How the brain_learns

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How the brain_learns

  1. 1. How the Brain Learns From “How the Brain Learns” by David A Sousa Adapted from presentation by Jeff Hruby Power Point by Laura Westermeier
  2. 2. This presentation will show you how to make use of how the brain learns to increase your students’ retention of new material.
  3. 3. Graph of when new material is introduced in your classroom 1. Use a marker to show over time how much new information is presented over time in a typical class period Class time in minutes Amountofnew informationpresented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots
  4. 4. On the same graph: 1. Use a different color marker to show over time how much new information the brain remembers over time in a class period Class time in minutes Amountofnew informationpresented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention
  5. 5. Levels of Retention: • Most information retained in first 5-12 minutes • Low levels of retention for new materials during middle of class • Increase in retention last 5 minutes of class Class time in minutes Amountofnew informationpresented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention
  6. 6. Example • Think of a time when you met a lot of people • Which names do you remember? • Usually the first few and last few, but often not the ones in the middle Class time in minutes Amountofnew information presented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention
  7. 7. Retention During a Learning Episode Class time in minutes Amountofnewinformation presented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention Down-time Prime-time-1 Prime-time-2
  8. 8. The degree of retention varies during a learning episode. •We remember best that which comes first (prime-time-1) and last (prime-time-2) •We remember least that which comes just past the middle
  9. 9. Activity - Retention During a Learning Episode 1. Number your paper 1-10. 2. You will see a list of 10 “words” for 12 seconds. 3. After the “words” are removed you will write as many words as you can remember. Be sure to write the word next to the corresponding number.
  10. 10. 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____ 4. _____ 5. _____ 6. _____ 7. _____ 8. _____ 9. _____ 10._____ Number your paper like this Click when you are ready to start the 12 seconds! The next slide will automatically change after 12 seconds.
  11. 11. 1. KEF 2. LAK 3. MIL 4. NIR 5. VEK 6. LUN 7. NEM 8. BEB 9. SAR 10.FIF
  12. 12. 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____ 4. _____ 5. _____ 6. _____ 7. _____ 8. _____ 9. _____ 10._____ Now write as many “words” as you can remember
  13. 13. 1. KEF 2. LAK 3. MIL 4. NIR 5. VEK 6. LUN 7. NEM 8. BEB 9. SAR 10.FIF Circle the “words” you had correct •They must be spelled correctly •They must be in the proper number on the list
  14. 14. How did you do? • Chances are you remembered the first 3-5 words and the last 1-2 words. • You probably had difficulty with the middle words (line 6-8) • Your pattern in remembering is a common phenomenon called the primacy-recency effect
  15. 15. Primacy-Recency Effect • We tend to remember best that which comes first • Second best that which comes last • Least that which comes in the middle • This is not new – first studies on this done in 1880’s
  16. 16. Retention During a Learning Episode Class time in minutes Amountofnewinformation presented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention Down-time Prime-time-1 Prime-time-2
  17. 17. Implications for Teaching • New information or new skills should be taught during prime-time-1 because it will most likely be remembered • Only correct information should be discussed during prime-time-1 • This is not the time to solicit what students know since if it is wrong information students will remember the incorrect information
  18. 18. Implications for Teaching Practice and review during the down-time Practice helps the learner organize information for further processing Class time in minutes Amountofnewinformation presented 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Little Lots DegreeofRetention Down-time Prime-time-1 Prime-time-2
  19. 19. Implications for Teaching • Prime-time 2 is the second most powerful learning time • Opportunity for learner to determine sense and meaning
  20. 20. Possible Classroom Strategies Delivering New Information (Minutes 3-5) Processing Information (Minutes 15-35) Consolidating New Information (Minutes 35-45)
  21. 21. Possible Classroom Strategies Delivering New Information (Minutes 3-5) Processing Information (Minutes 15-35) Consolidating New Information (Minutes 35-45) • Asking essential questions • Academic vocabulary • Task specific vocabulary • Power points • Making connections • Cornell notes • Summarizing • Pair/Share • Guided questions • Jigsaw • Socratic Seminars • Group work • Making connections to prior knowledge • Relating to misconceptions • Teacher asking “What did you learn in this lesson?” •Summary on Cornell notes •Consolidating question of the day •Note cards • Relate to visual images
  22. 22. What about longer class periods? • Plan four 20-minute learning segments instead of one long episode • If using direct instruction do it during the first segment • Go off task between segments – Stretch – Tell a joke or story – Share a cartoon
  23. 23. To Increase Retention During a Learning Episode
  24. 24. To Increase Retention During a Learning Episode • Teach the new material first • Avoid asking students what they know at the beginning of a lesson so you don’t reinforce wrong information • Use down-time portion to have students practice new learning • Do closure during prime-time-2 so learner’s can attach sense and meaning to the new learning
  25. 25. How the Brain Learns How does this information affect how you will increase student engagement this year?
  26. 26. If you would like to learn more about “How the Brain Learns” • By David A. Sousa • 2006 • Corwin Press • ISBN 1-4129-3661-6

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