• Concept Attainment Model
• Gagne’ Model
• Memory Model
• Krathwohl’s Model
• Jurisprudentail Model
• Role Playing Model
• Sympson’s Model
• Harrow’s Model
• Dave’s Model
• Group Investigation Model
• Inductive Teaching Model
• Creative Thinking Model
• Torrance’s Future Problem-Solving Model
• Direct Instruction Model
• Storyline Model
• 4 MAT Model
• Cooperative Learning Model
The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Recognize, list, describe, identify, retrieve, name ...
Can the student RECALL information?
Interpret, exemplify, summarise, infer, paraphrase …
Can the student EXPLAIN ideas or concepts?
Implement, carry out, use …
Can the student USE the new knowledge in another familiar situation?
Compare, attribute, organize, deconstruct …
Can the student DIFFERENTIATE between constituent parts?
Check, critique, judge, hypothesise…
Can the student JUSTIFY a decision or course of action?
Design, construct, plan, produce…
Can the student GENERATE new products, ideas or ways of viewing things?
Type of Questioning Generic Example
Support questioning Can you give us more information to support your
idea or proposal?
Source questioning Could there be other more appropriate and useful
sources of information?
Conflict questioning How might people who do not support your idea or
proposal influence the outcome?
Consequence questioning What might be the consequences of your idea or
proposal now and in the future?
Why YES? What are the good points of an idea,
regardless of how you might feel
Why NO? What are the negative aspects of the
idea, regardless of how you may feel
Why WAIT? What other alternatives and
possibilities are there to be
What other information might be
needed before we judge an idea?
Way to GO!
How might you chosen idea or course
Posing Questions at Different Levels of Sophistication
(From Melvin Freestone)
Level of Sophistication Illustrative examples – Posing Questions
Focus on factual material
Engaging in explicit tasks, making observations from direct
experience, and trying things out.
Where did you get that from? Why do you like….? What is happening to …? What
will our design look like? What should we do …? How can we put it together?
What do we need to do…?
Focus on making simple connections
Discovering links, ‘arguing; about simple ideas, devising whys to
fine out more, carrying out orderly investigations, recording data,
and discovering ways to use ideas and information.
What is involved here? What can we do to investigate this…? How many different
things are affected by…? What steps do we need to take? Which of these
effects…? Why is … important? Can we explain how and why…? What does…
Focus on searching for explanations
Considering future implications, showing concern about
consequences, gathering information systematically, planning
investigations, and using different thinking ‘tools’ appropriately.
What is needed here and why? How are we going to do this…? Which way is best to
investigate…? What are the critical elements in this situation…? Can we come up
with a ‘theory’ to explain…? Who has a stake or interest in…? Is it logical? What
is the most appropriate plan of attack? What kind of research skills will we need to
use or develop here?
Focus on searching for different combinations
Balancing options and possibilities, defining choices and particular
courses of action, showing concern for the quality of information,
seeking to control variable, identifying assumptions and exploring
how particular disciplines and real-life contexts inform thinking.
Are the questions sufficiently targeted for focused investigation…? What is the
primary question here and how does it relate to other questions that could be
asked? What is the order of priority here? Can we predict likely consequences
from the information we have? What implications does that have…? Which of the
possible actions is most desirable? What’s the best way to ‘brainstorm’ the
questions we could ask…?
Focus on exploring interrelationships
Examining assumptions, dealing with complex problems and
challenges, understanding and using ideas and strategies derived
from ‘disciplines’ of knowledge and experience, making balanced
judgements, and designing multi-faceted investigations.
Which question(s) is likely to generate a comprehensive investigation? What
processes will we use to generate questions? What factors and angles do our
questions need to encompass? In what ways can the questions we raised be
investigated…? What criteria shall we use to determine what is relevant and what
is irrelevant? What is the variety of interpretations of these questions…? Dose
everyone see it the same way…?
(From Melina Freestone)
What is it like? FROM
How is it like it is? CONNECTION
IN WHAT WAYS CAN OUR COMMUNITY BE IMPROVED?
Examining PARTS Are there any vested interests and how do they operate?
Who has the power and how do they use it?
What are the views of different stakeholders?
How has the community operated in the part?
Envisaging WHOLES What’s needed to improve or develop community relations?
