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Leading for Innovation and Creativity
Dr. Douglas Reeves
Creative Leadership Solutions
Dr. Douglas Reeves is the founder of Creative Leadership Solutions. He has worked with
education, business, nonprofit, and government organizations throughout the world. The
author of more than 30 books and more than 80 articles on leadership and organizational
effectiveness, he has twice been named to the Harvard University Distinguished Authors
Series. Dr. Reeves was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to
education. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Association of
Secondary School Principals, the Parent’s Choice Award for his writing for children and
parents, and the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development
Council.
His keynotes speeches have reached live audiences of more than 8,000 people and many
times that size through television and internet broadcasts. His presentations are highly
interactive, with audience members providing live Tweets, Texts, and E-mails throughout
the presentation. Reeves also provides proprietary research and assessment projects for
clients, assessing organizational climate, communication, and the “implementation gap” –
the difference between organizational strategies and reality. In addition, he works with
leadership teams and provides confidential one-to-one executive coaching.
Dr. Reeves can be reached at Douglas.Reeves@CreativeLeadership.net or 1.781.710 9633.
He lives with his wife and family in Boston, Massachusetts.
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 1
Leading	
  for	
  Crea-vity	
  	
  	
  
Douglas	
  Reeves,	
  PhD	
  
Crea-veLeadership.net	
  
Douglas.Reeves@Crea-veLeadership.net	
  
@DouglasReeves	
  
(781)	
  710-­‐9633	
  
	
  
Fundamental	
  Research	
  Findings	
  
•  Crea3vity	
  is	
  essen3al	
  for	
  society	
  and	
  the	
  
planet	
  
•  Crea3vity	
  is	
  valued	
  by	
  businesses,	
  
schools,	
  and	
  governments	
  
•  	
  Unfortunately,	
  …	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 2
Enormous	
  Gap	
  Between	
  	
  
Inten3ons	
  and	
  Reality	
  
Student	
  grading	
  systems	
  deliberately	
  
undermine	
  the	
  essen3als	
  of	
  crea3vity:	
  trial,	
  
error,	
  feedback,	
  and	
  improvement.	
  	
  
The	
  “average”	
  punishes	
  every	
  
experimental	
  error.	
  	
  	
  
Teacher	
  evalua3on	
  systems	
  undermine	
  
experimental	
  approaches	
  to	
  teaching,	
  
learning,	
  and	
  engagement	
  because	
  they	
  
punish	
  failure.	
  	
  	
  
Enormous	
  Gap	
  Between	
  	
  
Inten3ons	
  and	
  Reality	
  
Crea3vity	
  Is	
  Systema3cally	
  Devalued	
  
The	
  most	
  crea3ve	
  students	
  were	
  the	
  least	
  
popular	
  with	
  students	
  and	
  teachers;	
  the	
  
least	
  crea3ve	
  students	
  were	
  the	
  most	
  
popular.	
  	
  
(Research	
  results	
  from	
  Union	
  College	
  and	
  Skidmore	
  College	
  
study	
  of	
  Albany,	
  NY	
  	
  
elementary	
  school	
  teachers,	
  2012)	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 3
Crea3vity	
  is	
  some3mes	
  associated	
  with	
  
anxiety,	
  an3-­‐social	
  behavior,	
  and	
  
substance	
  abuse.	
  	
  
1.  Personal	
  beliefs	
  
2.  Personal	
  experiences	
  
3.  Collec3ve	
  experiences	
  
4.  Systema3c	
  comparisons	
  
5.  Preponderance	
  of	
  evidence	
  
Levels	
  of	
  Evidence	
  
More	
  Bad	
  News	
  
•  Emula3ng	
  crea3vity	
  (such	
  as	
  Google’s	
  
20%	
  of	
  free	
  3me)	
  is	
  incredibly	
  difficult	
  
when	
  people	
  already	
  have	
  full-­‐3me	
  
jobs.	
  	
  	
  
•  Evalua3on	
  systems	
  punish	
  the	
  errors	
  
that	
  are	
  an	
  inherent	
  part	
  of	
  crea3vity	
  
and	
  risk	
  taking.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 4
How	
  to	
  Assess	
  Crea3vity?	
  
•  Torrance	
  Tests	
  of	
  Crea3ve	
  Thinking	
  –	
  the	
  most	
  
widely	
  used	
  crea3vity	
  test	
  in	
  the	
  world	
  
•  	
  40	
  languages	
  
•  Systema3c	
  assessment	
  of	
  validity	
  –	
  the	
  
rela3onship	
  	
  between	
  student	
  scores	
  and	
  later	
  
adult	
  crea3ve	
  produc3on,	
  over	
  four	
  decades	
  
Crea3vity	
  Is	
  Declining	
  for	
  Individuals	
  
•  Crea3vity	
  among	
  students	
  has	
  declined	
  
significantly	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  20	
  years.	
  
•  The	
  biggest	
  decline	
  is	
  in	
  “crea3ve	
  elabora3on”	
  
–	
  the	
  ability	
  to	
  develop	
  and	
  elaborate	
  on	
  ideas	
  
with	
  detailed	
  and	
  reflec3ve	
  thinking.	
  
(Kyung	
  Hee	
  Kim,	
  College	
  of	
  William	
  and	
  Mary,	
  afer	
  
analysis	
  of	
  nearly	
  300,000	
  American	
  adults	
  and	
  
children	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  Torrance	
  Tests	
  of	
  Crea3ng	
  
Thinking	
  (TTCT),	
  October	
  2010.)	
  
Crea3vity	
  Is	
  Declining	
  for	
  Organiza3ons	
  
•  Fewer	
  than	
  half	
  of	
  companies	
  surveyed	
  said	
  
their	
  corporate	
  culture	
  robustly	
  supports	
  their	
  
innova3on	
  strategy.	
  
•  But	
  most	
  organiza3ons	
  make	
  decisions	
  based	
  
on	
  avoiding	
  mistakes	
  rather	
  than	
  embracing	
  
risk	
  and	
  innova3on.	
  
(Booz	
  &	
  Co.,	
  Global	
  Innova3on	
  1000,	
  
InnoCen3ve,	
  2013)	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 5
What’s	
  New	
  for	
  2015?	
  	
  
	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  Of	
  Crea2vity	
  
•  “Crea3vity	
  is	
  not	
  just	
  the	
  way	
  that	
  the	
  great	
  
geniuses	
  of	
  the	
  past	
  have	
  used	
  to	
  enrich	
  
and	
  give	
  meaning	
  to	
  our	
  culture,	
  but	
  it	
  is	
  an	
  
obliga3on	
  we	
  all	
  have	
  to	
  enrich	
  and	
  give	
  
meaning	
  to	
  our	
  own	
  lives	
  and	
  the	
  lives	
  of	
  
our	
  community.”	
  	
  	
  
—Reeves	
  &	
  Reeves,	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  	
  
(Solu3on	
  Tree,	
  2015)	
  
A	
  Working	
  Defini3on	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  
•  The	
  process	
  of	
  experimenta-on,	
  
evalua-on,	
  and	
  follow	
  through,	
  which	
  
leads	
  to	
  a	
  significant	
  discovery,	
  insight,	
  
or	
  contribu-on	
  
•  Note	
  what	
  it	
  doesn’t	
  say:	
  original,	
  novel,	
  
superstar,	
  ….	
  
