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Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery

A nursery is a place, where seedling, saplings, trees, shrubs, and other plant materials are grown and maintained until they are placed in a permanent place.

Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery

1 of 37
“Nursery types, Structure, Components,
Planning and Lay out of Nursery”
“Nursery types, Structure, Components,
Planning and Lay out of Nursery”
“Nursery types, Structure, Components,
Planning and Lay out of Nursery”
“Nursery types, Structure, Components,
Planning and Lay out of Nursery”
Nursery
 A nursery is a place, where seedling, saplings, trees,
shrubs, and other plant materials are grown and
maintained until they are placed in a permanent
place.
 The plants are difficult to raise directly in the main
field .
 Nursery can be raised from seeds or through cuttings
of stem root or leaf ,through budding, grafting and
layering.
 A nursery is a place, where seedling, saplings, trees,
shrubs, and other plant materials are grown and
maintained until they are placed in a permanent
place.
 The plants are difficult to raise directly in the main
field .
 Nursery can be raised from seeds or through cuttings
of stem root or leaf ,through budding, grafting and
layering.
 The area being small and compact, it is convenient and
easy to grown large number of seedling per unit area.
 Managing favourable growing condition becomes easy and
feasible.
 The area being easily managed pest and disease
management easy.
 Promotion of export through supply and processing of
quality plant materials.
 Establishment of disease free and virus free scion bank.
 Ensure optimum utilization of labour, water, nutrients and
other.
 Ensure easy and cheap availability of plants.
Benefits of Nursery
 The area being small and compact, it is convenient and
easy to grown large number of seedling per unit area.
 Managing favourable growing condition becomes easy and
feasible.
 The area being easily managed pest and disease
management easy.
 Promotion of export through supply and processing of
quality plant materials.
 Establishment of disease free and virus free scion bank.
 Ensure optimum utilization of labour, water, nutrients and
other.
 Ensure easy and cheap availability of plants.
Types of nursery
Based on Irrigation:-
1) Dry Nursery: The dry nursery is a nursery which
is maintained without irrigation or artificial watering.
2) Wet Nursery: The wet nursery is a nursery is a
maintained by artificial water during dry periods.
Based on Irrigation:-
1) Dry Nursery: The dry nursery is a nursery which
is maintained without irrigation or artificial watering.
2) Wet Nursery: The wet nursery is a nursery is a
maintained by artificial water during dry periods.
Based on use :-
1) Temporary Nursery:
 This nursery raised in open especially under
sheltered position of tree or even in totally open
condition.
 In this nursery no provision of permanently bed.
 It consists of raised nursery beds.
 It can possible to changed from one place to
another, depending on the need.
Based on use :-
1) Temporary Nursery:
 This nursery raised in open especially under
sheltered position of tree or even in totally open
condition.
 In this nursery no provision of permanently bed.
 It consists of raised nursery beds.
 It can possible to changed from one place to
another, depending on the need.
2) Permanent Nursery:
This are generally permanently walled beds and often
provided with overhead covering against rain or frost.
This May facility of overhead irrigation system.
Sidewalls with drainage holes are constructed with
concrete to height of 75 cm.
After removal of each batch of seedlings, the soil is
enriched with manures.
Sterilization of soil is important and for making such
arrangement costly and so permanently nursery are
used for costly, highly demanded plants.
2) Permanent Nursery:
This are generally permanently walled beds and often
provided with overhead covering against rain or frost.
This May facility of overhead irrigation system.
Sidewalls with drainage holes are constructed with
concrete to height of 75 cm.
After removal of each batch of seedlings, the soil is
enriched with manures.
Sterilization of soil is important and for making such
arrangement costly and so permanently nursery are
used for costly, highly demanded plants.
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Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery

  • 1. “Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery” “Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery” “Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery” “Nursery types, Structure, Components, Planning and Lay out of Nursery”
  • 2. Nursery  A nursery is a place, where seedling, saplings, trees, shrubs, and other plant materials are grown and maintained until they are placed in a permanent place.  The plants are difficult to raise directly in the main field .  Nursery can be raised from seeds or through cuttings of stem root or leaf ,through budding, grafting and layering.  A nursery is a place, where seedling, saplings, trees, shrubs, and other plant materials are grown and maintained until they are placed in a permanent place.  The plants are difficult to raise directly in the main field .  Nursery can be raised from seeds or through cuttings of stem root or leaf ,through budding, grafting and layering.
