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PARTHENOS-project.eu
An overview of Open Data,
Open Science and Open
Access
Sara Di Giorgio, MiBACT-ICCU
E-RIHS and IPERION Workshop
Heraklion,, 17 May 2017
PARTHENOS-project.eu
New landscape
2
AOpen Science
A new landascape
PARTHENOS-project.eu 3
Open Science
http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/inde
x.cfm?pg=home&section=monitor
PARTHENOS-project.eu 4
CC-BY Andreas Neuhold
“Science carried out and
communicated in a manner
which allows others to
contribute, collaborate and
add to the research effort,
with all kinds of data, results
and protocols made freely
available at different stages
of the research process”
Research Information Network, Open Science
case studies
www.rin.ac.uk/our-work/data-management-
and-curation/open-science-case-studies
PARTHENOS-project.eu 5
PARTHENOS-project.eu
The European Open Science Cloud
6
EOSC is integrating and
consolidating e-
infrastructure platforms
and reserch
infrastructures ,
supporting the
development of cloud-
based services.
PARTHENOS-project.eu
What is open data?
7
CC0 waiver
https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
CC BY (Attribution only)
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike)
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/
The most adopted licenses
http://opendefinition.org
PARTHENOS-project.eu
Open data & FAIR principles
8
Making data available is not sufficent …
PARTHENOS-project.eu
How to make data open?
9
1. Choose your dataset(s)
- What can you may open? You may need to revisit this step if you encounter problems
later.
2. Apply an open license
- Determine what IP exists. Apply a suitable licence e.g. CC-BY
3. Make the data available
- Provide the data in a suitable format. Use relevant metadata standard Use
repositories.
4. Make it discoverable
- Post on the web, register in catalogues…
PARTHENOS-project.eu
Use appropriate file formats
10
If you want your data to be re-used and sustainable in the long-term, you will use open, non-
proprietary formats.
Type Recommended Avoid for data sharing
Tabular data CSV, TSV, SPSS portable Excel
Text Plain text, HTML, RTF
PDF/A only if layout matters
Word
Media Container: MP4, Ogg
Codec: Theora, Dirac, FLAC
Quicktime
H264
Images TIFF, JPEG2000, PNG GIF, JPG
Structured data XML, RDF RDBMS
PARTHENOS-project.eu
What is Open access?
There two main routes toward Open Access
Self-archiving (green open access): the published article or the final peer reviewed manuscript is
uploaded in an online repository – access is often delayed (embargo period)
Open access publishing (gold open access): the article is. immediately in open access mode, through
the publisher. The associated costs are covered by the author/institution/funder
11
Open access (OA) refers to the practice of providing online access to scientific
information that is free of charge to the end-user and reusable. 'Scientific' refers to
all academic disciplines. In the context of research and innovation, 'scientific
information' can mean:
1. peer-reviewed scientific research articles (published in scholarly journals) or
2. research data (data underlying publications, curated data and/or raw data).
PARTHENOS-project.eu
Open is a win-win
12
PARTHENOS-project.eu 13http://whyopenresearch.org/
PARTHENOS-project.eu
Open Access & Horizon 2020
14
http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2
020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-pilot-
guide_en.pdf
PARTHENOS-project.eu
Openness is a challenge for Europe
15
“I am convinced that excellent science is the
foundation of future prosperity, and that
openness is the key to excellence. […] We
need more open access to research results
and the underlying data. Open access
publication is already a requirement under
Horizon 2020, but we now need to look
seriously at open data[…] Let's dare to make
Europe open to innovation, open to science
and open to the world”.
Brussels, ‘A new start for Europe: Opening up to an ERA of
Innovation’ Conference, 22 June 2015
PARTHENOS-project.eu
PARTHENOS Guidelines on IPR, OD and OA
16
PARTHENOS will provide guidelines on IPR, Open Data
and Open Access, based on FAIR principles, wit
practicahl recommendations for opening data and
content.
We’re conducting an on-line survey of the first draft
of the Guideline to understand how far the guidelines
presented by PARTHENOS meet the needs of your
organization.