	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 6
The	
  False	
  Dichotomy	
  Between	
  	
  
“Big	
  C”	
  and	
  “Likle	
  c	
  ”	
  Crea3vity	
  
Big	
  C:	
  
–  The	
  creator	
  as	
  
rock	
  star,	
  or	
  at	
  
least	
  a	
  Nobel	
  
Prize	
  winner	
  
–  Social,	
  ar3s3c,	
  or	
  
scien3fic	
  
recogni3on	
  
LiNle	
  c:	
  
–  Insights	
  that	
  are	
  
func3onal,	
  ofen	
  
based	
  on	
  previous	
  
major	
  insights	
  
Assessing	
  Crea3vity	
  Assessments	
  
•  100+	
  crea3vity	
  assessments,	
  including	
  K–12	
  
and	
  college,	
  evaluated	
  on	
  8-­‐dimension	
  scale,	
  
with	
  four	
  points	
  on	
  each,	
  for	
  >3,200	
  data	
  
points	
  
•  	
  >95%	
  inter-­‐rater	
  reliability	
  
•  Maximum	
  score	
  of	
  32	
  (Level	
  4	
  on	
  all	
  eight	
  
dimensions)	
  
•  	
  The	
  results	
  …	
  
Dimensions	
  of	
  Crea3vity	
  	
  
Assessment	
  ‒	
  %	
  Proficient	
  +	
  
•  	
  Research	
  basis	
  –	
  42%	
  
•  	
  Mul3disciplinary	
  perspec3ve	
  –	
  49%	
  
•  	
  Source	
  material	
  –	
  34%	
  
•  	
  Clarity	
  of	
  guidelines	
  –	
  52%	
  
•  	
  Product	
  –	
  17%	
  
•  	
  Process	
  –	
  41%	
  
•  	
  Collabora3on	
  –	
  9%	
  	
  
•  	
  Prac3ce	
  and	
  error	
  –	
  20%	
  	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 7
Dimensions	
  of	
  Crea3vity	
  	
  
Assessment	
  ‒	
  Exemplary	
  
•  	
  Research	
  basis	
  –	
  0	
  
•  	
  Mul3disciplinary	
  perspec3ve	
  –	
  9	
  
•  	
  Source	
  material	
  –	
  2	
  
•  	
  Clarity	
  of	
  guidelines	
  –	
  3	
  
•  	
  Product	
  –	
  8	
  
•  	
  Process	
  –	
  3	
  
•  	
  Collabora3on	
  –	
  0	
  
•  	
  Prac3ce	
  and	
  error	
  –	
  0	
  
Unpacking	
  the	
  Dimensions	
  
of	
  Crea3vity	
  
Applying	
  the	
  Research	
  
Workshop	
  on	
  “Assessing	
  Crea3vity”	
  
applies	
  the	
  meta-­‐rubric	
  used	
  in	
  today’s	
  
research	
  to	
  three	
  anonymous	
  crea3vity	
  
rubrics.	
  You	
  are	
  welcome	
  to	
  apply	
  this	
  
meta-­‐rubric	
  to	
  crea3vity	
  rubrics	
  within	
  
your	
  schools.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 8
Overall	
  Rubric	
  Scores	
  
0	
  
10	
  
20	
  
30	
  
40	
  
50	
  
60	
  
70	
  
80	
  
25-­‐32	
   17-­‐24	
   	
  9-­‐16	
   	
  	
  1-­‐9	
  
Elementary	
  
Secondary	
  
K-­‐12	
  
Strengths	
  and	
  Weaknesses	
  
Strengths:	
  
•  Mul3disciplinary	
  
orienta3on	
  
•  Product	
  
requirements	
  
Weaknesses:	
  
•  	
  Research	
  basis	
  
•  	
  Collabora3on	
  
•  	
  Trial	
  and	
  error	
  
A	
  Few	
  Research	
  Footnotes	
  
•  Posi3vely	
  biased	
  sample	
  ‒	
  These	
  were	
  publicly	
  available	
  and	
  
willingly	
  shared.	
  Don’t	
  be	
  disappointed	
  if	
  your	
  ini3al	
  results	
  
are	
  lower.	
  
•  Don’t	
  try	
  this	
  alone.	
  Checks	
  for	
  inter-­‐rater	
  reliability	
  are	
  
essen3al	
  for	
  meaningful	
  results.	
  
•  Use	
  this	
  meta-­‐rubric	
  as	
  a	
  star3ng	
  point—not	
  the	
  ending	
  
point.	
  When	
  there	
  is	
  disagreement	
  in	
  applying	
  a	
  rubric,	
  the	
  
rule	
  is,	
  “The	
  enemy	
  is	
  not	
  one	
  another;	
  the	
  enemy	
  is	
  
ambiguity.”	
  Rework	
  the	
  rubric	
  un3l	
  you	
  achieve	
  80%	
  
agreement.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 9
Everybody	
  Knows	
  Crea3vity	
  	
  
Is	
  Important,	
  but	
  …	
  	
  
•  	
  We’ll	
  get	
  to	
  it	
  afer	
  standardized	
  tests	
  are	
  done.	
  
•  It’s	
  really	
  the	
  responsibility	
  of	
  the	
  art	
  and	
  music	
  teachers.	
  
•  Crea2vity	
  is	
  just	
  a	
  code	
  word	
  for	
  poor	
  discipline,	
  and	
  if	
  
you	
  ask	
  me,	
  kids	
  need	
  a	
  lot	
  more	
  discipline	
  than	
  they	
  
need	
  crea3vity.	
  	
  	
  
•  I’ll	
  wait	
  un3l	
  I	
  see	
  the	
  evidence	
  that	
  crea3vity	
  helps	
  
achievement.	
  
•  	
  Great,	
  just	
  what	
  we	
  need—one	
  more	
  ini3a3ve.	
  
A	
  Working	
  Defini3on	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  
•  The	
  process	
  of	
  experimenta-on,	
  
evalua-on,	
  and	
  follow	
  through,	
  which	
  
leads	
  to	
  a	
  significant	
  discovery,	
  insight,	
  or	
  
contribu-on	
  
•  Note	
  what	
  it	
  doesn’t	
  say:	
  original,	
  novel,	
  
superstar	
  ….	
  
	
  
Big	
  Ideas	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 10
Crea3vity	
  can	
  and	
  must	
  be	
  
assessed.	
  
“Crea3on	
  is	
  unlikely	
  to	
  emerge	
  in	
  the	
  absence	
  of	
  
some	
  disciplinary	
  mastery	
  and,	
  perhaps,	
  some	
  
capacity	
  to	
  synthesize;	
  	
  	
  
it's	
  not	
  possible	
  to	
  think	
  
outside	
  the	
  box	
  unless	
  you	
  
have	
  a	
  box.”	
  	
  	
  
—Howard	
  Gardner,	
  	
  
Five	
  Minds	
  for	
  the	
  Future,	
  2007	
  
Crea3vity	
  is	
  some3mes	
  associated	
  with	
  
anxiety,	
  an3-­‐social	
  behavior,	
  and	
  
substance	
  abuse.	
  	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 11
The	
  “good	
  girl”	
  effect—we	
  effec3vely	
  
undermine	
  the	
  crea3vity	
  of	
  half	
  the	
  planet.	
  	
  
(Reeves	
  &	
  Reeves,	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  	
  
of	
  Crea2vity,	
  2015)	
  
Prac3cal	
  Guidelines	
  	
  
for	
  School	
  Leaders	
  
Time	
  for	
  Assessment	
  and	
  
Scoring	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 12
Decision	
  Discipline	
  –	
  Mutually	
  
Exclusive	
  Alterna3ves	
  
Non-­‐Linear	
  Gains	
  –	
  Beware	
  of	
  
the	
  “Likle	
  Bit	
  Beker”	
  Impulse.	
  
Ban	
  the	
  Average	
  –	
  	
  
for	
  Students	
  and	
  Teachers.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 13
Encourage	
  Risk	
  –	
  “Evalua3on-­‐
Free	
  Zones”	
  for	
  50%	
  of	
  
Observa3ons	
  
Costs	
  and	
  Benefits	
  of	
  Change	
  
Q1.	
  	
  
Change	
  
Costs	
  
Q4.	
  	
  
Change	
  
Benefits	
  
Q2.	
  
	
  	
  No	
  
Change	
  	
  
Costs	
  
Q3.	
  
	
  	
  No	
  
Change	
  
Benefits	
  
CURIOSITY	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 14
Suppor3ng	
  Curiosity	
  
•  Confidence	
  in	
  the	
  value	
  of	
  failure,	
  including	
  public	
  
displays	
  of	
  “I	
  used	
  to	
  think	
  …,	
  and	
  now	
  I	
  think	
  ….	
  