  • 3.  The area being small and compact, it is convenient and easy to grown large number of seedling per unit area.  Managing favourable growing condition becomes easy and feasible.  The area being easily managed pest and disease management easy.  Promotion of export through supply and processing of quality plant materials.  Establishment of disease free and virus free scion bank.  Ensure optimum utilization of labour, water, nutrients and other.  Ensure easy and cheap availability of plants. Benefits of Nursery  The area being small and compact, it is convenient and easy to grown large number of seedling per unit area.  Managing favourable growing condition becomes easy and feasible.  The area being easily managed pest and disease management easy.  Promotion of export through supply and processing of quality plant materials.  Establishment of disease free and virus free scion bank.  Ensure optimum utilization of labour, water, nutrients and other.  Ensure easy and cheap availability of plants.
  • 4. Types of nursery Based on Irrigation:- 1) Dry Nursery: The dry nursery is a nursery which is maintained without irrigation or artificial watering. 2) Wet Nursery: The wet nursery is a nursery is a maintained by artificial water during dry periods. Based on Irrigation:- 1) Dry Nursery: The dry nursery is a nursery which is maintained without irrigation or artificial watering. 2) Wet Nursery: The wet nursery is a nursery is a maintained by artificial water during dry periods.
  • 5. Based on use :- 1) Temporary Nursery:  This nursery raised in open especially under sheltered position of tree or even in totally open condition.  In this nursery no provision of permanently bed.  It consists of raised nursery beds.  It can possible to changed from one place to another, depending on the need. Based on use :- 1) Temporary Nursery:  This nursery raised in open especially under sheltered position of tree or even in totally open condition.  In this nursery no provision of permanently bed.  It consists of raised nursery beds.  It can possible to changed from one place to another, depending on the need.
  • 6. 2) Permanent Nursery: This are generally permanently walled beds and often provided with overhead covering against rain or frost. This May facility of overhead irrigation system. Sidewalls with drainage holes are constructed with concrete to height of 75 cm. After removal of each batch of seedlings, the soil is enriched with manures. Sterilization of soil is important and for making such arrangement costly and so permanently nursery are used for costly, highly demanded plants. 2) Permanent Nursery: This are generally permanently walled beds and often provided with overhead covering against rain or frost. This May facility of overhead irrigation system. Sidewalls with drainage holes are constructed with concrete to height of 75 cm. After removal of each batch of seedlings, the soil is enriched with manures. Sterilization of soil is important and for making such arrangement costly and so permanently nursery are used for costly, highly demanded plants.
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION OF NURSERY CLASSIFICATION OF NURSERY COMMERCIAL NURSERY COMMERCIAL NURSERY RURAL NURSERY RURAL NURSERY URBAN NURSERY URBAN NURSERY WHOLESALE NURSERY WHOLESALE NURSERY RETAIL NURSERY RETAIL NURSERY LANDSCAPE NURSERY LANDSCAPE NURSERY Classification of a nursery based on location CLASSIFICATION OF NURSERY CLASSIFICATION OF NURSERY COMMERCIAL NURSERY URBAN NURSERY URBAN NURSERY LANDSCAPE NURSERY LANDSCAPE NURSERY MAIL ORDER NURSERY MAIL ORDER NURSERY AGENCY NURSERY AGENCY NURSERY HOME NURSERY HOME NURSERY
  • 8. 1) Rural Nursery:  This type of nursery is located in a village near some highway or near a railway station. Usually, the size of rural nursery is large because land and labour is not a problem in rural areas.  The planting material in such nursery is sold out of a cheaper rate because the cost of raising the planting material as well as the buying power of the indenters is less. 2) Urban Nursery:  This type of nursery is located in a town or a city.  The size of nursery is small because the land is costly and not easy available.  The planting material is also costly in these nurseries because the cost of raising the planting material is high due to costly labour and other management practices. 1) Rural Nursery:  This type of nursery is located in a village near some highway or near a railway station. Usually, the size of rural nursery is large because land and labour is not a problem in rural areas.  The planting material in such nursery is sold out of a cheaper rate because the cost of raising the planting material as well as the buying power of the indenters is less. 2) Urban Nursery:  This type of nursery is located in a town or a city.  The size of nursery is small because the land is costly and not easy available.  The planting material is also costly in these nurseries because the cost of raising the planting material is high due to costly labour and other management practices.
