SUBMITTED BY : Pankaj Kunjwal
ROLL NO. : 100070520648
COLLEGE : BHSBIET
y Power Station (also referred to as
generating station or power plant) is an
industrial facility for the generation of
y Power plant is also used to refer to the
engine in ships, aircraft and other large
vehicles. Some prefer to use the term
energy center because it more
accurately describes what the plants
do, which is the conversion of other
forms of energy, like chemical
energy, gravitational potential energy
or heat energy into electrical energy.
y Power station and power plant are both
widely used, power station prevailing in
many Commonwealth countries and
especially in the United Kingdom
POWER GENERATION IN INDIA
y NTPC s core business is engineering, construction
and operation of power generating plants.
y Consultant in the power plant constructions and
power generation to companies in India and
y Installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through
its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955
MW) & 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW).
y NTPC Limited is the largest
thermal power generating
company of India.
y It was incorporated in the year
1975 to accelerate power
development in the country as a
wholly owned company of the
Government of India.
y At present, Government of India
holds 89.5% of the total equity
shares of the company .
y NTPC has emerged as a truly
national power company, with
power generating facilities in all
the major regions of the country.
COAL BASED(Owned by NTPC) STATE
1. Singrauli Uttar Pradesh 2,000
2. Korba Chhattisgarh 2,600
3. Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 2,600
4. Farakka West Bengal 2,100
5. Vindhyachal Madhya Pradesh 3,760
6. Rihand Uttar Pradesh 2,500
7. Kahalgaon Bihar 2,340
8. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 1,820
9. Talcher Kaniha Orissa 3,000
10. Feroze Gandhi, Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 1,050
11. Talcher Thermal Orissa 460
12. Simhadri Andhra Pradesh 2,000
13. Tanda Uttar Pradesh 440
14. Badarpur Delhi 705
15. Sipat Chhattisgarh 2,980
16. Mauda Maharashta 500
With 16 coal based power stations, NTPC is the largest thermal
power generating company in the country. The company has a
coal based installed capacity of 30,855 MW.
NTPC has played an extremely important role in turning around sub-optimally
performing stations. The phenomenal improvement in the performance of Badarpur,
Unchahar, Talcher and Tanda by NTPC make them our big success stories.
The expertise in R&M and performance turnaround was developed and built up by NTPC
with the operational turnaround of Badarpur TPS through scientifically engineered R&M
initiatives. The PLF of the power station improved from 31.94% at the time of the takeover
to 86.46% for the year 2007-08.
Badarpur (705 MW)
The Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Power Station was taken over by NTPC whereby the cash
strapped UPSEB was rescued by the turnaround expertise of NTPC.
The remarkable speed and extent of the turnaround achieved can be seen in the table.
Unchahar (420 MW)
An even more challenging turnaround story was being scripted at the OSEB's old
power plant at Talcher. Taken over in June 1995, the table indicates the dramatic
gains in the performance of the power plant as a result of NTPC’s expertise.
Talcher (460 MW)
Tanda Thermal Power Station was taken over by NTPC on the 15 January
2000.The PLF of the power station improved from 21.59% at the time of the
takeover to 91.66% for the year 2007-08.
Tanda (440 MW)
While NTPC bettered PPA commitments, from the viewpoint of capital
requirements, turning around such old units is a low cost, high and quick
return option. This unprecedented success helped the concerned SEBs and
the entire nation in terms of economy and power availability.
NTPC Environment Policy and
Environment Management System
y Environment Management, Occupational Health
and Safety Systems
y Pollution Control systems
y Cooling Tower
y Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management
y Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities
•A thermal power station is a
power plant in which the
prime mover is steam driven. Water
is heated, turns into steam and
spins a steam turbine which drives
an electrical generator.
•After it passes through the turbine,
the steam is condensed in a
condenser and recycled to where it
was heated; this is known as a
•The greatest variation in the
design of thermal power stations is
due to the different fuel sources
•Electric power plants typically use
three-phase electrical generators to
produce alternating current (AC)
electric power at a frequency of
50 Hz or 60 Hz
FUNTIONING OF BADARPUR PLANT
Precipitators and stack
Turbine and generator
Condensers and cooling
1. Cooling tower 10. Steam governor valve 19. Superheater
2. Cooling water pump 11. High pressure turbine 20. Forced draught fan
3. Transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater
4. Unit transformer (3-phase) 13. Feed heater 22. Air intake
5. Electric generator (3-phase) 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economizer
6. Low pressure turbine 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater
7. Boiler feed pump 16. Pulverized fuel mill 25. Precipitator
8. Condenser 17. Boiler drum 26. Induced draught fan
9. Intermediate pressure
18. Ash hopper 27. Chimney Stack
STEAM GENERATOR OR BOILER
Boiler is a rectangular furnace
about 50ft on a side and 130ft tall
which produces steam at high purity.
Pressure and temprature required
for the steam turbine that drives the
Pulverized coal is air-blown into
the furnace from fuel nozzels and it
rapidly burns ,forming a large
fireball at the center.