(Elmore,	
  2011)	
  
•  Replacing	
  supreme	
  self-­‐regard	
  with	
  rigorous	
  self-­‐
examina3on	
  
•  	
  Social	
  media	
  as	
  an	
  echo	
  chamber	
  
•  	
  Ques3on	
  assump3ons	
  
•  	
  Making	
  guesses	
  before	
  heading	
  to	
  Google	
  
•  	
  Being	
  aware	
  of	
  punishing	
  curiosity	
  
The	
  “Good	
  Girl”	
  Effect	
  –	
  	
  
Na3onal	
  Honor	
  Society	
  Membership	
  
0	
  
10	
  
20	
  
30	
  
40	
  
50	
  
60	
  
70	
  
Women	
   Men	
  
Kristof,	
  “The	
  Boys	
  Have	
  Fallen	
  Behind,”	
  	
  
New	
  York	
  Times,	
  March	
  27,	
  2010)	
  
From	
  2014	
  Interviews	
  	
  
With	
  Successful	
  Girls	
  and	
  Women	
  
“There	
  were	
  many	
  2mes	
  I	
  knew	
  that	
  a	
  
colleague	
  was	
  wrong,	
  but	
  I	
  didn’t	
  speak	
  up	
  
because	
  it	
  was	
  inappropriate	
  to	
  challenge	
  
someone	
  else.”	
  
—Helen,	
  an	
  Ivy	
  League	
  graduate	
  	
  
(Reeves	
  &	
  Reeves,	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  	
  
(Solu3on	
  Tree,	
  2015)	
  
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Page 15
“The	
  playground	
  hasn’t	
  been	
  updated	
  for	
  six	
  
years	
  and	
  some	
  of	
  it	
  is	
  dangerous.	
  I’d	
  like	
  to	
  
write	
  a	
  story	
  for	
  the	
  school	
  newspaper,	
  but	
  I	
  
don’t	
  want	
  to	
  cri2cize	
  the	
  teachers	
  or	
  school	
  
leaders.”	
  
—Jessica,	
  an	
  excep3onal	
  student	
  
(Reeves	
  &	
  Reeves,	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  	
  
(Solu3on	
  Tree,	
  2015)	
  
“Being	
  a	
  good	
  girl	
  got	
  me	
  good	
  grades	
  in	
  high	
  
school	
  and	
  college,	
  but	
  when	
  I	
  went	
  to	
  an	
  elite	
  
MBA	
  program	
  as	
  one	
  of	
  two	
  women	
  in	
  the	
  
class,	
  it	
  took	
  more	
  than	
  a	
  semester	
  for	
  me	
  to	
  
have	
  elbows	
  as	
  sharp	
  as	
  the	
  guys.”	
  
(Reeves	
  &	
  Reeves,	
  The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  	
  
(Solu3on	
  Tree,	
  2015)	
  
VERSATILITY	
  
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Page 16
Versa3lity:	
  Applying	
  New	
  Perspec3ves	
  
•  	
  The	
  “ab	
  ini2o”	
  fallacy	
  
•  Unless	
  you	
  observed	
  the	
  Big	
  Bang,	
  stop	
  
claiming	
  originality.	
  
•  Examples:	
  From	
  plane	
  geometry	
  to	
  
mul3dimensional	
  sta3s3cal	
  modeling	
  
Building	
  Blocks	
  Vs.	
  Plagiarism	
  
•  	
  Same	
  tools,	
  different	
  applica3on	
  
•  	
  Illegal	
  copying	
  requires	
  instruc3on	
  and	
  
reassessment	
  ‒	
  	
  
o  	
  First,	
  let	
  me	
  break	
  into	
  your	
  locker	
  and	
  steal	
  
your	
  stuff.	
  
o  	
  Second,	
  write	
  another	
  paper	
  and	
  credit	
  
everyone	
  from	
  whom	
  you	
  stole.	
  
DISCIPLINE	
  
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Page 17
There	
  is	
  no	
  contradic3on	
  
between	
  crea3vity	
  and	
  
academic	
  discipline.	
  
•  In	
  fact,	
  disciplinary	
  knowledge	
  is	
  essen3al	
  for	
  
crea3vity.	
  
“Crea3on	
  is	
  unlikely	
  to	
  emerge	
  in	
  the	
  
absence	
  of	
  some	
  disciplinary	
  mastery	
  and,	
  
perhaps,	
  some	
  capacity	
  to	
  synthesize;	
  it's	
  
not	
  possible	
  to	
  think	
  outside	
  the	
  box	
  
unless	
  you	
  have	
  a	
  box.”	
  	
  
—Howard	
  Gardner,	
  	
  
Five	
  Minds	
  for	
  the	
  Future,	
  2007	
  
The	
  Elements	
  of	
  Discipline	
  
•  	
  Focus	
  
•  	
  “Beginner’s	
  mind”	
  
•  	
  Deliberate	
  prac3ce	
  
•  	
  Incremental	
  prac3ce	
  
•  	
  Recording	
  progress	
  
o  From	
  the	
  basketball	
  court	
  to	
  cogni3ve	
  
behavioral	
  therapy	
  
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Page 18
Professional	
  Prac3ce	
  and	
  the	
  
“What	
  the	
  Heck?”	
  Effect	
  
•  “If	
  I	
  miss	
  a	
  prac2ce	
  day,	
  then	
  I	
  might	
  as	
  
well	
  give	
  up.”	
  
•  But	
  what	
  does	
  the	
  evidence	
  say?	
  
Performance	
  With	
  Daily	
  Prac3ce	
  
100	
  
105	
  
110	
  
115	
  
120	
  
125	
  
130	
  
135	
  
140	
  
0	
   5	
   10	
   15	
   20	
   25	
   30	
   35	
  
Miss	
  Two	
  Days	
  of	
  Prac3ce	
  
100.00	
  
105.00	
  
110.00	
  
115.00	
  
120.00	
  
125.00	
  
130.00	
  
135.00	
  
0	
   5	
   10	
   15	
   20	
   25	
   30	
   35	
  
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Page 19
Miss	
  Every	
  Third	
  Day	
  of	
  Prac3ce	
  
98	
  
100	
  
102	
  
104	
  
106	
  
108	
  
110	
  
112	
  
114	
  
116	
  
118	
  
120	
  
0	
   5	
   10	
   15	
   20	
   25	
   30	
   35	
  
Stop	
  and	
  Process:	
  	
  
Enhancing	
  Crea3vity	
  With	
  Discipline	
  
•  Measure	
  crea3vity	
  goals	
  ‒	
  number	
  of	
  ideas	
  
generated,	
  number	
  of	
  experiments	
  conducted,	
  or	
  
other	
  meaningful	
  metric	
  
•  How	
  can	
  you	
  prac3ce	
  ac3vi3es	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  goal?	
  
For	
  example,	
  for	
  at	
  least	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  next	
  three	
  Board	
  
decisions,	
  consider	
  mutually	
  exclusive	
  alterna3ves	
  
with	
  “construc3ve	
  conten3on.”	
  	
  	
  
•  What	
  is	
  the	
  recovery	
  plan	
  if	
  or	
  when	
  you	
  miss	
  goals?	
  
COLLABORATION	
  
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Page 20
Some	
  Prac3cal	
  Steps	
  	
  
for	
  Crea3ve	
  Collabora3on	
  
•  	
  Splizng	
  the	
  cake	
  
•  	
  “Yes,	
  …,	
  and?”	
  
•  Challenging	
  the	
  illusion	
  of	
  collabora3on	
  
in	
  the	
  classroom	
  
EXPERIMENTATION	
  
Encouraging	
  Experimenta3on	
  
•  If	
  you	
  already	
  know	
  the	
  answer,	
  then	
  it’s	
  
not	
  an	
  experiment.	
  
•  Disconfirming	
  hypotheses	
  is	
  as	
  important
—ofen	
  more	
  important	
  —than	
  
confirming	
  hypotheses.	
  
