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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
School of Architecture, Building, and D...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
Table of Contents:
Part Title Page
A
1....
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
9.1.2 – BIM Constraints
9.2 Computer-Ai...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
1.0 Introduction
The era of Building In...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
2.0 Cubicost (Glodon)
Cubicost offers f...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
provide a variety of report formats and...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
3.0 CostX
In July 2004, CostX was first...
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then quantity surveyors can compare the...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
4.0 Buildsoft Cubit
Cubit is a solution...
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features in Cubit allowing users to va...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
be pushed into existing estimates so w...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
updated daily. The software can detect...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
ii) Budgeting
Budget automatically upd...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
6.0 Summary Table:
Feature Glodon Cost...
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Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report
Part 2:
In this second part of the rep...
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7.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
7.2.1 ...
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7.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints...
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8.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
8.2.1 ...
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iii. Save time and effective- All the ...
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9.3 Manual Measurement
9.3.1 – Manual ...
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ii. Project management- Using of BIM c...
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10.2.2 – CAD Constraints
i. Limited me...
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11.0 Post-Construction Stage
11.1 Buil...
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ii. Compatibility – As the maintenance...
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ii. Straightforward information – The ...
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Software Application in Quantity Surveying - Report

  1. 1. P a g e | 1 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report School of Architecture, Building, and Design Bachelor of Quantity Surveying (Hons) Software Application for Quantity Surveying [CSC 60603] Assignment 1: Group Report Group Members: Pang Khai Shuen 0318423 Mok Po Yi 0318207 Yap Jia En 0319550 Darren Loong Chi Yong 0318029 Tan Zhao Ming 0318724
  2. 2. P a g e | 2 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report Table of Contents: Part Title Page A 1.0 Introduction 4 2.0 Cubicost (Glodon) 2.1 Functions of Cubicost 2.2 Limitations of Cubicost 5 3.0 CostX 3.1 Functions of CostX 3.2 Limitations of CostX 7 4.0 Buildsoft Cubit 4.1 Functions of Buildsoft Cubit 4.2 Limitations of Buildsoft Cubit 9 5.0 Vico Software 5.1 Functions of Vico Software 5.2 Limitations of Vico Software 12 6.0 Summary 14 B 7.0 Briefing Stage 7.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 7.1.1 – BIM Benefits 7.1.2 – BIM Constraints 7.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 7.2.1 – CAD Benefits 7.2.2 – CAD Constraints 7.3 Manual Measurement 7.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits 7.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints 15 8.0 Design Stage 8.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 8.1.1 – BIM Benefits 8.1.2 – BIM Constraints 8.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 8.2.1 – CAD Benefits 8.2.2 – CAD Constraints 17 9.0 Construction Stage 9.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 9.1.1 – BIM Benefits 19
  3. 3. P a g e | 3 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 9.1.2 – BIM Constraints 9.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 9.2.1 – CAD Benefits 9.2.2 – CAD Constraints 9.3 Manual Measurement 9.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits 9.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints 10.0 Briefing Stage 10.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 10.1.1 – BIM Benefits 10.1.2 – BIM Constraints 10.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 10.2.1 – CAD Benefits 10.2.2 – CAD Constraints 10.3 Manual Measurement 10.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits 10.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints 21 11.0 Briefing Stage 11.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 11.1.1 – BIM Benefits 11.1.2 – BIM Constraints 11.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 11.2.1 – CAD Benefits 11.2.2 – CAD Constraints 11.3 Manual Measurement 11.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits 11.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints 23
  4. 4. P a g e | 4 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 1.0 Introduction The era of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has arrived. Since the past few years, this term has become amalgamous to the construction industry. BIM is not simply the virtual modelling of a building; It is a key that enables information to be shared among parties in a construction project. This system is often adopted by construction companies to improve the 3 most important aspects to their projects, namely time, cost, and quality. BIM covers the whole construction lifecycle from the briefing stage all the way to the operation and maintenance of a building. Generally, the application of BIM is divided into 3 levels, starting from Level 1 with minimal collaboration between parties up to Level 3, where all parties collaborate on the same model and share the same data on the same repository. As the industry shifts towards the massive use of BIM softwares for construction, the industry professionals, including the Quantity Surveyor, has taken a step forward to fully utilise the benefits that can be obtained from BIM. Several BIM QS softwares on the market can now enable a QS to easily take off quantities and estimate the project costs from any drawings or models available. As BIM is more than 3D-CAD, information such as Schedules and Cost plans can be included in the files. This speeds up the process of rectifying errors and accommodating variations throughout the project, thus reducing the time needed to tackle mishaps. By taking off quantities using BIM, no time is wasted on the lengthy process of manual measurement, not to mention the increased precision obtained from software measurement. In this first part of the report, we delve into the myriad of BIM QS softwares and analysed their respective functions and limitations. These 4 softwares are, in our opinion, the few of the best softwares in the market.