  • 9. Based on commercial bases:- 1) Wholesale Nursery:  The plants are produced in large number for sale to retail outlet.  These nurseries are usually located in rural areas, where the land and labour is available at cheaper rate.  Due to these reasons ,rural nurseries can afford to expand their business without incurring to much additional expenses. 2) Retail Nursery:  The retail seller’s purchases plant from wholesale nursery, because the retail nursery is largely dependent on house owners for is trade.  It must be located near a town or city.  These nurseries also keep goods like fertilizers, seeds and tools etc. required for raising the garden plants. 1) Wholesale Nursery:  The plants are produced in large number for sale to retail outlet.  These nurseries are usually located in rural areas, where the land and labour is available at cheaper rate.  Due to these reasons ,rural nurseries can afford to expand their business without incurring to much additional expenses. 2) Retail Nursery:  The retail seller’s purchases plant from wholesale nursery, because the retail nursery is largely dependent on house owners for is trade.  It must be located near a town or city.  These nurseries also keep goods like fertilizers, seeds and tools etc. required for raising the garden plants.
  • 10. 3) Landscape Nursery: The landscape nursery should be near a popular town or city because urban people require the landscape plants for beautifying their house. 4) Mail order nursery: It is specialized wholesale Nursery. It depends primarily on a catalogue display of the stock, it offers for sale, customers order from the catalogue and receive the plants through mail or parcel service. 5) Agency Nursery: The agency nursery sales its stock through agents or sales representative. Such Nurseries are highly specialized are usually few in number. 3) Landscape Nursery: The landscape nursery should be near a popular town or city because urban people require the landscape plants for beautifying their house. 4) Mail order nursery: It is specialized wholesale Nursery. It depends primarily on a catalogue display of the stock, it offers for sale, customers order from the catalogue and receive the plants through mail or parcel service. 5) Agency Nursery: The agency nursery sales its stock through agents or sales representative. Such Nurseries are highly specialized are usually few in number.
  • 11. Kinds of nurseryKinds of nursery o Fruit Nursery o Vegetable Nursery o Floriculture Nursery o Forest Nursery o Mixed Nursery o Landscape Nursery o Fruit Nursery o Vegetable Nursery o Floriculture Nursery o Forest Nursery o Mixed Nursery o Landscape Nursery
  • 12. Hi-tech NurseryHi-tech Nursery There is sudden increase in the demand for certain commercial plants (i.e. tissue culture banana, gerbera and carnation etc). It is not possible to fulfil this requirement by ordinary or common nursery practices.  These Nurseries grow plants in greenhouse, building of glass or a plastic tunnel, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather, while allowing access to light and ventilation. Modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature, ventilation, light, watering and feeding. There is sudden increase in the demand for certain commercial plants (i.e. tissue culture banana, gerbera and carnation etc). It is not possible to fulfil this requirement by ordinary or common nursery practices.  These Nurseries grow plants in greenhouse, building of glass or a plastic tunnel, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather, while allowing access to light and ventilation. Modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature, ventilation, light, watering and feeding.
  • 13. Structures of NurseryStructures of Nursery 1. Shade house  Shade house in nurseries in tropical and sub-tropical regions offer many advantages like raising in bags directly protecting the grafts from hot summer months, effective through upside down overhead micro sprinkler. The shade houses made with shade nets 50-70%. 1. Shade house  Shade house in nurseries in tropical and sub-tropical regions offer many advantages like raising in bags directly protecting the grafts from hot summer months, effective through upside down overhead micro sprinkler. The shade houses made with shade nets 50-70%.