	
  
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Page 21
•  	
  Experiment	
  with	
  games:	
  
o 	
  Rock,	
  paper,	
  scissors	
  …	
  water	
  
o  Replace	
  the	
  Monopoly	
  B&O	
  Railroad	
  
with	
  the	
  TGV.	
  
•  Experiment	
  with	
  media	
  ‒	
  every	
  
adver3sing	
  and	
  poli3cal	
  claim	
  is	
  a	
  
hypothesis	
  to	
  be	
  tested.	
  
Tenacity	
  
Assessing	
  Tenacity	
  
•  How	
  has	
  your	
  governing	
  board	
  agenda	
  
changed	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  20	
  years?	
  
•  What	
  is	
  the	
  ra3o	
  of	
  board-­‐	
  and	
  cabinet-­‐
level	
  3me	
  from	
  presenta3ons	
  to	
  
delibera3on?	
  	
  How	
  has	
  that	
  ra3o	
  
changed?	
  
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Page 22
•  How	
  have	
  “class	
  rules”	
  changed	
  in	
  the	
  
last	
  20	
  years?	
  
•  How	
  does	
  your	
  evalua3on	
  system	
  
reward	
  tenacity	
  and	
  perseverance	
  in	
  the	
  
face	
  of	
  failure?	
  
•  What	
  happened	
  with	
  a	
  recent	
  failure	
  in	
  
your	
  school—was	
  it	
  rewarded	
  or	
  
punished?	
  
Encouraging	
  Crea3ve	
  Tenacity	
  
•  Culture	
  of	
  mul3ple	
  akempts	
  before	
  a	
  final	
  
product	
  is	
  accepted	
  
•  Require	
  construc3ve	
  conten3on,	
  debate,	
  and	
  
dissent.	
  
•  Ban	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  average	
  for	
  evalua3ng	
  
students,	
  teachers,	
  and	
  administrators.	
  
•  	
  Celebrate	
  the	
  right	
  kind	
  of	
  failure.	
  
Guaranteed	
  Ways	
  to	
  Ensure	
  Zero	
  Crea3ve	
  
Opportuni3es	
  for	
  Students	
  
•  Have	
  them	
  drop	
  out	
  of	
  school	
  because	
  they	
  
lack	
  sufficient	
  literacy	
  skills	
  to	
  survive	
  high	
  
school.	
  
•  Have	
  them	
  repeat	
  courses,	
  so	
  that	
  they	
  have	
  
no	
  room	
  in	
  their	
  schedules	
  for	
  visual	
  and	
  
performing	
  arts.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 23
How	
  We	
  Discourage	
  Crea3vity	
  Among	
  
Teachers	
  
•  	
  Discourage	
  taking	
  risks	
  and	
  failure.	
  
•  	
  Punish	
  feedback	
  and	
  dissent.	
  
•  Use	
  the	
  “average”	
  in	
  mul3ple	
  teacher	
  
observa3ons.	
  
How	
  We	
  Discourage	
  Crea3vity	
  Among	
  
Leaders	
  
•  Annual	
  (or	
  end	
  of	
  contract)	
  performance	
  
reviews	
  
•  Strategic	
  plans	
  that	
  elevate	
  execu3on	
  
over	
  crea3vity	
  
•  	
  Micromanagement	
  
•  	
  Unclear	
  job	
  descrip3ons	
  
How	
  We	
  Discourage	
  Crea3vity	
  Among	
  
Policy	
  Makers	
  and	
  Board	
  Members	
  
•  	
  Standardized	
  agendas	
  
•  One	
  administra3ve	
  recommenda3on	
  
submiked	
  for	
  up-­‐or-­‐down	
  votes	
  
•  A	
  culture	
  of	
  congeniality	
  over	
  discussion	
  and	
  
debate	
  
•  Discussion	
  and	
  debate	
  is	
  more	
  than	
  cri3cism	
  
and	
  contradic3on.	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 24
You	
  cannot	
  expect	
  cri3cal	
  thinking	
  in	
  
the	
  classroom	
  or	
  faculty	
  room	
  if	
  there	
  
is	
  not	
  cri3cal	
  thinking	
  in	
  the	
  board	
  
room.	
  
The	
  Seven	
  Virtues	
  of	
  Crea2vity	
  
CURIOSITY	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 25
VERSATILITY	
  
DISCIPLINE	
  
COLLABORATION	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 26
EXPERIMENTATION	
  
TENACITY	
  
Synthesis	
  
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Page 27
I	
  Used	
  to	
  Think	
  …	
  and	
  
Now	
  I	
  Think	
  ….	
  	
  
For	
  a	
  complete	
  set	
  of	
  crea3vity	
  
resources,	
  please	
  email:	
  	
  	
  
