingParul Kapur 33
  34. 34. 1. Block Printing 34 The oldest method of printing designs on fabric. To make blocked prints, the design must first be carved on a wooden or metal block. The dyestuff is applied in paste form to the design on the face of the block. The block is pressed down firmly by hand on selected portions of the surface of the fabric, imprinting the carved design as many times as desired on a specific length of cloth. To obtain variations in colour in the same design, as many additional blocks must be carved as there will be additional colours.Parul Kapur
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  36. 36. 2. Roller Printing 36 Is the machine method of printing designs on cloth by engraved rollers. Engraved copper cylinders or rollers take the place of hand-carved blocks. Just as there must be a separate block for each colour in block printing, so must there be as many engraved rollers in machine printing as there are colours in the design to be imprinted. Originally, the design for each of the rollers was engraved by hand with an awl; then a skilled craftsman duplicated the artists’ design onto copper rollers. Today, the engraving is frequently done by pantograph transfer or photoengraving.Parul Kapur
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  39. 39. 3. Screen Printing 391. Flat (Hand) screen printing:- Originally done by hand, now done by machine also. The artist‟s design is copied onto a series of very fine, flat screens, one for each colour to be printed. Each screen may be drawn by hand & a coating of lacquer applied to all parts of the screen that are not part of its design. Each screen is then fitted onto a wooden or metal frame. Process of printing-i. The fabric to be printed is attached to a backing spread on a long table.ii. A screen representing one colour of the design is set by hand over the fabric in the first position.iii. The printing paste is poured on the screen and forced through its unblocked areas onto the fabric with a rubber-edged squeegee.iv. The frame is then raised and placed on the next section of the fabric, and process is repeated until entire length of cloth is printed with one colour. Then same procedure is followed with the other colours. Parul Kapur
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  42. 42. 2. Rotary screen printing:- The printing machine utilizes seamless cylindrical screens made of metal foil. The machine employs a rotary screen for each colour, as in flat screen printing and the design for each rotary screen is made in manner similar to automatic screen printing. The fabric passes under the rotating screens through which the printing paste is automatically pumped from pressure tanks. A squeegee in each rotary screen forces the paste through the screen onto the fabric as it moves along at rates of up to 100 yards per minute. The fabric then passes into a drying oven, cured to set the colour and washed.Parul Kapur 42
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  45. 45. Advantages of screen printing 45  Colours can be produced in brighter, cleaner shades than are possible with roller printing.  Designs to be repeated can be much larger than in roller printing.  Clearly defined geometric designs can easily be produced, because the areas not to receive the dye are painted out by the lacquer, in contrast to cardboard or metal stencils in which the cut areas would fall away.  On a knitted fabric it is the only method of printing other than transfer printing, as other methods smear the dye.  Rotary metal screens are lightweight in contrast to heavy copper rollers in roller printing.Parul Kapur
  46. 46. 4. Stencil Printing 46 The pattern is cut out of a sheet of stout paper or thin metal with a sharp pointed tool, the uncut portions representing the part that is to left uncoloured. The sheet is laid on the material to be decorated and colour is brushed through its open spaces.Parul Kapur
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  48. 48. 5. Transfer Printing 48 Literally moving a design from one surface to another is known as transfer printing. A typical well-known technique is that of iron-on prints of emblems and decorations, which are generally made of pigments in a paraffin or thermoplastic base that can be melted and bound by heat and pressure onto a fabric surface. A more sophisticated & effective method of transfer printing is that of transferring a design intact by vaporizing it from paper to a fabric. There are two major techniques:- dry heat transfer printing and wet heat transfer printingParul Kapur
  49. 49. 5.a. Dry Heat Transfer Printing 491. Conventional heat transfer printing-Parul Kapur
  50. 50. 5.a. Dry Heat Transfer Printing 502. Infra red heat vacuum transfer printingParul Kapur
  51. 51. 5.b. Wet Heat Transfer Printing 511. Fastran Process:- The fabric is placed on a plastic frame where it is padded with an aqueous bath containing Fastran Powder. The transfer print paper is placed over it & is covered with a silicone-rubber sheet. This sandwich is then placed in a heated press where the heat converts the water to steam, which is sealed in the silicone-rubber sheet. The print vaporizes & migrates from the paper to the fabric. The process is completed with a after bath.Parul Kapur
