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3rd Scottish Linked Data Interest Group workshop 
Linking Data… 
what about Know-How? 
Paolo Pareti 
PhD student at Edinbu...
Linked Data
Linked Data from Web Resources
Can the same be done for Know-How? 
?
What?
What is Know-How in this Context?
What is Know-How in this Context?
What is Know-How in this Context?
What is Know-How in this Context? 
Focus on Human Know-How: 
● instructions created by humans for humans 
● tasks where hu...
Some Important Properties 
of Human Know-How 
Human Know-how can be: 
● vague (different interpretations) 
● erroneous 
● ...
Some Important Properties 
of Human Know-How 
Human Know-how can be: 
● vague (different interpretations) 
● erroneous 
● ...
Why?
Why Human Know-How as Linked Data? 
machine 
understandable 
integration with 
other knowledge 
reusable 
open data 
bette...
Why Human Know-How as Linked Data? 
machine 
understandable 
integration with 
other knowledge 
reusable 
open data 
bette...
How?
How can Know-How be Represented? 
How to notify a client that the 
requested order has been dispatched?
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the 
order has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the 
order has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the 
order has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the 
order has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the order 
has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the order 
has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
Simple RDF vocabulary 
Linked Data 
P0 
P1 P2 P3 
S0 
S1 S2 S3 
:P0 :has_step :P1 . 
:P0 :has_step :P2 . 
:P0 :has_step :P...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the order 
has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
How can it be represented? 
Procedure to notify a client that the order 
has been dispatched: 
1. Make a copy of the dispa...
Really?
Experiments and Results 
Is it possible to extract the Linked data representation of 
procedures and then link it with oth...
Knowledge Extraction 
Automatic knowledge extraction from semi-structured 
websites 
Results (from crawling the WikiHow an...
Knowledge Integration 
Two kinds of integration of know-how: 
● with existing Linked Data 
● with other know-how
Integration with existing Linked Data 
Extracted 
Know-How 
Dataset 
How to make a pancake 
requires 
2 eggs 
http://de.db...
Integration with other Know-How 
Extracted 
Know-How 
Dataset 
How to make a pancake 
has step 
break the eggs 
has method...
Integration Process… in a nutshell 
Extracted 
Know-How 
Dataset 
Links 
NLP 
Machine 
Learning
Know-How Integration: 
Results 
Community Integration* Automatic Integration 
Number of links 106,056 221,351 
Precision 7...
Know-How as Linked Data? 
● It is possible to represent know-how as Linked Data 
● Linked Data can be useful in the human ...
References: 
Pareti Paolo, Ewan Klein, and Adam Barker. "A semantic web of know-how: 
linked data for community-centric ta...
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Integrating Know-How in the Linked Data Cloud

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Presented at the Scottish Linked Data Interest Group workshop
https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/3rd-scottish-linked-data-interest-group-workshop-registration-9568925915

Abstract:
Know-how available on the Web, such as step-by-step instructions, is largely unstructured and isolated from other sources of online knowledge. To overcome these limitations, we propose extending to procedural knowledge the benefits that Linked Data has already brought to representing and retrieving declarative knowledge. We describe a framework for representing generic know-how as Linked Data and for automatically acquiring this representation from existing resources on the Web. This system also allows the automatic generation of links between different know-how resources, and between those resources and other online knowledge bases, such as DBpedia. We discuss the results of applying this framework to a real-world scenario and we show how it outperforms existing community-based integration efforts.

Published in: Data & Analytics
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Integrating Know-How in the Linked Data Cloud