Douglas.Reeves@Crea-veLeadership.net	
  
Crea-ve	
  Leadership	
  Solu-ons	
  
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 28
Creativity, Risk, the Classroom, and the Economy:
Three Ideas to Get Creativity Back on Track
Douglas Reeves, PhD
Thanks to Ken Robinson’s work (most recently, Finding Your Element: How to Discover Your Talents
and Passions and Transform Your Life, 2013) and 30.5 million YouTube hits for his presentation “How
Schools Kill Creativity,” many educators have heard the argument that creativity can be nurtured or
destroyed, particularly based on the willingness of people to take risks and learn from failure. The ways
in which we evaluate students, teachers, and administrators actively discourage risk-taking and hence
reduce the opportunity for creative output. I find relentless teacher bashing, cheap laugh lines, and broad
generalizations in the video a bit tiresome. Moreover, encouraging students and teachers to be more
creative is unhelpful without some very specific support.
Nevertheless, I must take note of recent evidence that supports Robinson’s basic thesis—that creativity
among young people is declining. This downward trend was well documented by Professor Kyung Hee
Kim of the College of William and Mary after she examined data from more than 300,000 students over
twenty years. Most recently, this trend was directly reflected in a stark reduction in the entrepreneurial
ambitions of people under thirty. Ruth Simon and Caelainn Barr reported in The Wall Street Journal on
January 2, 2015, that “The share of people under age 30 who own private businesses has reached a 24-
year low, according to new data, underscoring financial challenges and a low tolerance for risk among
young Americans.”
It’s not entirely clear that schools are to blame for this. Rather, one must recognize that the shock of the
biggest economic decline since the Great Depression caused today’s students and recent graduates to
witness their parents’ retirement funds lose half their value in 2008–2009, with many families occupying
homes that have lost significant value. While the economy surely has improved since then, with
unemployment at the lowest levels in more than a decade, the economic crisis left an indelible mark on a
generation and probably reduced its tolerance for risk and failure—essential ingredients in creativity and
entrepreneurship.
So, what do we do now to restore an environment of appropriate risk-taking and creativity in schools
and among young entrepreneurs? First, actively encourage “learning failures” in which teachers and
students experiment with new ideas, such as innovative student engagement practices and alternative
grading policies. “What do we do if an experiment fails?” a client asked me recently. The answer is that
unexpected results are not failures if those results are shared widely and used for continuous
improvement. Failure comes from concealing results and penalizing risk taking. One method for
promoting “learning failures” is the instructional science fair (see Reframing Teacher Leadership,
ASCD, 2008, for examples). Teams of teachers present simple three-panel displays that show the
challenge, the intervention, and the results.
Second, celebrate disciplinary learning. Too much of the rhetoric surrounding creativity creates a divide
between disciplinary learning (the proverbial box) and creativity (outside the box). But scholars,
including R. Keith Sawyer (Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation, 2nd ed., 2012—
one of the most comprehensive summaries of creativity research since the groundbreaking work of
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Page 29
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) and Howard Gardner note that exceptional degrees of creativity can take
place within the boundaries of academic disciplines. Indeed, math, science, history, and engineering are
fields that have clear rules, but also celebrate creative breakthroughs. They do not belong at the opposite
end of the creative continuum from music, art, and literature.
Third, require collaboration—both modeling by teachers and active practice by students. The words
“require” and “creativity” rarely appear in the same sentence. Consider the idea that creativity is not a
mysterious gift of the muses but a skill, like dancing and playing the piano. Both include elements of
artistic interpretation, but also include disciplinary fundamentals of steps and notes. Similarly, an
essential fundamental for creativity is collaboration. The “lone genius” myth has been widely dispelled,
but we have failed to replace it with a conscientious effort to help students learn to collaborate. Small
wonder, as students rarely have the opportunity to observe collaboration among their teachers and
administrators. In a recent Marshall Memo summary (www.MarshallMemo.com), Nancy Frey and
Douglas Fisher, writing in the January 2015 issue of Principal Leadership, quoted a high school student
as saying, “I feel like my teachers don’t ever talk to each other. Do they even know what I do when I’m
not right in front of them?” It’s a fair question, and one that deserves an answer from every educator and
administrator who values collaboration and creativity among students. If we expect students to
collaborate effectively, then we must require it, practice it, assess it, and systematically improve the
collaborative efforts of students and adults.
It won’t take another thirty million YouTube hits to convince us that creativity and risk taking are
important. The hard part is putting specific ideas into action. Stay tuned for more of these ideas in the
weeks ahead on the ChangeLeaders.com blog.
---------
Douglas Reeves, PhD, is the author of more than thirty books and eighty articles on education and
leadership effectiveness. He was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to
education and received the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development
Council (now Learning Forward). He can be reached at Dreeves@ChangeLeaders.com or at
(781) 710-9633. He is a founding partner of Creative Leadership Solutions.
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
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Page 30
Creativity and Assessments: Mortal Enemies or Potential Allies?
Douglas Reeves, PhD
Professor Yong Zhao’s latest shot across the bow, Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon: Why China Has
the Best (and Worst) Education System in the World (Jossey-Bass, 2014) received a rave review from
Professor Diane Ravitch in The New York Review of Books and a laudatory blog post from creativity
expert and author R. Keith Sawyer. These are three people I respect and admire, even if I don’t always
agree with them. When we met a few months ago in Minnesota, I asked Professor Young Zhao, “Do you
mean that even literacy should not be a priority?” His response was emphatic: “What if a student prefers
music or athletics—who are we to say that literacy is more valuable?” Then I asked, “But what about
students in the inner city who might lose future opportunities if we fail to have literacy standards and
assessments?” His riposte was, “You don’t want to make the rest of the nation like Detroit; you want to
make Detroit like the best schools in the nation.” The twin evils of standards and assessments, he claims,
are the mortal enemies of creativity. Ravitch, well known for her attacks on the corporate testing
complex that has benefitted economically from state-mandated testing, and Sawyer, a thoughtful
advocate of creativity, echo Yong Zhao’s position.
I believe that the truth about creativity, standards, and assessment is a bit more nuanced. First,
distinguished creativity advocates such as Howard Gardner and Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi have
documented impressively the connection between creativity and discipline. As Gardner said in Five
Minds for the Future (Harvard Business Review Press, 2009): “Creation is unlikely to emerge in the
absence of some disciplinary mastery and, perhaps, some capacity to synthesize; it's not possible to
think outside the box unless you have a box.” Grant Wiggins’ article in wordpress.com addresses the
question directly: “On Assessing for Creativity: Yes You Can, and Yes You Should.”
Second, creativity is not merely loosening the chains of external authority, but the result of trial,
evaluation, error, and resilience. Creative geniuses—from the Ming Dynasty to Michelangelo to Mozart
to Mark Twain—have thrived in an environment in which their work was judged, often mercilessly, and
often discarded. When we only study the greatest work of the greatest masters, we lose sight of the fact
that many great artists discarded most of their work. If we aspire to help our students be more creative,
we would do well to have them study not only the greatest works of the greatest masters, but also the
failures of the masters. The execrable writing of some of Twain’s books are preserved, but most of the
failures of other great artists are lost to history. Half of the original manuscripts of Bach’s cantatas were
used to wrap bacon in a butcher shop, so convinced was he that they had less value as musical
masterpieces than pork preservatives.
Third, almost all creative people must have literacy skills in order for the artists and their art to survive.
If our societies truly valued creativity, then we would subsidize artists, much as the Medici’s did in
Florence, the United States did during the Great Depression, and the McArthur Foundation does today.
But the reality for the vast majority of working artists is that they must work at least part of the time
earning a living in order to engage in their creative pursuits. If we fail to give our creative artists the
survival skills necessary to put food on the table and pay the rent, then we will have failed as educators
and advocates for creativity. Tomorrow’s great creative artists depend on today’s educators—not just
those in the arts, but educators who teach them to read, communicate, and collaborate.
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Page 31
Let’s replace some of the rhetorical heat about the worst practices in standards and assessment with
some light, acknowledging that the antidote to bad practice and policy is not the absence of leadership
for creativity, but a dedication by leaders and educators to establishing creative and collaborative
learning environments.
---------
Douglas Reeves, PhD, is the author of more than thirty books and eighty articles on education and
leadership effectiveness. He was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to
education and received the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development
Council (now Learning Forward). He can be reached at Dreeves@ChangeLeaders.com or at
(781) 710-9633. He is a founding partner of Creative Leadership Solutions.
© 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions
All rights reserved. Copy only with permission.
Page 32