  • 14. 2. Green house: Grafting or budding of several fruit species under polyhouses or low cost green houses with natural ventilation will enhance percentage of graft due to favourable micro climatic conditions of polyhouses. In green house construction, a wood or metal frame work is built to which wood or metal sash bars are fixed to support panes of glass embedded in putty. In all greenhouses/ polyhouses means of providing air movement and air exchange is necessary to aid in controlling temperature and humidity. 2. Green house: Grafting or budding of several fruit species under polyhouses or low cost green houses with natural ventilation will enhance percentage of graft due to favourable micro climatic conditions of polyhouses. In green house construction, a wood or metal frame work is built to which wood or metal sash bars are fixed to support panes of glass embedded in putty. In all greenhouses/ polyhouses means of providing air movement and air exchange is necessary to aid in controlling temperature and humidity.
  • 15. Classification of greenhouse based on suitability and cost Classification of greenhouse based on suitability and cost A. Low cost or low tech greenhouse: Low cost greenhouse is a simple structure constructed with locally available materials such as bamboo, timber etc. the ultra violet(UV) film is used as cladding materials. A. Low cost or low tech greenhouse: Low cost greenhouse is a simple structure constructed with locally available materials such as bamboo, timber etc. the ultra violet(UV) film is used as cladding materials.
  • 16. B. Hi-tech greenhouse: To overcome some of the difficulties in medium-tech greenhouse, a hi-tech greenhouse where the entire device, controlling the environment parameters are supported to function automatically. B. Hi-tech greenhouse: To overcome some of the difficulties in medium-tech greenhouse, a hi-tech greenhouse where the entire device, controlling the environment parameters are supported to function automatically.
  • 17. C. Medium-tech greenhouse  Greenhouse users prefers to have manually or semi automatic control arrangement owing to minimum investment.  This type of greenhouse is constructed using galvanized iron (GI) pipes.  The canopy cover is attached with structure with the help of screws.  Whole structure is firmly fixed with the ground to withstand the disturbance against wind.  Exhaust fans with thermostat are provided to control the temperature.  This type of greenhouse used in dry and composite climatic zones. C. Medium-tech greenhouse  Greenhouse users prefers to have manually or semi automatic control arrangement owing to minimum investment.  This type of greenhouse is constructed using galvanized iron (GI) pipes.  The canopy cover is attached with structure with the help of screws.  Whole structure is firmly fixed with the ground to withstand the disturbance against wind.  Exhaust fans with thermostat are provided to control the temperature.  This type of greenhouse used in dry and composite climatic zones.
  • 18. 3. Classification based on number of spans a) Free standing or single span b) Multispan or ridge and furrow or gutter connected 4. Classification based on environmental control: a) Naturally ventilated polyhouse:  This polyhouses do not have any environmental control system except for the provision of adequate ventilation and fogger system to prevent basically the damaged from weather aberrations and other natural agents. b) Environmental controlled polyhouse:  This type of polyhouse helps to extend the growing season or permits off-season production by way of controlling light, temperature, humidity, carbon-dioxide level and nature of root medium. 3. Classification based on number of spans a) Free standing or single span b) Multispan or ridge and furrow or gutter connected 4. Classification based on environmental control: a) Naturally ventilated polyhouse:  This polyhouses do not have any environmental control system except for the provision of adequate ventilation and fogger system to prevent basically the damaged from weather aberrations and other natural agents. b) Environmental controlled polyhouse:  This type of polyhouse helps to extend the growing season or permits off-season production by way of controlling light, temperature, humidity, carbon-dioxide level and nature of root medium.
  • 19. 5.Classification as per glazing a. Polythene film:  This is most inexpensive covering material but it is the short lasting one. however, UV rays resisting polythene film of various thickness is usually recommended which last longer. a. Polythene film:  This is most inexpensive covering material but it is the short lasting one. however, UV rays resisting polythene film of various thickness is usually recommended which last longer.
  • 20. b. PVC film This material is pliable and comes in various thickness and widths up to 6ft. It is longer lasting than polythene and is more expensive PVC surface of film tend to collect dust and lower the intensity in due course of time. b. PVC film This material is pliable and comes in various thickness and widths up to 6ft. It is longer lasting than polythene and is more expensive PVC surface of film tend to collect dust and lower the intensity in due course of time.