What priorities and future directions are being considered?
How could things be done differently to the benefit of all?
Investigating COMPLEXITIES How does the power and people dynamics operate?
How do the decision-making processes and structures work?
In what ways can and do people participate in activities?
Is action needed to deal with issues that are blocking progress?
Extracting SIMPLICITIES In what ways might the community be improved?
Who will benefit?
Empathically Intelligent Thinking
(From Roselyn Arnold, Melvin Freestone)
Aspects Of Empathically Intelligent
A cognitively focused In what ways could the proposed housing development affect the
ecosystem in these wetlands?
A feeling focused How might the feelings of families and children be affected by the loss of
bird life from the wetland areas?
An emotion focused In what ways are different interest groups and stakeholders using the
emotions among the local community to advance their arguments?
An empathy focused How could we sympathise with and support the concerns of individuals
and groups within the local community?
An ethically focused How should the main players for and against the proposal exercise their
right to prote3st and influence the outcome?
Different Types of Thinking Through The Six Thinking Hats
(From Edward De Bono, Melvin Freestone)
Description Focus Features Overview
White hat FACTS Virgin white, pure facts,
figures and information
Red hat EMOTIONS Seeing red, emotions and
feelings, hunches and
Black hat JUDGEMENT Devil’s advocate, negative
judgement, why it will not
Yellow hat OPTIMISM Sunshine, brightness and
Green hat CREATIVITY Fertile, cre3ative, plants
springing from seeds,
movement and provocation
Blue hat REFLECTIVE Cool and controlled,
orchestration, thinking about
The SCAMPER for Solving Problems
(From Edward De Bono’s CoRT Skills)
Strategy Description Some Indicative Questions
S Substitute Substitute something different into the
Could you replace something with
C Combine Bring together and blend different
components or aspects
Could you combine things in different
A Adapt Adjust to another set of conditions or a
Could you alter something to better
meet your purposes?
M Modify Change, magnify, reduce to enhance
Could you transform something to
P Put to use Use for different purpose or in a different
Could you put it to another use or use it
in a different way?
E Eliminate Remove particular components and aspects Could you take something out to make
it work better?
R Reverse Change the order, sequence, layout or
Could you change the order of things or
chain of events?
CAMPER Asking Critical Questions
(From Michael Pohl)
Strategy Some Indicative Questions
What are the consequences of believing this?
How consistent is the information?
What assumptions have been made here?
How accurate is the date/information?
What is the meaning of this?
What is the main point here?
Point of view
What prejudices are being shown here?
What other points of view could be expressed?
What evidence is given to support the claims?
What examples are given to back up claims?
How relevant are the claims?
How reliable is the source, writer, information?
Tactics of Undertaking Tasks and Actions
(From Melvin Freestone)
Understand emotions Emotions are involved in all our
thinking and often determine
how we act.
How are emotions involved here?
What’s dominating the atmosphere?
To what extent are your emotions involved?
Are there any games being played?
How can the emotions be managed?
Try it out Trail and error enables you to
translate ideas into actions.
What’s the idea you want to trial?
Is it best-modelled in theory or in practice?
What needs to be tested?
How well does it work?
What refinements can you make?
Does it work better now?
Backtrack to go forward When you know what you want
sometimes you have to
backtrack to work out how to
Where’s your ‘big idea’?
Can you fill in the gaps between your ‘big idea’ and where you are now?
Can you identify stages for realising your ‘big idea’?
Are there any uncertainties in this plan?
Are the risks worth taking?
Get organised Good organisation aids
efficiency and prevents
What could be grouped and what need to be kept separate?
Are there alternative groupings available to you?
Can you organise this systematically?
Is anything causing difficulties?
How can you provide and ongoing system for managing it?
Have clear purposes Purpose gives direction to
projects and activities.
What need to be done?
How can this be translated into action statements?
Can an order of importance be established for the action statements?
Are the purposes sufficiently different from each other?
Find new combinations Combining two or more ideas
often creates new things.
What can you combine?
What is the likely result of this combination?
How does what happens differ from what is expected?
How useful is it?
Could you combine the ideas in other ways?
Tactics for Devising Alternatives and Innovations
(From Melvin Freestone)
Explore other views No two people view a situation the same
What views do other people hold?