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Presentetion Creativity

  • 1. Leading for Innovation and Creativity Dr. Douglas Reeves Creative Leadership Solutions Dr. Douglas Reeves is the founder of Creative Leadership Solutions. He has worked with education, business, nonprofit, and government organizations throughout the world. The author of more than 30 books and more than 80 articles on leadership and organizational effectiveness, he has twice been named to the Harvard University Distinguished Authors Series. Dr. Reeves was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to education. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Association of Secondary School Principals, the Parent’s Choice Award for his writing for children and parents, and the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development Council. His keynotes speeches have reached live audiences of more than 8,000 people and many times that size through television and internet broadcasts. His presentations are highly interactive, with audience members providing live Tweets, Texts, and E-mails throughout the presentation. Reeves also provides proprietary research and assessment projects for clients, assessing organizational climate, communication, and the “implementation gap” – the difference between organizational strategies and reality. In addition, he works with leadership teams and provides confidential one-to-one executive coaching. Dr. Reeves can be reached at Douglas.Reeves@CreativeLeadership.net or 1.781.710 9633. He lives with his wife and family in Boston, Massachusetts. © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 1
  • 2. Leading  for  Crea-vity       Douglas  Reeves,  PhD   Crea-veLeadership.net   Douglas.Reeves@Crea-veLeadership.net   @DouglasReeves   (781)  710-­‐9633     Fundamental  Research  Findings   •  Crea3vity  is  essen3al  for  society  and  the   planet   •  Crea3vity  is  valued  by  businesses,   schools,  and  governments   •   Unfortunately,  …   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 2
  • 3. Enormous  Gap  Between     Inten3ons  and  Reality   Student  grading  systems  deliberately   undermine  the  essen3als  of  crea3vity:  trial,   error,  feedback,  and  improvement.     The  “average”  punishes  every   experimental  error.       Teacher  evalua3on  systems  undermine   experimental  approaches  to  teaching,   learning,  and  engagement  because  they   punish  failure.       Enormous  Gap  Between     Inten3ons  and  Reality   Crea3vity  Is  Systema3cally  Devalued   The  most  crea3ve  students  were  the  least   popular  with  students  and  teachers;  the   least  crea3ve  students  were  the  most   popular.     (Research  results  from  Union  College  and  Skidmore  College   study  of  Albany,  NY     elementary  school  teachers,  2012)   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 3
  • 4. Crea3vity  is  some3mes  associated  with   anxiety,  an3-­‐social  behavior,  and   substance  abuse.     1.  Personal  beliefs   2.  Personal  experiences   3.  Collec3ve  experiences   4.  Systema3c  comparisons   5.  Preponderance  of  evidence   Levels  of  Evidence   More  Bad  News   •  Emula3ng  crea3vity  (such  as  Google’s   20%  of  free  3me)  is  incredibly  difficult   when  people  already  have  full-­‐3me   jobs.       •  Evalua3on  systems  punish  the  errors   that  are  an  inherent  part  of  crea3vity   and  risk  taking.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 4
  • 5. How  to  Assess  Crea3vity?   •  Torrance  Tests  of  Crea3ve  Thinking  –  the  most   widely  used  crea3vity  test  in  the  world   •   40  languages   •  Systema3c  assessment  of  validity  –  the   rela3onship    between  student  scores  and  later   adult  crea3ve  produc3on,  over  four  decades   Crea3vity  Is  Declining  for  Individuals   •  Crea3vity  among  students  has  declined   significantly  in  the  past  20  years.   •  The  biggest  decline  is  in  “crea3ve  elabora3on”   –  the  ability  to  develop  and  elaborate  on  ideas   with  detailed  and  reflec3ve  thinking.   (Kyung  Hee  Kim,  College  of  William  and  Mary,  afer   analysis  of  nearly  300,000  American  adults  and   children  based  on  the  Torrance  Tests  of  Crea3ng   Thinking  (TTCT),  October  2010.)   Crea3vity  Is  Declining  for  Organiza3ons   •  Fewer  than  half  of  companies  surveyed  said   their  corporate  culture  robustly  supports  their   innova3on  strategy.   •  But  most  organiza3ons  make  decisions  based   on  avoiding  mistakes  rather  than  embracing   risk  and  innova3on.   (Booz  &  Co.,  Global  Innova3on  1000,   InnoCen3ve,  2013)   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 5
  • 6. What’s  New  for  2015?      The  Seven  Virtues  Of  Crea2vity   •  “Crea3vity  is  not  just  the  way  that  the  great   geniuses  of  the  past  have  used  to  enrich   and  give  meaning  to  our  culture,  but  it  is  an   obliga3on  we  all  have  to  enrich  and  give   meaning  to  our  own  lives  and  the  lives  of   our  community.”       —Reeves  &  Reeves,  The  Seven  Virtues  of  Crea2vity     (Solu3on  Tree,  2015)   A  Working  Defini3on  of  Crea2vity   •  The  process  of  experimenta-on,   evalua-on,  and  follow  through,  which   leads  to  a  significant  discovery,  insight,   or  contribu-on   •  Note  what  it  doesn’t  say:  original,  novel,   superstar,  ….     © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 6
  • 7. The  False  Dichotomy  Between     “Big  C”  and  “Likle  c  ”  Crea3vity   Big  C:   –  The  creator  as   rock  star,  or  at   least  a  Nobel   Prize  winner   –  Social,  ar3s3c,  or   scien3fic   recogni3on   LiNle  c:   –  Insights  that  are   func3onal,  ofen   based  on  previous   major  insights   Assessing  Crea3vity  Assessments   •  100+  crea3vity  assessments,  including  K–12   and  college,  evaluated  on  8-­‐dimension  scale,   with  four  points  on  each,  for  >3,200  data   points   •   >95%  inter-­‐rater  reliability   •  Maximum  score  of  32  (Level  4  on  all  eight   dimensions)   •   The  results  …   Dimensions  of  Crea3vity     Assessment  ‒  %  Proficient  +   •   Research  basis  –  42%   •   Mul3disciplinary  perspec3ve  –  49%   •   Source  material  –  34%   •   Clarity  of  guidelines  –  52%   •   Product  –  17%   •   Process  –  41%   •   Collabora3on  –  9%     •   Prac3ce  and  error  –  20%     © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 7
  • 8. Dimensions  of  Crea3vity     Assessment  ‒  Exemplary   •   Research  basis  –  0   •   Mul3disciplinary  perspec3ve  –  9   •   Source  material  –  2   •   Clarity  of  guidelines  –  3   •   Product  –  8   •   Process  –  3   •   Collabora3on  –  0   •   Prac3ce  and  error  –  0   Unpacking  the  Dimensions   of  Crea3vity   Applying  the  Research   Workshop  on  “Assessing  Crea3vity”   applies  the  meta-­‐rubric  used  in  today’s   research  to  three  anonymous  crea3vity   rubrics.  You  are  welcome  to  apply  this   meta-­‐rubric  to  crea3vity  rubrics  within   your  schools.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 8
  • 9. Overall  Rubric  Scores   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   25-­‐32   17-­‐24    9-­‐16      1-­‐9   Elementary   Secondary   K-­‐12   Strengths  and  Weaknesses   Strengths:   •  Mul3disciplinary   orienta3on   •  Product   requirements   Weaknesses:   •   Research  basis   •   Collabora3on   •   Trial  and  error   A  Few  Research  Footnotes   •  Posi3vely  biased  sample  ‒  These  were  publicly  available  and   willingly  shared.  Don’t  be  disappointed  if  your  ini3al  results   are  lower.   •  Don’t  try  this  alone.  Checks  for  inter-­‐rater  reliability  are   essen3al  for  meaningful  results.   •  Use  this  meta-­‐rubric  as  a  star3ng  point—not  the  ending   point.  When  there  is  disagreement  in  applying  a  rubric,  the   rule  is,  “The  enemy  is  not  one  another;  the  enemy  is   ambiguity.”  Rework  the  rubric  un3l  you  achieve  80%   agreement.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 9
  • 10. Everybody  Knows  Crea3vity     Is  Important,  but  …     •   We’ll  get  to  it  afer  standardized  tests  are  done.   •  It’s  really  the  responsibility  of  the  art  and  music  teachers.   •  Crea2vity  is  just  a  code  word  for  poor  discipline,  and  if   you  ask  me,  kids  need  a  lot  more  discipline  than  they   need  crea3vity.       •  I’ll  wait  un3l  I  see  the  evidence  that  crea3vity  helps   achievement.   •   Great,  just  what  we  need—one  more  ini3a3ve.   A  Working  Defini3on  of  Crea2vity   •  The  process  of  experimenta-on,   evalua-on,  and  follow  through,  which   leads  to  a  significant  discovery,  insight,  or   contribu-on   •  Note  what  it  doesn’t  say:  original,  novel,   superstar  ….     Big  Ideas   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 10
  • 11. Crea3vity  can  and  must  be   assessed.   “Crea3on  is  unlikely  to  emerge  in  the  absence  of   some  disciplinary  mastery  and,  perhaps,  some   capacity  to  synthesize;       it's  not  possible  to  think   outside  the  box  unless  you   have  a  box.”       —Howard  Gardner,     Five  Minds  for  the  Future,  2007   Crea3vity  is  some3mes  associated  with   anxiety,  an3-­‐social  behavior,  and   substance  abuse.     © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 11
  • 12. The  “good  girl”  effect—we  effec3vely   undermine  the  crea3vity  of  half  the  planet.     (Reeves  &  Reeves,  The  Seven  Virtues     of  Crea2vity,  2015)   Prac3cal  Guidelines     for  School  Leaders   Time  for  Assessment  and   Scoring   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 12