If you want to contribute please contact me!
PARTHENOS-project.eu
THANK YOU!
Sara Di Giorgio
sara.digiorgio@beniculturali.it

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Open Data, Open Access and Open Science

  • 1. PARTHENOS-project.eu An overview of Open Data, Open Science and Open Access Sara Di Giorgio, MiBACT-ICCU E-RIHS and IPERION Workshop Heraklion,, 17 May 2017
  • 4. PARTHENOS-project.eu 4 CC-BY Andreas Neuhold “Science carried out and communicated in a manner which allows others to contribute, collaborate and add to the research effort, with all kinds of data, results and protocols made freely available at different stages of the research process” Research Information Network, Open Science case studies www.rin.ac.uk/our-work/data-management- and-curation/open-science-case-studies
  • 6. PARTHENOS-project.eu The European Open Science Cloud 6 EOSC is integrating and consolidating e- infrastructure platforms and reserch infrastructures , supporting the development of cloud- based services.
  • 7. PARTHENOS-project.eu What is open data? 7 CC0 waiver https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ CC BY (Attribution only) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ The most adopted licenses http://opendefinition.org
  • 8. PARTHENOS-project.eu Open data & FAIR principles 8 Making data available is not sufficent …
  • 9. PARTHENOS-project.eu How to make data open? 9 1. Choose your dataset(s) - What can you may open? You may need to revisit this step if you encounter problems later. 2. Apply an open license - Determine what IP exists. Apply a suitable licence e.g. CC-BY 3. Make the data available - Provide the data in a suitable format. Use relevant metadata standard Use repositories. 4. Make it discoverable - Post on the web, register in catalogues…
  • 10. PARTHENOS-project.eu Use appropriate file formats 10 If you want your data to be re-used and sustainable in the long-term, you will use open, non- proprietary formats. Type Recommended Avoid for data sharing Tabular data CSV, TSV, SPSS portable Excel Text Plain text, HTML, RTF PDF/A only if layout matters Word Media Container: MP4, Ogg Codec: Theora, Dirac, FLAC Quicktime H264 Images TIFF, JPEG2000, PNG GIF, JPG Structured data XML, RDF RDBMS
  • 11. PARTHENOS-project.eu What is Open access? There two main routes toward Open Access Self-archiving (green open access): the published article or the final peer reviewed manuscript is uploaded in an online repository – access is often delayed (embargo period) Open access publishing (gold open access): the article is. immediately in open access mode, through the publisher. The associated costs are covered by the author/institution/funder 11 Open access (OA) refers to the practice of providing online access to scientific information that is free of charge to the end-user and reusable. 'Scientific' refers to all academic disciplines. In the context of research and innovation, 'scientific information' can mean: 1. peer-reviewed scientific research articles (published in scholarly journals) or 2. research data (data underlying publications, curated data and/or raw data).
  • 14. PARTHENOS-project.eu Open Access & Horizon 2020 14 http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2 020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-pilot- guide_en.pdf
  • 15. PARTHENOS-project.eu Openness is a challenge for Europe 15 “I am convinced that excellent science is the foundation of future prosperity, and that openness is the key to excellence. […] We need more open access to research results and the underlying data. Open access publication is already a requirement under Horizon 2020, but we now need to look seriously at open data[…] Let's dare to make Europe open to innovation, open to science and open to the world”. Brussels, ‘A new start for Europe: Opening up to an ERA of Innovation’ Conference, 22 June 2015
  • 16. PARTHENOS-project.eu PARTHENOS Guidelines on IPR, OD and OA 16 PARTHENOS will provide guidelines on IPR, Open Data and Open Access, based on FAIR principles, wit practicahl recommendations for opening data and content. We’re conducting an on-line survey of the first draft of the Guideline to understand how far the guidelines presented by PARTHENOS meet the needs of your organization. If you want to contribute please contact me!
