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General overview of project based learning


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General overview of project based learning

  1. 1. General Overview Of Project- Based Learning Understanding The Classroom Setting
  2. 2. What Is Project-Based Learning Project-based learning is a comprehensive instructional approach to engage students in sustained, cooperative investigation (Bransford & Stein, 1993). Within its framework students collaborate, working together to make sense of what is going on. Project-based instruction differs from inquiry-based activity by its emphasis on cooperative learning. Inquiry is traditionally thought of as an individually done, somewhat isolated activity. Additionally, project-based instruction differs from traditional inquiry by its emphasis on students' own artifact construction to represent what is being learned (Houghton Mifflin, nk)
  3. 3. What Is Project-Based Learning  According to Wiley On-Line (2010) reform efforts in science education emphasize the importance of supporting students' construction of knowledge through inquiry. Project- based science (PBS) is an ambitious approach to science instruction that addresses concerns of reformers.  Some studies studies show that students participating in a PBS curriculum were prepared for this type of testing. Educators should be encouraged to use inquiry-based approaches such as PBS to implement reform in their schools (Wiley On-Line 2010).
  4. 4. What Is Project-Based Learning  Cooperative learning is apart of project-based learning. Studies of the achievement effects of cooperative learning have taken place in every major subject, at all grade levels, in all types of schools in many countries.  A recent national survey (Puma, Jones, Rock, & Fernandez, 1993) found that 79% of elementary teachers and 62% of middle school teachers reported making some sustained use of cooperative learning (Slavin 1995).
  5. 5. What Is Project-Based Learning Students in project-based learning pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by:  asking and refining questions  debating ideas  making predictions  designing plans and/or experiments  collecting and analyzing data  drawing conclusions  communicating their ideas and findings to others  asking new questions  creating artifacts (Blumenfeld et al., 1991). Houghton Mufflin, nk
  6. 6. What Is Project-Based Learning There are two essential components of projects: 1. A driving question or problem that serves to organize and drive activities, which taken as a whole amount to a meaningful project 2. Culminating product(s) or multiple representations as a series of artifacts, personal communication (Krajcik), or consequential task that meaningfully addresses the driving question. (Brown & Campione, 1994).
  7. 7. What Is Project-Based Learning Houghlin Mufflin (nk) says these are features of project-based instruction:  Let's take a closer look at four features that facilitate use of project-based instruction in K-12 classrooms.  A "driving question" that is anchored in a real-world problem and ideally uses multiple content areas  Opportunities for students to make active investigations that enable them to learn concepts, apply information, and represent their knowledge in a variety of ways  .
  8. 8. What Is Project-Based Learning  List all of the steps used in completing your experiment.  Remember to number your steps.  Add photos of your experiments.
  9. 9. What Is Project-Based Learning Issues Raised About Project-Based Learning  Support is essential. Despite considerable potential, project-based education is not without problems. The idea that projects represent learning by doing certainly is not new (Dewey, 1933; Kilpatrick, 1918).  However, lessons from the past suggest that without adequate attention to ways of supporting teachers and students, these innovative educational approaches will not be widely adopted. Previous attempts at reform of curriculum and instruction in the 1960s used "investigative" and discovery learning as central themes. (Bruner, 1963)
  10. 10. What Is Project-Based Learning Although evidence suggests that such curricula enhanced student learning and motivation (e.g., Bredderman, 1983), their adoption and success were not as widespread as desired. According to Blumenfeld et al. (1991) the reasons for this included the fact that the projects were developed and disseminated without sufficient appreciation for the complex nature of motivation and knowledge required to engage students in difficult and reflective work.
  11. 11. What Is Project-Based Learning  Questions developed from novice learners are essential. Moreover, there was little regard for considering questions from the point of view of students [as novices] versus question formation from the vantage point of experts.  Focus on teacher knowledge and classroom environment is essential. Lastly, little attention was paid to the nature and extent of teacher knowledge and commitment to the complexity of classroom organization Houghlin Mufflin (nk)
  12. 12. Forest Of The Rain Productions 240.593.3813