  • 21. c. Polyester film:  This is a strong material with excellent weathering properties lasting for 3-5 years and is unaffected by extremes of heat or cold though it is costly than polythene PVC film. c. Polyester film:  This is a strong material with excellent weathering properties lasting for 3-5 years and is unaffected by extremes of heat or cold though it is costly than polythene PVC film.
  • 22. d. Fibre glass:  Rigid panels, corrugated or flat fibre glass sheets embedded in plastic are widely used for greenhouse construction. fibre glass is strong, long lasting, light weight and easily applied which is coming in a variety of widths, lengths, and thickness.bit is costlier than polythene PVC film. d. Fibre glass:  Rigid panels, corrugated or flat fibre glass sheets embedded in plastic are widely used for greenhouse construction. fibre glass is strong, long lasting, light weight and easily applied which is coming in a variety of widths, lengths, and thickness.bit is costlier than polythene PVC film.
  • 23. e. Hotbeds:  The hotbed often used for the same purpose as a greenhouse but in a smaller scale. Amateur operations and seedling can be started and leafy cuttings root early in the season in such structures. Heat is provided artificially below the propagating medium by electric heating cabals, hot water, steam pipes or hot air blows. e. Hotbeds:  The hotbed often used for the same purpose as a greenhouse but in a smaller scale. Amateur operations and seedling can be started and leafy cuttings root early in the season in such structures. Heat is provided artificially below the propagating medium by electric heating cabals, hot water, steam pipes or hot air blows.
  • 24. 6. Net house:  Net house is like a greenhouse in appearance, but only top is covered by the wire net. Light climbers are usually trained over the top of house. Materials like coconut, Palmyra palm, or date palm leaves can be also spreader over the roof of providing shade. A net house may be used for growing shade loving plants, palms, ferns etc. 6. Net house:  Net house is like a greenhouse in appearance, but only top is covered by the wire net. Light climbers are usually trained over the top of house. Materials like coconut, Palmyra palm, or date palm leaves can be also spreader over the roof of providing shade. A net house may be used for growing shade loving plants, palms, ferns etc.
  • 25. 7. Mist chamber:  Mist propagation chamber is a unique technique development in plant propagation work. it is specially used for rooting of leafy cuttings of the difficult to root plants. In mist an intermittent mist of water is provided to the cuttings that are kept above the rooting media. Mist increase the relative humidity of teh surrounding and lowers the air and leaf- surface temperature and there by reduced the rate of transpiration and respiration. 7. Mist chamber:  Mist propagation chamber is a unique technique development in plant propagation work. it is specially used for rooting of leafy cuttings of the difficult to root plants. In mist an intermittent mist of water is provided to the cuttings that are kept above the rooting media. Mist increase the relative humidity of teh surrounding and lowers the air and leaf- surface temperature and there by reduced the rate of transpiration and respiration.
  • 26.  8. Poly tunnel:  Poly tunnels can be easily prepared by supporting the polythene sheet with sticks or wires and thereby sealings end with some tying materials. polythene sheet of 200- 300 gauges usually used for tunnel preparation. poly tunnels are used for raising seedlings and cuttings. In the advanced countries it is also effectively used for growing strawberries. poly tunnels raise the inside temperature of the beds which facilities better growth of the plants.  8. Poly tunnel:  Poly tunnels can be easily prepared by supporting the polythene sheet with sticks or wires and thereby sealings end with some tying materials. polythene sheet of 200- 300 gauges usually used for tunnel preparation. poly tunnels are used for raising seedlings and cuttings. In the advanced countries it is also effectively used for growing strawberries. poly tunnels raise the inside temperature of the beds which facilities better growth of the plants.
  • 27. Nursery Components 1) Fence  Prior to establishment of nursery, a good fence with barbed wire must be erected all around the nursery to prevent tress pass of animals and theft. 2) Road and paths  A proper planning for roads and paths inside the nursery will not add only beauty, but also make the nursery operation easy and economical. this could be achieved by dividing the nursery into different blocks and various sections. 3) Progeny block/Mother block  The should have a well maintained progeny or mother plant block/scion bank planted with those varieties in good demand. the graft rooted cutting/seedling should be obtained preferably from original breeder/research institute from where it is released of from reputed nursery. 1) Fence  Prior to establishment of nursery, a good fence with barbed wire must be erected all around the nursery to prevent tress pass of animals and theft. 2) Road and paths  A proper planning for roads and paths inside the nursery will not add only beauty, but also make the nursery operation easy and economical. this could be achieved by dividing the nursery into different blocks and various sections. 3) Progeny block/Mother block  The should have a well maintained progeny or mother plant block/scion bank planted with those varieties in good demand. the graft rooted cutting/seedling should be obtained preferably from original breeder/research institute from where it is released of from reputed nursery.