How are they different from your own?
Why do they view the situation differently?
What values and ideas are affecting their viewpoints?
Is there any common ground?
Generate ‘crazy’ ideas Bringing in completely unconnected
material is often the springboard to
What would be an outrageous suggestion here?
What is triggered by this input?
Can you look at this idea from other angles?
How can the ‘crazy’ idea help you in the situation you are facing?
Challenge ideas Ideas need to be challenged to see how
well they will work..
Can you find ways to challenge these ideas?
Will modifying them improve them?
Must it be done this way?
Are there better alternatives?
Do they meet expectations?
Avoid blind alleys People are seldom wrong on purpose but
sometimes find themselves up a blind
What’s making you feel uneasy?
Have false generalizations been made?
Are the facts wrong, mistaken or misinterpreted?
Are fixed ideas causing a blind spot?
What’s misleading you?
Search for alternatives There are many ways to accomplish
Are there other options worth pursuing?
Where might they lead?
Could it be done in a completely different way?
Which options are likely to be useful or effective?
Have you ‘left any stone unturned’?
Do it better Ideas and actions can always be refined
What can you target for improvement?
What variables are involved?
How can you determine their effects?
What are the possibilities for improvement?
How can this be achieved?
Tactics for Seeking Opportunities and Possibilities
(From Melvin Freestone)
Bridge the gap The best way to bridge the gap maybe
to create stepping-stone.
What ideas and actions have potential?
How can they be developed to bridge the gap?
Do they allow you to move on?
Are there other ways for getting there?
Which stepping-stone are you going to use?
Identify opportunities Most of situations have opportunities
for people to engage in enterprising
What are the opportunities here?
Where might they lead to?
Which is the best opportunity?
How can you make the most of these opportunities?
What ‘good’ can be achieved from doing this?
Brainstorm for inspiration Sometimes instant inspiration is needed
to make the most of a situation or to
What is the challenge?
What ideas come into your mind immediately?
Can you think up a range of options for exploration?
Which ones deal with the challenge?
Which ones are worth pursuing?
Which ones could be used to produce solutions?
Consider all angles Examining things from every angle
helps you find workable ideas.
What is positive here?
What is negative here?
What else have possibilities?
Can you translate the possibilities into workable ideas?
Have all the implications been explored?
Find unlimited possibilities You often need to suspend judgement
in order to generate new ideas.
What judgement need to be suspended?
What new ideas could be used here?
Which ones are worth trying out?
Which of these possibilities is likely to work well?
Can you decide which one you will use?
Guess the solution If ideas and information are incomplete
sometimes you have to guess.
Can you guess what you can do or what will happen?
Does it work?
Is there anything else you can do?
Do you need to make a better guess?
Do you need to start somewhere else?
Tactics for Addressing Difficulties and Conflicts
(From Melvin Freestone)
Make it work You can adjust things to make
How well are you ideas and actions working?
What needs to be improved?
How could you achieve this?
Is the result satisfactory?
Is a completely different approach needed?
Unearth the blockage Some things stop people from
thinking clearly and deflect their
thoughts in unproductive ways.
Can you detect any blockages?
What are they?
Are any stereotypes, clichés, prejudices or ‘official’ opinions getting in the way?
What needs to be done to eliminate the blockage?
What benefits are likely to accrue?
Get it right You need to know when
something is right and then leave
How well is it working?
Does it need more work?
What do others think?
Is there value in future improvements?
Should you leave it alone?
Determine its worth It is useful to pinpoint the worth
of an idea or action.
What are the ideas or actions intended to do?
How well do they meet specified requirements?
What is their appeal?
Are they efficient, effective and reliable?
Assess contradictions Contradictions in ideas and
actions often reveal areas for
modification, improvement and
What things don’t seem to be right?
Do they have and opposite effect to what is intended?
How significant is this effect?
Can it be removed or transformed?
What are the possibilities for changing it?
Resolve conflicts Sometimes people have
conflicting ideas about how to do
things or negative feelings about
Are there any conflicts?
What are they about?
What are the ideas, issues and emotions involved?
Who are the key players?
How can you encourage collaboration and negotiation?
What’s needed to create a ‘win-win’ outcome?