  • 17. PARTHENOS-project.eu THANK YOU! Sara Di Giorgio sara.digiorgio@beniculturali.it

Editor's Notes

  1.  The use of Open data and Open access is an integral element of Open Science. Like an austronaut on Mars, We’re all engaged to explore key aspects and challenges of the currently transforming science landscape. Open Science describes the on-going evolution in the modus operandi of doing research and organising science. This evolution is enabled by Big Data and digital technologies and is driven by both the globalisation of the scientific community and increasing public demand to address the societal challenges of our times. Open Science has as a logically consequence the ongoing transition in the way research is performed, researchers collaborate, knowledge is shared, and science is organised. Open Science has an impact on the entire life cycle of research, from the starting point of research to its publication, and on how this cycle is organised. Thus Open science means openness of research data, methods, results and publications. To develop Open Science there is a need to focus on open data, open access and research integrity.
  2. The trends towards Open Access are redefining the framework conditions for science and thus have an impact on how (Open) innovation is produced by encouraging a more dynamic circulation of knowledge. The Euopean Commission’s policy on Open Science aims to strengthen knowledge circulation, since Open Science is in practice about sharing knowledge as early as possible in the discovery process. Open Science is one of three priority areas for European research, science and innovation policy. The policy has been presented in 2015 by Carlos Moedas – Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation in Brussels, in a speech titled ‘A new start for Europe: Opening up to an ERA of Innovation’ at the Conference Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World. Openness will define our century, Commissioner Carlos Moedas, says. Because Openness is basic principle in science, but supported by digital innovation It can enable an increase of scientific production, a remote collaboration of scientists with the use of the web and more promising start-ups to emerge thanks to the exploitation of openly accessible research results. Open Science depends on open minds, said in the video, Neelie Kroes, the former European commissioner. Because however, Open Science does not mean ‘free science’. It is essential to ensure that intellectual property is protected before making knowledge publicly available in order to attract investments that can help translate research results into innovation. If this is taken into account, fuller and wider access to scientific publications and research data can help to accelerate innovation. Sharing information & enabling networking is the key to approaching our future research needs. Open Science Monitor, an initiative of the European Commission to keep up-to-date with progress in open science, elaborated the wheel to explore open science characteristics and indicators, where you can see that indicators are for both open access to publications and open scholarly communication.  
  3. “Science carried out and communicated in a manner which allows others to contribute, collaborate and add to the research effort, with all kinds of data, results and protocols made freely available at different stages of the research process” the definition of the Research Information Network in UK captures systemic change to the way science and research have been carried out for the last fifty years: shifting from the standard practices of publishing research results in scientific publications towards sharing and using all available knowledge at an earlier stage in the research process. So Open Science is more than open access publishing as you can see in the diagram of Andreas Neuhold . It includes Open Data, Open Source that means sharing code and tools to allow others to reproduce work and Open methods, for Documenting and sharing workflows and methods and using web based tools to facilitate collaboration and interaction from the outside world Scientists, citizens, publishers, research institutions, public and private research funders, students and education professionals as well as companies from around the globe are sharing an open, virtual environment.
  4. Research has a long history in Europe. Over recent decades, it has gradually acquired the sense of collaboration between European countries linking first their research activities, then their policies in this field. The very first Europe-wide Framework Programme for research was launched 30 years ago to bring together expertise from across the European Community, as it was then known, and make Europe more competitive in key technologies. European research funding evolved from separate programmes to become a major component of the research and innovation landscape in Europe. Their objective has also evolved from supporting cross-border collaboration in research and technology to now encouraging an European coordination of activities and policies. The reason for this is simple: research, technology and innovation are at the core of Europe’s economy and are vital for a successful society. Today, Horizon 2020, the eighth Framework Programme, is the biggest and most ambitious with a budget of EUR 80 billion.