As the water in the boiler
circulates it absorbs heat and
changes into steam at 700F (370C)
The steam is then superheated to
1000f(540C) tp prepare it for the
The air and flue gas path eqipment
Forced draft fan
Induced draft fan
Fly ash collectors
Flue gas stack
Steam turbines are used in all of our
major coal fired power stations to drive
the generators ,which produce
The turbine normaly consists of several
stages with each stage consisitng of
stationary blade and a rotating balde.
Stationary blades convert the potential
energy of the steam to kinetic energy .
The rotating blades convert the kinetic
energy into forces ,caused by pressure
drop ,which results in the rotation of the
In badarpur plant (large power
stations),the steam turbines are split
int0three separate stages
the rotational speed is 3000 RPM for
indian system (50hz).
A 210MW TURBINE GENERATOR AT
BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION
N TURBINE DATA (badarpur)
Rated output of Turbine
Rated speed of turbine
Rated pressure of steam before
Stop valve rated live steam
Rated steam temperature after
reheat at inlet to receptor valve
Steam flow at valve wide open
Rated quantity of circulating water
1. For cooling water temperature
1.Reheated steam pressure at inlet
of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS
2.Steam flow required for 210 MW in
3.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP
turbine in mm of Hg
The basic function of a
generator is to convert
mechanical power deliverd
from the shaft of the
turbine, into electrical
The class of generator
under consideration in
badarpur plant is steam
called turbo generators.
At Badarpur Thermal
Power Station 3000 RPM,
50 hz generators are used
of capactities 210 MW and
•Capacity - 117500 KVA
•Voltage - 10500V
•Speed - 3000 rpm
•Hydrogen - 2.5 Kg/cm2
•Power factor - 0.85 (lagging)
•Stator current - 6475 A
•Frequency - 50 Hz
•Stator winding connection - 3
Rating of 95 MW Generator
•Capacity - 247000 KVA
•Voltage (stator) - 15750
•Current (stator) - 9050 A
•Voltage (rotor) - 310 V
•Current (rotor) - 2600 V
•Speed - 3000 rpm
•Power factor - 0.85
•Frequency - 50 Hz
•Hydrogen - 3.5 Kg/cm2
•Stator winding connection
•- 3 phase star connection
•Insulation class - B
Rating of 210 MW Generator
•An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into
•Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and
current-carrying conductors to generate force.
•In an electric motor the moving part is called the rotor and the stationary part is called
the stator. Magnetic fields are produced on poles, and these can be salient poles where
they are driven by windings of electrical wire.
•Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and
pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives.
Construction Of 3-
phase AC Induction
Three-phase AC induction motors
are commonly used in industrial
applications. This type of motor has
three main parts, rotor, stator, and
enclosure. The stator and rotor do
the work, and the enclosure
protects the stator and rotor.
Stator Core:- The stator is the
stationary part of the motor’s
electromagnetic circuit. The stator
core is made up of many thin metal
sheets, called laminations.
Laminations are used to reduce
energy loses that would result if a
solid core were used. Generally
choice of material is steel to keep
down hysteresis losses.
Stator Windings:- Stator
laminations are stacked together
forming a hollow cylinder. Coils of
insulated wire are inserted into slots
of the stator core.When the
assembled motor is in operation, the
stator windings are connected
directly to the power source. Each
grouping of coils, together with the
steel core it surrounds, becomes
an electromagnet when current is
Rotor Construction:- The rotor is
the rotating part of the motor’s
electromagnetic circuit. The most
common type of rotor used in a
three-phase induction motor is a
squirrel cage rotor. Other types of
rotor construction is discussed later
in the course. The squirrel cage rotor
is so called because its construction
is reminiscent of therotating exercise
wheels found in some pet cages.
The enclosure consists
of a frame (or yoke)
and two end brackets
(or bearing housings).
The stator is mounted
inside the frame. The
rotor fits inside the
stator with a slight
air gap separating it
from the stator. There
is no direct
between the rotor and
Coal handling division of Badarpur
y Coal handling plant caters
to the need of units
coal to units
y whereas the latter supplies
y C.H.P. supplies coal to
second and third stages in
the advent coal to usable
where it is send to furnace.
y Send it to bunkers, from
1. Wagon Tippler: -a. Wagons from the coal yard come to the
tippler and are emptied here. The process is performed by a slip ring
motor of rating: 55 KW, 415V, 1480 RPM.
b.This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on
the conveyor through vibrators.
2.Conveyor: - a. There are 14 conveyors in the plant. They are
numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated.
b.Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-
300m/min. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP.
3.Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors, i.e., if belt is
not moving or may burn.
4. Metal Separators: - As the belt takes coal to the
crusher, No metal pieces should go along with coal. To
achieve this objective, we use metal separators.
5. Crusher: - Both the plants use TATA crushers
powered by BHEL. Motors. The crusher is of ring type
and motor ratings are 400 HP, 606kv
6. Rotatory Breaker: - NCHP uses a technique that
crushes the larger of harder substance like metal
impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators
•In an electric power system
, switchgear is the combination of
electrical disconnect switches, fuses
or circuit breakers used to control,
protect and isolate electrical
•Switchgear is used both to de-
energize equipment to allow work to
be done to clear faults downstream.
