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2-Energy.ppt

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2-Energy.ppt

  1. 1. The Energy Cycle (Reading AK Chapter-2) Transferring Energy in the Atmosphere Conduction: Requires Touching Convection: Hot Air Rises Temperature Advection: Horizontal Movement of Air Latent Heating: Changing the Phase of Water Adiabatic Cooling and Warming: Expanding and Compressing Air Diabatic Cooling and Warming: Adding and Subtracting Heat Radiative Heat Transfer: Exchanging Energy with Space Sun and Seasons Radiative Properties of the Atmosphere Global Energy Budget
  2. 2. Simple C to F conversion: F = ( TempC + TempC ) –10% +32 Example: 30deg C 86 F = (30degC + 30DegC ) – 6 + 32 C = 5 / 9 * (F – 32 ) F = (9 / 5 * C) + 32 K = 273.16 + C No Atmosphere Facing the Sun (121degC) ((250F) No Atmosphere Shadow and darkness (-157degC) (-250F) Mars 218K Venus 457o C (855o F) Temperature --Definition – A measure of the average kinetic energy of all particles within a sample. HEAT – Energy produced by motions of molecules and is the total kinetic energy of a sample.
  3. 3. Energy Transfer The transfer of energy between two objects due to a difference in temperature is called HEAT energy. Methods of Heat transfer include Conduction, Convection, Advection, and Radiation Adiabatic heating/cooling are constant entropy processes and have no transfer of heat
  4. 4. Transferring Energy in the Atmosphere -Conduction Requires Touching (land/ sea - air) -Convection Vertical Movement--Hot Air Rises -Temperature Advection Horizontal Movement -Latent Heating Phase Change of Water (Diabatic) -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) Expanding - Compressing -Radiative Heat Transfer With Space
  5. 5. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer
  6. 6. Surface and Air Temperature D. L. Walters Cook an egg on sidewalk
  7. 7. Hot Enough to Fry an Egg Need a surface air temperature (2m) warmer than 35º C ~ 95 º F • Egg white begins to coagulate at 62°C (144°F) while yolk begins to coagulate at 65°C (149°F). Note: This will take a few minutes
  8. 8. Midday Air Temperature-Desert D. L. Walters 15 min
  9. 9. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer 1km Vis at 1 min interval from GOES-8 7204vis.avi http://www.shodor.org/metweb/
  10. 10. Measured Versus Calculated Variables TEMPERATURE ADVECTION 5 10 15 COLD WARM CO LD AD V WA RM AD V 500 mb 1000 mb
  11. 11. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer
  12. 12. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer 0 C
  13. 13. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer Parcel does not exchange heat with its surroundings Latent Heat release Expansion cooling  Compression warming Atm Avg Lapse rate ~6.5 °C/km
  14. 14. -Conduction -Convection -Temperature Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer I-80
  15. 15. The Sun Solar Constant 1368 W/m2 Radiation – The transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. Does not involve the movement of matter
  16. 16. -Conduction -Convection -Temp Advection -Latent Heating -Adiabatic (heating-cooling) -Radiative Heat Transfer IR VIS E ~5.7x10-8 x T**4 Emax ~ 2900/T Stefan-Boltzman Law (Sun 160,000 more E than Earth) Weins Law emitted emitted λ Fade
  17. 17. Absorption of Radiation by Atmosphere
  18. 18. Greenhouse Effect Venus to Hot(450C) 97%C02, 90x Sfc Pres of Earth , Mars to Cold (-53C)95% CO2, ~1% Sfc Pres Earth, and Earth 0.04% CO2…Just Right (15C) • Recycles energy and makes the planet suitable for life as we know it. • Some Trace Gases Absorb and Emit Heat (H2Ovapor,CO2,CH4,Ozone) • Albedo also has important influence on Earth’s Temperature • Without Greenhouse effect Earth would be about -18C • Water Vapor most important Greenhouse Gas (Absorbs at different wavelengths and abundant in Atmosphere) • Rough Approximation of contributions to Greenhouse effect by trace gases: -60% water vapor -20% Carbon dioxide -20% the rest to others (Ozone, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, and other species) UCAR 2006 Other Planets
  19. 19. https://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_3_1.htm
  20. 20. Annual Average Energy Balance of Earth 342 W/m2 from Earth to Space 342 W/m2 from Space to Earth In Space Solar Constant is ~1368 W/m2 (half due to night and half again due to solar zenith angle) Earth Albedo ~ 30% (107W) Aprox 50% solar energy reaches earth (AK)
  21. 21. Solar Zenith Angle (AK) Tropic of Capricorn ~23.5 deg S Tropic of Cancer ~23.5 deg N SUN- EARTH min/max 146-152 million km 1 complete orbit every 365.25 days
  22. 22. Daylight Length http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight Tilt of the Earth’s axis defines length of daylight for a given latitude Earth Rotation .25 deg / min Hours Daylight
  23. 23. Net radiation = net short-wave radiation + net long-wave radiation.
  24. 24. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/time-series/global/globe/land_ocean/1/8/1880-2017
  25. 25. Image from Andy Armstrong/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "There is considerable uncertainty in future model projections. The more important message from models is that all but a few outliers predict enormous sea ice retreat this century," Oceanographer of the Navy Rear Adm. Titley July 2009

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