  • 13. Decision  Discipline  –  Mutually   Exclusive  Alterna3ves   Non-­‐Linear  Gains  –  Beware  of   the  “Likle  Bit  Beker”  Impulse.   Ban  the  Average  –     for  Students  and  Teachers.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 13
  • 14. Encourage  Risk  –  “Evalua3on-­‐ Free  Zones”  for  50%  of   Observa3ons   Costs  and  Benefits  of  Change   Q1.     Change   Costs   Q4.     Change   Benefits   Q2.      No   Change     Costs   Q3.      No   Change   Benefits   CURIOSITY   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 14
  • 15. Suppor3ng  Curiosity   •  Confidence  in  the  value  of  failure,  including  public   displays  of  “I  used  to  think  …,  and  now  I  think  ….   (Elmore,  2011)   •  Replacing  supreme  self-­‐regard  with  rigorous  self-­‐ examina3on   •   Social  media  as  an  echo  chamber   •   Ques3on  assump3ons   •   Making  guesses  before  heading  to  Google   •   Being  aware  of  punishing  curiosity   The  “Good  Girl”  Effect  –     Na3onal  Honor  Society  Membership   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Women   Men   Kristof,  “The  Boys  Have  Fallen  Behind,”     New  York  Times,  March  27,  2010)   From  2014  Interviews     With  Successful  Girls  and  Women   “There  were  many  2mes  I  knew  that  a   colleague  was  wrong,  but  I  didn’t  speak  up   because  it  was  inappropriate  to  challenge   someone  else.”   —Helen,  an  Ivy  League  graduate     (Reeves  &  Reeves,  The  Seven  Virtues  of  Crea2vity     (Solu3on  Tree,  2015)   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 15
  • 16. “The  playground  hasn’t  been  updated  for  six   years  and  some  of  it  is  dangerous.  I’d  like  to   write  a  story  for  the  school  newspaper,  but  I   don’t  want  to  cri2cize  the  teachers  or  school   leaders.”   —Jessica,  an  excep3onal  student   (Reeves  &  Reeves,  The  Seven  Virtues  of  Crea2vity     (Solu3on  Tree,  2015)   “Being  a  good  girl  got  me  good  grades  in  high   school  and  college,  but  when  I  went  to  an  elite   MBA  program  as  one  of  two  women  in  the   class,  it  took  more  than  a  semester  for  me  to   have  elbows  as  sharp  as  the  guys.”   (Reeves  &  Reeves,  The  Seven  Virtues  of  Crea2vity     (Solu3on  Tree,  2015)   VERSATILITY   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 16
  • 17. Versa3lity:  Applying  New  Perspec3ves   •   The  “ab  ini2o”  fallacy   •  Unless  you  observed  the  Big  Bang,  stop   claiming  originality.   •  Examples:  From  plane  geometry  to   mul3dimensional  sta3s3cal  modeling   Building  Blocks  Vs.  Plagiarism   •   Same  tools,  different  applica3on   •   Illegal  copying  requires  instruc3on  and   reassessment  ‒     o   First,  let  me  break  into  your  locker  and  steal   your  stuff.   o   Second,  write  another  paper  and  credit   everyone  from  whom  you  stole.   DISCIPLINE   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 17
  • 18. There  is  no  contradic3on   between  crea3vity  and   academic  discipline.   •  In  fact,  disciplinary  knowledge  is  essen3al  for   crea3vity.   “Crea3on  is  unlikely  to  emerge  in  the   absence  of  some  disciplinary  mastery  and,   perhaps,  some  capacity  to  synthesize;  it's   not  possible  to  think  outside  the  box   unless  you  have  a  box.”     —Howard  Gardner,     Five  Minds  for  the  Future,  2007   The  Elements  of  Discipline   •   Focus   •   “Beginner’s  mind”   •   Deliberate  prac3ce   •   Incremental  prac3ce   •   Recording  progress   o  From  the  basketball  court  to  cogni3ve   behavioral  therapy   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 18
  • 19. Professional  Prac3ce  and  the   “What  the  Heck?”  Effect   •  “If  I  miss  a  prac2ce  day,  then  I  might  as   well  give  up.”   •  But  what  does  the  evidence  say?   Performance  With  Daily  Prac3ce   100   105   110   115   120   125   130   135   140   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   Miss  Two  Days  of  Prac3ce   100.00   105.00   110.00   115.00   120.00   125.00   130.00   135.00   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 19
  • 20. Miss  Every  Third  Day  of  Prac3ce   98   100   102   104   106   108   110   112   114   116   118   120   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   Stop  and  Process:     Enhancing  Crea3vity  With  Discipline   •  Measure  crea3vity  goals  ‒  number  of  ideas   generated,  number  of  experiments  conducted,  or   other  meaningful  metric   •  How  can  you  prac3ce  ac3vi3es  related  to  the  goal?   For  example,  for  at  least  one  of  the  next  three  Board   decisions,  consider  mutually  exclusive  alterna3ves   with  “construc3ve  conten3on.”       •  What  is  the  recovery  plan  if  or  when  you  miss  goals?   COLLABORATION   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 20
  • 21. Some  Prac3cal  Steps     for  Crea3ve  Collabora3on   •   Splizng  the  cake   •   “Yes,  …,  and?”   •  Challenging  the  illusion  of  collabora3on   in  the  classroom   EXPERIMENTATION   Encouraging  Experimenta3on   •  If  you  already  know  the  answer,  then  it’s   not  an  experiment.   •  Disconfirming  hypotheses  is  as  important —ofen  more  important  —than   confirming  hypotheses.     © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 21
  • 22. •   Experiment  with  games:   o   Rock,  paper,  scissors  …  water   o  Replace  the  Monopoly  B&O  Railroad   with  the  TGV.   •  Experiment  with  media  ‒  every   adver3sing  and  poli3cal  claim  is  a   hypothesis  to  be  tested.   Tenacity   Assessing  Tenacity   •  How  has  your  governing  board  agenda   changed  in  the  past  20  years?   •  What  is  the  ra3o  of  board-­‐  and  cabinet-­‐ level  3me  from  presenta3ons  to   delibera3on?    How  has  that  ra3o   changed?   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 22
  • 23. •  How  have  “class  rules”  changed  in  the   last  20  years?   •  How  does  your  evalua3on  system   reward  tenacity  and  perseverance  in  the   face  of  failure?   •  What  happened  with  a  recent  failure  in   your  school—was  it  rewarded  or   punished?   Encouraging  Crea3ve  Tenacity   •  Culture  of  mul3ple  akempts  before  a  final   product  is  accepted   •  Require  construc3ve  conten3on,  debate,  and   dissent.   •  Ban  the  use  of  the  average  for  evalua3ng   students,  teachers,  and  administrators.   •   Celebrate  the  right  kind  of  failure.   Guaranteed  Ways  to  Ensure  Zero  Crea3ve   Opportuni3es  for  Students   •  Have  them  drop  out  of  school  because  they   lack  sufficient  literacy  skills  to  survive  high   school.   •  Have  them  repeat  courses,  so  that  they  have   no  room  in  their  schedules  for  visual  and   performing  arts.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 23
  • 24. How  We  Discourage  Crea3vity  Among   Teachers   •   Discourage  taking  risks  and  failure.   •   Punish  feedback  and  dissent.   •  Use  the  “average”  in  mul3ple  teacher   observa3ons.   How  We  Discourage  Crea3vity  Among   Leaders   •  Annual  (or  end  of  contract)  performance   reviews   •  Strategic  plans  that  elevate  execu3on   over  crea3vity   •   Micromanagement   •   Unclear  job  descrip3ons   How  We  Discourage  Crea3vity  Among   Policy  Makers  and  Board  Members   •   Standardized  agendas   •  One  administra3ve  recommenda3on   submiked  for  up-­‐or-­‐down  votes   •  A  culture  of  congeniality  over  discussion  and   debate   •  Discussion  and  debate  is  more  than  cri3cism   and  contradic3on.   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 24
  • 25. You  cannot  expect  cri3cal  thinking  in   the  classroom  or  faculty  room  if  there   is  not  cri3cal  thinking  in  the  board   room.   The  Seven  Virtues  of  Crea2vity   CURIOSITY   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 25
  • 26. VERSATILITY   DISCIPLINE   COLLABORATION   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 26
  • 27. EXPERIMENTATION   TENACITY   Synthesis   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 27
  • 28. I  Used  to  Think  …  and   Now  I  Think  ….     For  a  complete  set  of  crea3vity   resources,  please  email:       Douglas.Reeves@Crea-veLeadership.net   Crea-ve  Leadership  Solu-ons   © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 28
