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A Comparison of Three Bug-Finding Techniques and Their Relative Effectiveness

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In this presentation, delivered at Embedded World 2015, we will discuss and compare the ability of unit testing, flow analysis, and static analysis to address software quality, safety, and security issues for embedded systems. In addition to a deep and methodical exploration of how each technology addresses these concerns, we will discuss real-world feedback from organizations that have experience using the technologies in the context of a complete development cycle. The presentation will include the application of unit testing, flow analysis, and static analysis to sample software embedded on an IAR board.

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A Comparison of Three Bug-Finding Techniques and Their Relative Effectiveness

  1. 1. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   1   2/26/15   A  Comparison  of  Three  Bug-­‐finding   Techniques  and  Their  Rela:ve   Effec:veness   Mark  Lambert  -­‐  Paraso&  Corp  
  2. 2. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   2  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   2   Agenda   §  Overview  and  Comparison   1.  PaDern-­‐based  Analysis   2.  Flow  Analysis   3.  Unit  Tes1ng   §  Applica1on  and  Demonstra1on   §  Desktop  analysis/tes1ng  vs.  on  target   §  Using  Applica1on  Monitoring  to  uncover  run1me   problems   §  Combining  Coverage  
  3. 3. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   3  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   3   Sta1c  Code  Analysis   Pa?ern-­‐Based   Sta:c  Analysis   Preven1on   technique   Analyzes  code   structure  (parse   tree)  to  apply  best   prac1ces   Flow-­‐Based   Analysis   Detec1on   technique   Analyzes  code   flow  to  determine   “dangerous   paths”   Metric   Threshold   Analysis   Advisory   technique   Finds  complex/ hard-­‐to-­‐test  code   prone  to  errors  
  4. 4. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   4  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   4   Code  Analysis   §  Well  understood  o&en  under  valued   §  Define  the  goal  of  the  analysis  and  the  Policy  for  compliance   §  Policy  defines  reduc1on  of  business  risk  not  pursuit  of   perfec1on   §  E.g.  Security  (CWE,  CERT,  …)  ,  Safety  Cri1cal  (ISO26262,  DO178B,  …)   §  Start  small  to  promote  adop1on  and  monitor  for  areas  of   improvement   §  Apply  con1nuously  through  the  SDLC   §  Balance  desktop  interac1ve  feedback  (pre-­‐check-­‐in)  with   server-­‐side  depth  of  analysis  (post-­‐check-­‐in)  
  5. 5. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   5  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   5   Peer  Code  Reviews   §  Highly  valuable  in  finding  REAL   bugs;  Algorithms/Design   §  Use  carefully   §  Only  apply  a&er  Sta1c  Code  Analysis   §  Only  apply  where  there  is  RISK   Image: http://www.jasonawesome.com/2010/06/01/executing-a-php-code-review/
  6. 6. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   6  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   6   Unit  Tes1ng   §  Unit  Tes1ng   §  Code  focused  valida1on   §  Test  components  of  the  system  in  isola1on  (stubs)   §  Code  needs  to  be  built  to  be  testable   §  Host-­‐based  and  on-­‐target   §  Test  before  hardware  available   §  Where  is  the  ROI?   §  Did  we  design  it  properly   §  Does  it  func1on  correctly?   §  Have  we  mi1gated  the  business  risk?   §  How  much  is  enough?   §  Code  Coverage  +  Peer  Review  
  7. 7. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   7  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   7   Explora1ve  Tes1ng   §  Ad-­‐hock/Unstructured   Tes1ng  of  func1onal  areas   §  Important  part  of  Agile  QA/ feedback  process   §  Requires  traceability  to   user-­‐stories  and  code   §  Should  be  ‘reinforced’  with   automated  tests  
  8. 8. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   8  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   8   Applica1on  and  Demonstra1on   §  Code  Analysis  from  within  IDE   §  PaDern-­‐Based  Analysis   §  Use  Flow  Analysis  to  find  poten1al  memory  issues   §  Dynamic  Analysis   §  Using  Applica1on  Monitoring  to  uncover  run1me   problems   §  Using  Coverage  to  determine  what  was  tested   §  Using  Unit  Tests  to  increase  coverage   §  Combining  Coverage  from  Manual  and  Unit  Tes1ng  
  9. 9. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   9  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   9   Host-­‐based  and  On-­‐Target  Unit  Tes1ng   Host  Development  Environment   Simulator  or  Target  Device   Host  Based  Flow   Create/Extend   Tests   Execute  Tests   (Op1onal)   Review  results  and  coverage   Cross   compile  test   executable   Execute  Tests  
  10. 10. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   10  Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   10   Conclusions   1.  Capture  Business  Expecta1ons  in  a  Policy   2.  Apply  early  and  con1nuously   3.  Use  a  workflow  for  remedia1on   4.  Leverage  both  desktop  +  server  based  analysis   5.  Translate  to  Business  Impact  and  Monitor  for   improvements  
  11. 11. Paraso&  Proprietary  and  Confiden1al   11   2/26/15   Thank  you   Mark  Lambert,  Rich  Newman,  Miroslaw  Zielinski,  Adam  Trujillo     Mark.lambert@paraso&.com    

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