  • 28. MOTHER BLOCK OF KESAR VARIETY OF MANGO IN RHRS FARM MOTHER BLOCK OF AMRAPALI VARIETY OF MANGO.
  • 29. 4. Nursery office cum stores  An office cum store is needed for effective management of nursery.The office building may be constructed in a place,which offers better decorated with attractive photographs of fruit ornamental varieties propagated in the nursery with details of it. A store room of suitable size is needed for storing polybags, tools and implements, packaging materials, labels, pesticides, fertilizers etc. 5. Sales area  The nursery sales are should be clearly identified and located closed to the nursery entrance. Customer packing for cars must be provided, and receiving trucks should be directed to the loading areas by signs so drivers can processed without delay. 6. Seed beds  This component are essential to raise the seedling and rootstocks. These are to be laid out near the water source, since they require frequent watering and irrigation. Beds of a 1m wide of any convenient length are to be made. The working area of 60cm between the beds is necessary. 4. Nursery office cum stores  An office cum store is needed for effective management of nursery.The office building may be constructed in a place,which offers better decorated with attractive photographs of fruit ornamental varieties propagated in the nursery with details of it. A store room of suitable size is needed for storing polybags, tools and implements, packaging materials, labels, pesticides, fertilizers etc. 5. Sales area  The nursery sales are should be clearly identified and located closed to the nursery entrance. Customer packing for cars must be provided, and receiving trucks should be directed to the loading areas by signs so drivers can processed without delay. 6. Seed beds  This component are essential to raise the seedling and rootstocks. These are to be laid out near the water source, since they require frequent watering and irrigation. Beds of a 1m wide of any convenient length are to be made. The working area of 60cm between the beds is necessary.
  • 30. 7. Nursery beds  Raising of seedling/rootstocks in polybags require more space compared to nursery beds but mortality is greatly reduced along with uniformity. Nursery beds area should also have a provision to keep the grafted plants either in trenches of 30cm depth and 1mwide soil to accommodate 500 grafts less in beds. 8. Potting mixture and potting yard  For better success of nursery plants, a good potting mixture is necessary. The potting mixture for different purposes can be prepared by mixing fertile red soil, well rotten FYM, leaf mould, oil cakes etc. in different properties. 9. Compost pit  Organic manure is an important and inevitable component for growing the nursery plants. It is essential for seed bed and potting compost. The compost pit should be constructed near the potting shed in order to facilitate the collection of compost materials for storage. 7. Nursery beds  Raising of seedling/rootstocks in polybags require more space compared to nursery beds but mortality is greatly reduced along with uniformity. Nursery beds area should also have a provision to keep the grafted plants either in trenches of 30cm depth and 1mwide soil to accommodate 500 grafts less in beds. 8. Potting mixture and potting yard  For better success of nursery plants, a good potting mixture is necessary. The potting mixture for different purposes can be prepared by mixing fertile red soil, well rotten FYM, leaf mould, oil cakes etc. in different properties. 9. Compost pit  Organic manure is an important and inevitable component for growing the nursery plants. It is essential for seed bed and potting compost. The compost pit should be constructed near the potting shed in order to facilitate the collection of compost materials for storage.