  5. the Commission plans to create a new European Open Science Cloud that will offer Europe's researchers a virtual environment to store, share and re-use their data across disciplines and borders, by integrating and consolidating e-infrastructure platforms, federating existing scientific clouds and research infrastructures, and supporting the development of cloud-based services. This will be supported by the European Data Infrastructure, deploying the high-bandwidth networks, large scale storage facilities and super-computer capacity necessary to effectively access and process large datasets stored in the cloud. Focusing initially on the scientific community the user base will be enlarged to the public sector and to industry. This initiative is part of a package of measures to strengthen Europe's position in data-driven innovation, to improve competitiveness and cohesion and to help create a Digital Single Market in Europe. The European Cloud Initiative will unlock the value of big data by providing world-class supercomputing capability, high-speed connectivity and leading-edge data and software services for science, industry and the public sector by 2020. With this initiative will make science more efficient and productive and let millions of researchers share and analyse research data in a trusted environment across technologies, disciplines and borders. The European Cloud Initiative will make it easier for researchers and innovators to access and re-use data, and will reduce the cost of data storage and high-performance analysis.
  6. The Open Definition sets out principles that define “openness” in relation to data and content. “Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness).”. First principle is about availability and access: the data must be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably by downloading over the internet. The data must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form. The second is on reuse and redistribution: the data must be provided under terms that permit reuse and redistribution including the intermixing with other datasets. The data must be machine-readable. Then a principle on universal participation: everyone must be able to use, reuse and redistribute — there should be no discrimination against fields of endeavour or against persons or groups. For example, ‘non-commercial’ restrictions that would prevent ‘commercial’ use, or restrictions of use for certain purposes (e.g. only in education), are not allowed. What kinds of open data are most diffused? There are many kinds of open data that have potential uses and applications: Culture: Data about cultural works and artefacts — for example titles and authors — and generally collected and held by galleries, libraries, archives and museums. Science: Data that is produced as part of scientific research Finance: Data such as government accounts (expenditure and revenue) and information on financial markets (stocks, shares, bonds etc). Statistics: Data produced by statistical offices such as the census and key socioeconomic indicators. Weather: The many types of information used to understand and predict the weather and climate. Environment: Information related to the natural environment such presence and level of pollutants, the quality and rivers and seas. These are the most adopted licences for open data. Explicit dedication of data underlying published science into the public domain via PDDL or CCZero is strongly recommended and ensures compliance with both the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data and the Open Knowledge/Data Definition. CC-BY because data must credit whoever has published or generate the data (attribution) copies or adaptations of the data must be released similarly as open data (share-alike).
  7. To be Open Data should be Available and FAIR, according to the initiative developed by Force 11 and now adopetd by EC for H2020 project. To be Findable: F1. (meta)data are assigned a globally unique and eternally persistent identifier. F2. data are described with rich metadata. F3. (meta)data are registered or indexed in a searchable resource. F4. metadata specify the data identifier. To be Accessible: A1 (meta)data are retrievable by their identifier using a standardized communications protocol. A1.1 the protocol is open, free, and universally implementable. A1.2 the protocol allows for an authentication and authorization procedure, where necessary. A2 metadata are accessible, even when the data are no longer available. To be Interoperable: I1. (meta)data use a formal, accessible, shared, and broadly applicable language for knowledge representation. I2. (meta)data use vocabularies that follow FAIR principles. I3. (meta)data include qualified references to other (meta)data. To be Re-usable: R1. meta(data) have a plurality of accurate and relevant attributes. R1.1. (meta)data are released with a clear and accessible data usage license. R1.2. (meta)data are associated with their provenance. R1.3. (meta)data meet domain-relevant community standards.
  8. How to make open data? You can follow the guideline of the Open knoledge Foudation that halps you in the process. Choose your dataset(s)  - What can you may open? You may need to revisit this step if you encounter problems later. They recommend that you ask the community in the first instance. That is the people who will be accessing and using the data, as they are likely to have a good understanding of which data could be valuable. Apply an open license  - Determine what IP exists. Apply a suitable licence e.g. CC-BY. Even in places where the existence of rights is uncertain, it is important to apply a license simply for the sake of clarity. Make the data available .Provide the data in a suitable format. Use relevant metadata standard Use reposi tories. Open data needs to be technically open as well as legally open. Specifically, the data needs to be available in bulk in a machine-readable format. To make sure data can be understood by their community and others, researchers should create metadata and documentation. Metadata is basic descriptive information to help identify and understand the structure of the data e.g. title, author. Documentation provides the wider context. It’s useful to share the methodology / workflow, software and any information needed to understand the data e.g. explanation of abbreviations or acronyms   Make it discoverable  There are lots of standards that can be used. The PARTHENOS started a catalogue of disciplinary metadata standards and a standard survivor kit to support researchers.