•High voltage switchgear was
invented at the end of the 19th
century for operating motors and
other electric machines.
•The technology has been improved
over time and can be used with
voltages up to 1,100 kV.
SWITCH GEAR (TYPES)
1. Isolation: - A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is
switched on to no load.
2. Switching Isolation: - It is capable of doing things like interrupting
transformer magnetized current, interrupting line charging current.
3. Circuit Breakers: - One which can make or break the circuit on load and
even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers.
4. Load Break Switches: - These are those interrupting devices which can
make or break circuits.
5. Earth Switches: - Devices which are used normally to earth a particular
system, to avoid any accident happening .
•By the current rating.
•By interrupting rating (maximum short circuit
current that the device can safely interrupt)
•Circuit breakers can open and close on fault
•Load-break/Load-make switches can switch
normal system load currents
•Isolators may only be operated while the
circuit is dead, or the load current is very
•By voltage class:
•Low voltage (less than 1,000 volts AC)
• High voltage (more than 1,000 volts AC)
•By insulating medium:
•Gas (SF6 or mixtures)
•By construction type:
•Indoor (further classified by IP (Ingress
Protection) class or NEMA enclosure type)
•By IEC degree of internal separation 
•No Separation (Form 1)
•Busbars separated from functional units (Form 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b)
•Terminals for external conductors separated from busbars (Form 2b, 3b, 4a, 4b)
•Terminals for external conductors separated from functional units but not from each other
(Form 3a, 3b)
•Functional units separated from each other (Form 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b)
•By interrupting device:
•Air Circuit Breaker
•Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker
•Oil Circuit Breaker
•Vacuum Circuit Breaker
•Gas (SF6) Circuit breaker
•By operating method:
•Motor/stored energy operated
•By type of current:
A section of a large switchgear panel, in this
case, used to control on-board power
• circuit breaker (popularly
known as CB) is an
electrical switch designed
to protect an
electrical circuit from
damage caused by
overload or short circuit.
• Its basic function is to
detect a fault condition
and, by interrupting
continuity, to immediately
discontinue electrical flow.
400 kV SF6 live tank circuit breakers
•A FUSE is a type of low resistance
resistor that acts as a sacrificial device
to provide overcurrent protection, of
either the load or source circuit.
• Its essential component is a metal
wire or strip that melts when too much
current flows, which interrupts the
circuit in which it is connected.
•Fuses have the advantages of often
being less costly and simpler than a
circuit breaker for similar ratings.
•Fuses are used on power systems up
to 115,000 volts AC.
A set of pole-top fusible cutouts with one fuse
blown, protecting a transformer- the white tube
on the left is hanging down
•A contactor is an electrically controlled
switch used for switching a power circuit,
similar to a relay except with higher current
Unlike a circuit breaker, a contactor is not
intended to interrupt a short circuitcurrent.
•Contactors range from those having a
breaking current of several amperes to
thousands of amperes and 24 V DC to
•Contactors are used to control electric
motors, lighting, heating, capacitor banks,
and other electrical loads.
480 VOLT CONTACTOR PANEL.
Oil circuit breaker Air circuit breaker
•The stator winding is made
up of insulated copper
conductor bars that are
distributed around the the
inside diameter of the stator
•Each slot contains two
conductor bars,one on top of
the other .
•The stator winding is divided
into three phases,which are
alwys wye connected.
•The distribution is done to
produce 120 degree difference
in the voltage peaks from one
phase to the other,hence the
term “three-phase voltage.
•.The rotor winding is installed in
the slots machined and is
distributed symmetrically around
the rotor between the poles.
•. The coils are wound into the
winding slots in the forging
,concentrically in corresponding
positions on opposite sides of a
•.The series connection essentially
creates a single multi-turn overall,
that develops the total ampere-
turns of the rotor
•Silver bearing copper is used for
the winding with mica as the
insulation A mechanically strong
insulator such as minacity is
used for lining the slots.
• Transformer is a device that
transfers electrical energy from
one circuit to another by
magnetic coupling with out
requiring relative motion
between its parts.
•It usually comprises two or
more coupled windings, and in
most cases, a core to
concentrate magnetic flux.
•An alternating voltage applied
to one winding creates a time-
varying magnetic flux in the
core, which includes a voltage
in the other windings.
•No load voltage (hv) - 229 KV
•No load Voltage (lv) -10.5 KV
•Line current (hv) - 315.2 A
•Line current (lv) - 873.2 A
•Temp rise - 45 Celsius
•Oil quantity -40180 lit
•Weight of oil -34985 Kg
•Total weight - 147725 Kg
•Core & winding - 84325 Kg
•Phase - 3
•Frequency - 50 Hz
Rating of transformer
The following matter has been taken from the following-
y NTPC library
y Google internet browser
y P.S Bhimbra