  • 31. 10. Propagation area  The propagation area is the heart of the nursery operation and must be located in an area accessible to the production and potting areas. A propagation area located close to the office helps in communication between the office staffs and the propagation managers who must make long range decision the number of specific paints to be produced. Propagation area, size and design are determined by production type, number of plants and species produced and markets. 11. Media preparation and storage  Media mixing and potting may be accomplished at one central location where potting media or media components are stored in bulk quantities. Potting media or components are stored either in loose piles or in open bins often constructed of concrete. 12. Production areas  Production or plant growing area will occupy the largest percentage of nursery land and should be adjust to the potting area to easy the orderly movement and placement of plants in the field. The maximum distance of plant must be carried is 100ft, 50ft, 25ft for designs in ,with average walking distance of 50ft, 25ft, and 12.5 ft, respectively. 10. Propagation area  The propagation area is the heart of the nursery operation and must be located in an area accessible to the production and potting areas. A propagation area located close to the office helps in communication between the office staffs and the propagation managers who must make long range decision the number of specific paints to be produced. Propagation area, size and design are determined by production type, number of plants and species produced and markets. 11. Media preparation and storage  Media mixing and potting may be accomplished at one central location where potting media or media components are stored in bulk quantities. Potting media or components are stored either in loose piles or in open bins often constructed of concrete. 12. Production areas  Production or plant growing area will occupy the largest percentage of nursery land and should be adjust to the potting area to easy the orderly movement and placement of plants in the field. The maximum distance of plant must be carried is 100ft, 50ft, 25ft for designs in ,with average walking distance of 50ft, 25ft, and 12.5 ft, respectively.
  • 32. 13. Packing shed  Before delivery of the material to the customer they are to be properly packed and labelled. For packaging, basket or boxes are kept in the shed. Packaging shed should be located near the sale counter. 14. Propagation structure  The should be adequate provision for modern propagation structure like lath house, hot bed, cold frame, net house and mist chamber. This structure provide optimum condition for seed germination, rooting of cuttings and hardening of young seedling before transplanting in the field. 15. Service area  Equipment storage and repair facilities, along with pesticides, petroleum and fertilizer facilities, comprise the nursery service area.They are usually located closed to the nursery office yet accessible to supply truck servicing facilities and storage facilities for large piece of equipment. i.e. tractor, forklifts and sprayers are often open sided “pole barn” type structure. 13. Packing shed  Before delivery of the material to the customer they are to be properly packed and labelled. For packaging, basket or boxes are kept in the shed. Packaging shed should be located near the sale counter. 14. Propagation structure  The should be adequate provision for modern propagation structure like lath house, hot bed, cold frame, net house and mist chamber. This structure provide optimum condition for seed germination, rooting of cuttings and hardening of young seedling before transplanting in the field. 15. Service area  Equipment storage and repair facilities, along with pesticides, petroleum and fertilizer facilities, comprise the nursery service area.They are usually located closed to the nursery office yet accessible to supply truck servicing facilities and storage facilities for large piece of equipment. i.e. tractor, forklifts and sprayers are often open sided “pole barn” type structure.
  • 33. 16. Wind break  A wind consists of 2 or 3 rows of tall-medium-low height trees plants closely together around the nursery against the direction of wind. Wind break reduce the wind velocity by filtering the wind with approximately 40-50% air permeability and to protect the nursery plant from hot and cold winds and sever storm. 17. Wells, sump, pipelines, generators etc.  Fruit and ornamental nursery plant require abundant supply of water for irrigation, since they are grown in polybags or pots with limiting quantity of potting mixture. 16. Wind break  A wind consists of 2 or 3 rows of tall-medium-low height trees plants closely together around the nursery against the direction of wind. Wind break reduce the wind velocity by filtering the wind with approximately 40-50% air permeability and to protect the nursery plant from hot and cold winds and sever storm. 17. Wells, sump, pipelines, generators etc.  Fruit and ornamental nursery plant require abundant supply of water for irrigation, since they are grown in polybags or pots with limiting quantity of potting mixture.
  • 34. Planning &Layout of NurseryPlanning &Layout of Nursery  Many commercial nursery begin as a small backyard operations, with little though given to initial or future layout design.  Nursery managers are often anxious to realise a rapid return of their investment and overlook the need for thorough nursery layout planning.  A nursery operations encompasses many different phases and efficient if use of land resource is important.  layout design must be efficient if the nursery is to productive and compete in today's market facilities or activity areas will vary with the type of nursery and specific production scheme employed.  Many commercial nursery begin as a small backyard operations, with little though given to initial or future layout design.  Nursery managers are often anxious to realise a rapid return of their investment and overlook the need for thorough nursery layout planning.  A nursery operations encompasses many different phases and efficient if use of land resource is important.  layout design must be efficient if the nursery is to productive and compete in today's market facilities or activity areas will vary with the type of nursery and specific production scheme employed.