  9. Use appropriate file formats. If you want your data to be re-used and sustainable in the long-term, you will use open, non-proprietary formats.
  10. Open Access (OA) means free and online access to scholarly literature, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions that can be freely disseminated further with proper author attribution. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder. Internet has provided an alternative means of peer review, publication and distribution. And the on-line scholarly communication advances the science without lose of time. There are two main road to open access: Self-archiving so called 'green' open access – the author archives (deposits) the published article or the final peer-reviewed manuscript in an online repository before, at the same time as, or after publication. Some publishers request that open access be granted only after an embargo period has elapsed. Open access publishing known as 'gold' open access - an article is immediately published in open access mode. In this model, the payment of publication costs is shifted away from subscribing readers. The most common business model is based on one-off payments by authors. These costs, often referred to as Article Processing Charges (APCs) are usually borne by the researcher's university or research institute or the agency funding the research. In other cases, the costs of open access publishing are covered by subsidies or other funding models.
  11. Benefits of open access are: Reserchers can access relevant literature – not behind pay walls It ensures research is transparent and reproducible Increased visibility, usage and impact of research work Foster new collaborations and research partnerships Ensure long-term access to research outputs Help increase the efficiency of research Certain research communities have also seen the benefit of sharing data as it speeds up the process of discovery. Researchers in the field of Alzheimer’s research have agreed as a community to share data immediately to make scientific breakthroughs. There’s also a citation advantage for individual researchers. It’s now clear that shared data received 9% more citations. Articles freely available online are more highly cited.
  12. If you want to learn more have a look to whyopenreseach.org you will find statistics, information on opening up research, making it assessible and reusable by all.  Shuttleworth Foundation. 
  13. As founder European Commission is pushing to OA … the updated Guidelines explains WHY it’s crucial having OPEN ACCESS TO PUBLICATIONS AND DATA IN HORIZON 2020: Build on previous research results (improved quality of results) Encourage collaboration and avoid duplication of effort (greater efficiency) Speed up innovation (faster progress to market means faster growth) Involve citizens and society (improved transparency of the scientific process). There is a consideration made by the EC as founder “The European Commission’s vision is that information already paid for by the public purse should not be paid for again time it is accessed or used, and that it should benefit European companies and citizens to the full.” The guidelines DESCRIBE WHAT TO DEPOSIT, WHERE AND WHEN SHOULD OPEN ACCESS SHOULD BE PROVIDED
  14. Openness is a challenge for Europe Carlos Moedas, European Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation, launched the challenge for Europe Reserch: We need more open access to research results and the underlying data. Open access publication is already a requirement under Horizon 2020, but we now need to look seriously at open data[…] Let's dare to make Europe open to innovation, open to science and open to the world”. And we can keep this as conclusion of this presentation , because most of the data today is locked in literature, is locked in papers, and we have to unlock that data. The book Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World - a vision for Europe brings together some of the key conceptual insights behind the "Three Os" and highlights actions that are already taking place or are being prepared at time of publication in May 2016.
  15. PARTHENOS will provide guidelines on IPR, Open Data and Open Access, based on FAIR principles with practical recomendations for opening data and content . We’re conducting an assessment of the first draft of the Guideline a survey about the PARTHENOS Guidelines for Common Policies Implementation, as they are presented in the WP3 Deliverable (3.1) “Report on Guidelines for Common Policies Implementation (1)”.   This survey is designed to understand how far the guidelines presented by PARTHENOS meet the needs of your organization. We ask for your help in evaluating the guidelines and gathering suggestions and best practices for improving the document. The results of the survey will contribute towards the assessment and validation of the D3.1 outcome.