  1. 1. 3rd Scottish Linked Data Interest Group workshop Linking Data… what about Know-How? Paolo Pareti PhD student at Edinburgh University 10 September 2014
  2. 2. Linked Data
  3. 3. Linked Data from Web Resources
  4. 4. Can the same be done for Know-How? ?
  5. 5. What?
  6. 6. What is Know-How in this Context?
  7. 7. What is Know-How in this Context?
  8. 8. What is Know-How in this Context?
  9. 9. What is Know-How in this Context? Focus on Human Know-How: ● instructions created by humans for humans ● tasks where humans are (so far) the main agents
  10. 10. Some Important Properties of Human Know-How Human Know-how can be: ● vague (different interpretations) ● erroneous ● missing (common sense is often assumed) ● distributed (related knowledge in different repositories) ● diverse (multiple approaches, possibly contradicting) ● evolving (knowledge changes, new knowledge is created)
  11. 11. Some Important Properties of Human Know-How Human Know-how can be: ● vague (different interpretations) ● erroneous ● missing (common sense is often assumed) ● distributed (related knowledge in different repositories) ● diverse (multiple approaches, possibly contradicting) ● evolving (knowledge changes, new knowledge is created)
  12. 12. Why?
  13. 13. Why Human Know-How as Linked Data? machine understandable integration with other knowledge reusable open data better search and discovery common sense task reasoning activity recognition automation software/robotic immediate benefits future benefits data knowledge
  14. 14. Why Human Know-How as Linked Data? machine understandable integration with other knowledge reusable open data better search and discovery common sense task reasoning activity recognition automation software/robotic immediate benefits future benefits data knowledge
  15. 15. How?
  16. 16. How can Know-How be Represented? How to notify a client that the requested order has been dispatched?
  17. 17. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address
  18. 18. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address Linked Data P0
  19. 19. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address Linked Data P0 P1 P2 P3
  20. 20. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address Linked Data P0 P1 P2 P3 ?
  21. 21. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address Linked Data P0 P1 P2 P3 How to send a receipt to the client: 1. Put the receipt in an A6 envelope 2. Write the client's delivery address 3. Send using a 1rst Class signed stamp S0 S1 S2 S3 ?
  22. 22. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address Linked Data P0 P1 P2 P3 How to send a receipt to the client: 1. Put the receipt in an A6 envelope 2. Write the client's delivery address 3. Send using a 1rst Class signed stamp S0 S1 S2 S3
  23. 23. Simple RDF vocabulary Linked Data P0 P1 P2 P3 S0 S1 S2 S3 :P0 :has_step :P1 . :P0 :has_step :P2 . :P0 :has_step :P3 . :P2 :has_method :S0 . :S0 :has_step :S1 . :S0 :has_step :S2 . :S0 :has_step :S3 .
  24. 24. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address How to send a receipt to the client: 1. Put the receipt in an A6 envelope 2. Write the client's delivery address 3. Send using a 1rst Class signed stamp How to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address
  25. 25. How can it be represented? Procedure to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address How to send a receipt to the client: 1. Put the receipt in an A6 envelope 2. Write the client's delivery address 3. Send using a 1rst Class signed stamp How to notify a client that the order has been dispatched: 1. Make a copy of the dispatch receipt 2. Send the receipt to the client a. Put the receipt in an A6 envelope b. Write the client's delivery address c. Send using a 1rst Class signed stamp 3. Send a confirmation email to the client's email address
  26. 26. Really?
  27. 27. Experiments and Results Is it possible to extract the Linked data representation of procedures and then link it with other related knowledge? 1. Knowledge Extraction 2. Knowledge Integration
  28. 28. Knowledge Extraction Automatic knowledge extraction from semi-structured websites Results (from crawling the WikiHow and Snapguide websites): ● 211,696 extracted procedures ● 2,609,236 extracted entities
  29. 29. Knowledge Integration Two kinds of integration of know-how: ● with existing Linked Data ● with other know-how
  30. 30. Integration with existing Linked Data Extracted Know-How Dataset How to make a pancake requires 2 eggs http://de.dbpedia.org/page/Egg is a
  31. 31. Integration with other Know-How Extracted Know-How Dataset How to make a pancake has step break the eggs has method How to break an egg
  32. 32. Integration Process… in a nutshell Extracted Know-How Dataset Links NLP Machine Learning
  33. 33. Know-How Integration: Results Community Integration* Automatic Integration Number of links 106,056 221,351 Precision 70.7% 87.3% Coverage 27.5% 50.4% Type of links HTML links RDF links *Links manually generated by the WikiHow community
  34. 34. Know-How as Linked Data? ● It is possible to represent know-how as Linked Data ● Linked Data can be useful in the human know-how domain for a large number of applications ● Experimental evidence has been provided in the use-case of links generation
  35. 35. References: Pareti Paolo, Ewan Klein, and Adam Barker. "A semantic web of know-how: linked data for community-centric tasks." Proceedings of the companion publication of the 23rd international conference on World wide web companion. International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2014. Pareti Paolo, Ryutaro Ichise, Benoit Testu, Ewan Klein, and Adam Barker “Integrating Know-How into the Linked Data Cloud” Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW 2014), 24 - 28 November 2014, Linköping, Sweden (forthcoming)

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