  • 35. 1. Location and site  The land of nursery should be flat with little slope in one direction for proper drainage. The area selected for nursery establishment should be reputed for one or the kind of business. The skilled labour should be available in the locality. The area should be well connected with rode or by rail track. It should be easily approachable by the customer. 2. Soil and climate  It is prime important to select a locality in which a wide range of species and varieties are grown and are in great demand in the market. The soil should be physically good with proper drainage. Usually, for the fruit plant friable loamy soil high fertility with PH range of 5.5-6.5 are however, soil with hard and compact sub-soil layers should be avoided. Usually, a depth of 70-80mm is sufficient for growing plants in nursery. Soil with implemented of calcium carbonate may be avoided as it affects permeability and aeration, resulting in poor root development. 1. Location and site  The land of nursery should be flat with little slope in one direction for proper drainage. The area selected for nursery establishment should be reputed for one or the kind of business. The skilled labour should be available in the locality. The area should be well connected with rode or by rail track. It should be easily approachable by the customer. 2. Soil and climate  It is prime important to select a locality in which a wide range of species and varieties are grown and are in great demand in the market. The soil should be physically good with proper drainage. Usually, for the fruit plant friable loamy soil high fertility with PH range of 5.5-6.5 are however, soil with hard and compact sub-soil layers should be avoided. Usually, a depth of 70-80mm is sufficient for growing plants in nursery. Soil with implemented of calcium carbonate may be avoided as it affects permeability and aeration, resulting in poor root development.
  • 36. 3. Wind  Area with frequent, long lasting, high velocity wind particularly where humidity is low and wind are drying and from the east should be avoided. Winds will affect irrigation application and uniformity and may result in soil movement. High winds can desiccate seedlings and soil carried by winds can blast stems and foliage. Wind can restrict spraying of pesticides, cause tree seed cover to be blown away, and displace or scatter seed bed mulches. 4. Water supply  Frequent light irrigation is required for nursery plants. so, availability or regular soft water in area is of prime importance. For this purpose, a surface well or a tube well may be dug out. However, a water reservoir may be constructed in area with short supply of water for meeting the requirements during water storage. 5. Manures  For nursery work, plenty of organic manures like farm yard manures, leaf mould and compost is required and it must be available in the locality in sufficient. 3. Wind  Area with frequent, long lasting, high velocity wind particularly where humidity is low and wind are drying and from the east should be avoided. Winds will affect irrigation application and uniformity and may result in soil movement. High winds can desiccate seedlings and soil carried by winds can blast stems and foliage. Wind can restrict spraying of pesticides, cause tree seed cover to be blown away, and displace or scatter seed bed mulches. 4. Water supply  Frequent light irrigation is required for nursery plants. so, availability or regular soft water in area is of prime importance. For this purpose, a surface well or a tube well may be dug out. However, a water reservoir may be constructed in area with short supply of water for meeting the requirements during water storage. 5. Manures  For nursery work, plenty of organic manures like farm yard manures, leaf mould and compost is required and it must be available in the locality in sufficient.
  • 37. 6. Labour supply  The nursery should not be far away from a populated district otherwise it will be difficult to hire staff and labour willing to travel. 7. Transportation  Once the nursery stock is ready for sale, there should be good roads and transport facilities. These facilities are also required for timely importing of stock and other material for the nursery. 8. Refrigerated seedling storage  Access to commercial tree seedling storage is mandatory to ensure that stock can be stored without loss of vigour for up to three months. Potential storage may be found in the fruit or produce industry. 6. Labour supply  The nursery should not be far away from a populated district otherwise it will be difficult to hire staff and labour willing to travel. 7. Transportation  Once the nursery stock is ready for sale, there should be good roads and transport facilities. These facilities are also required for timely importing of stock and other material for the nursery. 8. Refrigerated seedling storage  Access to commercial tree seedling storage is mandatory to ensure that stock can be stored without loss of vigour for up to three months. Potential storage may be found in the fruit or produce industry.