  52. 52. 5.b. Wet Heat Transfer Printing 522. Dew print process:- Suited for cotton goods but may also be suitable for wool, wool blends, nylon, acrylic, spandex including both flat and pile fabrics. The material is padded with an emulsion, which aids the dye transfer from paper to fabric. It is then passed along with the printed transfer paper over a heated cylinder. The fabric is then washed to remove the emulsion assistant and is tenter dried.Parul Kapur
  53. 53. Advantages of Transfer (Wet & Dry) Printing:- 1. Production costs are less because no after treatments like steaming & ageing are required. 2. Production of seconds is reduced since print is on paper. 3. Products have better hand. 4. Excellent prints with line definition, fine detail & shading. 5. Wide range of patterns, variety of colours with rich & deep shades. 6. Woven & knitted fabrics can be given textured effects. 7. Cab be applied on circular knitted goods around the circumference without slitting the material. 8. Can be done on cut & sewn fully fashioned garments. Limitations :- 1. Short runs can be expensive. 2. Colour fastness depends on proper dye selection. 3. Not always possible to get the same effect as with discharge or resist print method.Parul Kapur 53
  54. 54. 6. Jet Spray Printing 541. Polychromatic Dyeing:- This method applies several dyes in one operation in a manner that produces such designs as random splashes of several colours, tie-dye, abstracts & multi- coloured stripes. The number of jets, their size, their placement and fabric speed determine the pattern reproducing several combinations of designs. The cloth then passes between heavy rollers where it is padded to force the dye through to the back of the material. The multi-coloured pattern is equally visible on both sides of the fabric, useful for draperies. Advantages:i. It is fast & can make designs at speeds of upto 30 yards/min.ii. Its economical Parul Kapur
  55. 55. 552. Micro-jet printing:- Originally developed for carpets, it can be applied to other pile fabrics too. The technique is that of using rows of very fine jets to force dye into a fabric according to a predetermined pattern. A design is photographed & entered into a computer. The design is checked for accuracy & then fed into a magnetic tape. The tape is then used to control the spraying of colours through small nozzles with fine holes positioned in a frame across the width of the fabric. After printing the fabric is steamed, washed and dried. Parul Kapur
  56. 56. 7. Blotch Printing 56 Is a direct printing technique whereby the background colour and the design are both printed onto a white fabric in one operation. Any one of several methods of application such as block, roller or screen may be used. Blotch print can be identified by the lighter back. Parul Kapur
  57. 57. 8. Warp Printing  Warp printing is roller printing applied to warp yarns before they are woven into a fabric. Fine white or neutral coloured filling yarns are generally used for weaving so that the design on the warp will not be obscured.  Warp printing is used for expensive cretonnes and upholstery fabrics.57 Parul Kapur
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  59. 59. 9. Duplex printing Duplex printing simulates a woven pattern by printing the fabric on both sides. The fabric may be passed through the roller printing machine in two separate operations or through a duplex printing machine in a single operation. Duplex printing produces an equally clear outline on both sides of the fabric. The difference can be detected only by raveling out the yarns of the fabric.59 Parul Kapur
  60. 60. Flocking 60 The technique of adhering minute pieces of fiber, called flock, to form a design on fabric. Also known as flock printing. Using a suitable adhesive (instead of a dye) a design is roller printed onto a fabric. Then flock (usually coloured) of cotton, wool, rayon, nylon or acrylic is applied to the fabric in a manner that causes it to adhere in an upright position & produce a pile-like, velvet-textured design. Flocking may be accompanied by a mechanical method of beating the underside of the adhesive coated fabric with rotating multisided beater bars as the flock is sifted onto the surface of the fabric. The fabric vibrations, produced by the beater bars, cause the flock to flow over the surface of the fabric & stand erect those fibers that do not land flat on the adhesive. Continued vibration causes the erect fibers to penetrate deeper into the adhesive. Flocking is used for household goods such as curtains, draperies, carpeting and wearing apparel as well. Parul Kapur
  61. 61. KEY 4 – Fabric 19 – Rotating bars 20 – Flock Dispenser 29 – Electrostatic grid 30 - Flock dispenser blade 32 – Fabric sieve 33 – Upper Hopper 34 – Rotary dispensing cylinders61 Parul Kapur
  62. 62. Resist printing 621. Batik printing Designs are made with wax on a fabric which is subsequently immersed in a dye to absorb the colour on the un-waxed portions.Parul Kapur
  63. 63. Tjanting Batik Printing 63Parul Kapur
  64. 64. Tjap method batik printing 64Parul Kapur
  65. 65. Tie-dyeing 65 The dye is resisted by knots that are tied in the fabric before immersion in the dye bath.Parul Kapur
  66. 66. Ikat 66 Uses a resist dyeing process similar to tie-dye on either the warp or weft yarns before they are woven.Parul Kapur