  • 29. Creativity, Risk, the Classroom, and the Economy: Three Ideas to Get Creativity Back on Track Douglas Reeves, PhD Thanks to Ken Robinson’s work (most recently, Finding Your Element: How to Discover Your Talents and Passions and Transform Your Life, 2013) and 30.5 million YouTube hits for his presentation “How Schools Kill Creativity,” many educators have heard the argument that creativity can be nurtured or destroyed, particularly based on the willingness of people to take risks and learn from failure. The ways in which we evaluate students, teachers, and administrators actively discourage risk-taking and hence reduce the opportunity for creative output. I find relentless teacher bashing, cheap laugh lines, and broad generalizations in the video a bit tiresome. Moreover, encouraging students and teachers to be more creative is unhelpful without some very specific support. Nevertheless, I must take note of recent evidence that supports Robinson’s basic thesis—that creativity among young people is declining. This downward trend was well documented by Professor Kyung Hee Kim of the College of William and Mary after she examined data from more than 300,000 students over twenty years. Most recently, this trend was directly reflected in a stark reduction in the entrepreneurial ambitions of people under thirty. Ruth Simon and Caelainn Barr reported in The Wall Street Journal on January 2, 2015, that “The share of people under age 30 who own private businesses has reached a 24- year low, according to new data, underscoring financial challenges and a low tolerance for risk among young Americans.” It’s not entirely clear that schools are to blame for this. Rather, one must recognize that the shock of the biggest economic decline since the Great Depression caused today’s students and recent graduates to witness their parents’ retirement funds lose half their value in 2008–2009, with many families occupying homes that have lost significant value. While the economy surely has improved since then, with unemployment at the lowest levels in more than a decade, the economic crisis left an indelible mark on a generation and probably reduced its tolerance for risk and failure—essential ingredients in creativity and entrepreneurship. So, what do we do now to restore an environment of appropriate risk-taking and creativity in schools and among young entrepreneurs? First, actively encourage “learning failures” in which teachers and students experiment with new ideas, such as innovative student engagement practices and alternative grading policies. “What do we do if an experiment fails?” a client asked me recently. The answer is that unexpected results are not failures if those results are shared widely and used for continuous improvement. Failure comes from concealing results and penalizing risk taking. One method for promoting “learning failures” is the instructional science fair (see Reframing Teacher Leadership, ASCD, 2008, for examples). Teams of teachers present simple three-panel displays that show the challenge, the intervention, and the results. Second, celebrate disciplinary learning. Too much of the rhetoric surrounding creativity creates a divide between disciplinary learning (the proverbial box) and creativity (outside the box). But scholars, including R. Keith Sawyer (Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation, 2nd ed., 2012— one of the most comprehensive summaries of creativity research since the groundbreaking work of © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 29
  • 30. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) and Howard Gardner note that exceptional degrees of creativity can take place within the boundaries of academic disciplines. Indeed, math, science, history, and engineering are fields that have clear rules, but also celebrate creative breakthroughs. They do not belong at the opposite end of the creative continuum from music, art, and literature. Third, require collaboration—both modeling by teachers and active practice by students. The words “require” and “creativity” rarely appear in the same sentence. Consider the idea that creativity is not a mysterious gift of the muses but a skill, like dancing and playing the piano. Both include elements of artistic interpretation, but also include disciplinary fundamentals of steps and notes. Similarly, an essential fundamental for creativity is collaboration. The “lone genius” myth has been widely dispelled, but we have failed to replace it with a conscientious effort to help students learn to collaborate. Small wonder, as students rarely have the opportunity to observe collaboration among their teachers and administrators. In a recent Marshall Memo summary (www.MarshallMemo.com), Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher, writing in the January 2015 issue of Principal Leadership, quoted a high school student as saying, “I feel like my teachers don’t ever talk to each other. Do they even know what I do when I’m not right in front of them?” It’s a fair question, and one that deserves an answer from every educator and administrator who values collaboration and creativity among students. If we expect students to collaborate effectively, then we must require it, practice it, assess it, and systematically improve the collaborative efforts of students and adults. It won’t take another thirty million YouTube hits to convince us that creativity and risk taking are important. The hard part is putting specific ideas into action. Stay tuned for more of these ideas in the weeks ahead on the ChangeLeaders.com blog. --------- Douglas Reeves, PhD, is the author of more than thirty books and eighty articles on education and leadership effectiveness. He was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to education and received the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development Council (now Learning Forward). He can be reached at Dreeves@ChangeLeaders.com or at (781) 710-9633. He is a founding partner of Creative Leadership Solutions. © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 30
  • 31. Creativity and Assessments: Mortal Enemies or Potential Allies? Douglas Reeves, PhD Professor Yong Zhao’s latest shot across the bow, Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon: Why China Has the Best (and Worst) Education System in the World (Jossey-Bass, 2014) received a rave review from Professor Diane Ravitch in The New York Review of Books and a laudatory blog post from creativity expert and author R. Keith Sawyer. These are three people I respect and admire, even if I don’t always agree with them. When we met a few months ago in Minnesota, I asked Professor Young Zhao, “Do you mean that even literacy should not be a priority?” His response was emphatic: “What if a student prefers music or athletics—who are we to say that literacy is more valuable?” Then I asked, “But what about students in the inner city who might lose future opportunities if we fail to have literacy standards and assessments?” His riposte was, “You don’t want to make the rest of the nation like Detroit; you want to make Detroit like the best schools in the nation.” The twin evils of standards and assessments, he claims, are the mortal enemies of creativity. Ravitch, well known for her attacks on the corporate testing complex that has benefitted economically from state-mandated testing, and Sawyer, a thoughtful advocate of creativity, echo Yong Zhao’s position. I believe that the truth about creativity, standards, and assessment is a bit more nuanced. First, distinguished creativity advocates such as Howard Gardner and Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi have documented impressively the connection between creativity and discipline. As Gardner said in Five Minds for the Future (Harvard Business Review Press, 2009): “Creation is unlikely to emerge in the absence of some disciplinary mastery and, perhaps, some capacity to synthesize; it's not possible to think outside the box unless you have a box.” Grant Wiggins’ article in wordpress.com addresses the question directly: “On Assessing for Creativity: Yes You Can, and Yes You Should.” Second, creativity is not merely loosening the chains of external authority, but the result of trial, evaluation, error, and resilience. Creative geniuses—from the Ming Dynasty to Michelangelo to Mozart to Mark Twain—have thrived in an environment in which their work was judged, often mercilessly, and often discarded. When we only study the greatest work of the greatest masters, we lose sight of the fact that many great artists discarded most of their work. If we aspire to help our students be more creative, we would do well to have them study not only the greatest works of the greatest masters, but also the failures of the masters. The execrable writing of some of Twain’s books are preserved, but most of the failures of other great artists are lost to history. Half of the original manuscripts of Bach’s cantatas were used to wrap bacon in a butcher shop, so convinced was he that they had less value as musical masterpieces than pork preservatives. Third, almost all creative people must have literacy skills in order for the artists and their art to survive. If our societies truly valued creativity, then we would subsidize artists, much as the Medici’s did in Florence, the United States did during the Great Depression, and the McArthur Foundation does today. But the reality for the vast majority of working artists is that they must work at least part of the time earning a living in order to engage in their creative pursuits. If we fail to give our creative artists the survival skills necessary to put food on the table and pay the rent, then we will have failed as educators and advocates for creativity. Tomorrow’s great creative artists depend on today’s educators—not just those in the arts, but educators who teach them to read, communicate, and collaborate. © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 31
  • 32. Let’s replace some of the rhetorical heat about the worst practices in standards and assessment with some light, acknowledging that the antidote to bad practice and policy is not the absence of leadership for creativity, but a dedication by leaders and educators to establishing creative and collaborative learning environments. --------- Douglas Reeves, PhD, is the author of more than thirty books and eighty articles on education and leadership effectiveness. He was named the Brock International Laureate for his contributions to education and received the Contribution to the Field Award from the National Staff Development Council (now Learning Forward). He can be reached at Dreeves@ChangeLeaders.com or at (781) 710-9633. He is a founding partner of Creative Leadership Solutions. © 2015 by Creative Leadership Solutions All rights reserved. Copy only with permission. Page 32