  5. 5. P a g e | 5 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 2.0 Cubicost (Glodon) Cubicost offers four types of individual BIM-based software products, namely the Cubicost Takeoff for Architecture and Structure (TAS), Cubicost Takeoff for Rebar (TRB), Cubicost Takeoff for Mechanical and Electrical (TME), and Cubicost TBQ. Having said that, Cubicost is truly the game changer of the technology that is being used within quantity surveyors today. Cubicost is currently made available in a total of fifteen countries around the world, which are United Kingdom, USA, Finland, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, India, Indonesia, and Philippines. 2.1 Functions of Cubicost i) Quick modelling and BIM-based quantity takeoff Build BIM model efficiently by identifying DWG, JPG, PDF or by tracking 2D drawings. Only one click is needed to complete quantity takeoff based on model. Deals with variations quickly by only adjusting model information and performing calculation again. ii) Professional, accurate and easy to check Built-in local measurement methods, which has been proved by users from many countries. It can also deduct automatically based on the relations among elements in BIM model to ensure calculation accuracy. It has support viewing calculation basis and expressions to facilitate rapid result checking and less calculation errors. iii) Various quantity reports Cubicost has the ability to generate reports by floor, element type or other conditions. Unique Reversely Check helps to trace the origin of quantities in BIM models, making it easy to check and modify quantities. It can also
  6. 6. P a g e | 6 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report provide a variety of report formats and support exporting Excel for different requirements. iv) Teamwork high efficiency Cubicost supports the rapid adjustment and reuse of BIM models, to reduce the working intensity and greatly increase the efficiency of team collaboration. 2.2 Limitations of Cubicost i) Cost The license to have Cubicost installed in a computer is very costly and not many QS firms especially the smaller firms can afford to install this software in their computers. Hence, the smaller QS firms would still rather use other BIM-based taking off softwares such as CostX and Vico since it is much more affordable but having less functions as compared to Cubicost. ii) Newly introduced in the industry Cubicost is still a relatively new BIM-based product for taking off in the market and the countries that this software is available is still limited. Cubicost is also constantly updating and improving its software thus it is not a completely stable product yet as there may still be some flaw that affects the performance of this product. Moreover, there are still not many users that are familiar with the usage of Cubicost and the company requires to appoint more trainers to enable the firms that are using this product become familiar with the functions of it.
  7. 7. P a g e | 7 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 3.0 CostX In July 2004, CostX was first released by Exactal. Then, it has been widely grown in many countries in the world as it is very helpful BIM tool in the construction industry. It can be used among quantity surveying, construction, development, subcontracting and more. There are various type of products under Exactal, such as CostX, CostX 2D, CostX Takeoff, CostX Takeoff 2D, CostX XL and CostX Viewer. 3.1 Functions of CostX i) Ability to support various type of files and 3D model or BIM PDF or CAD drawings can be supported by CostX without running a CAD software. Besides, drawing file formats such as SKP, DWF, IFC, SWG and DGN also can be supported by CostX. ii) Auto-revisioning One of the most important function of CostX is auto-revisioning. When a building design changes, there will be a revised drawing for the building. In CostX, the building revision status can be incremented. By the way, all changes of the drawing will be scheduled in a revision log in the software. Besides, the software itself can also compare the dimensions between the previous drawing and the new drawing as well as display them for adjustment and acceptance by using simple clicks. iii) Sub-contractor comparison CostX enable user to create a workbook which contain all the detail of the sub- contractors. Subcontractors can key in their quotation details in the workbook
  8. 8. P a g e | 8 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report then quantity surveyors can compare the rates and sum cost of each element during the tender period. Then, the subcontractor with the best quotation will be picked to involve in the project. iv) Workbook The workbook structure is spreadsheet based, it is something like Excel. It can automatically append secondary quantities to workbook descriptions by just simple steps. For example, the slab area measured by volume. Besides, it also has a live linking function. All the dimensions data can be transferred from dimension groups to workbook by simple steps which is called live-linking or automatic updating. 3.2 Limitations of CostX CostX has many functions and features which is very beneficial to the construction industry. However, there must be some of the limitations that occur in CostX. i) Pay more for add-on Unless user purchase CostX, other product might not include all the functions. User might need to pay more for other products if he or she requires to extend the capability of the BIM tool. ii) Skilled and experienced estimator is needed The multiple functions of CostX always provide easier ways for collaboration and analysis, testing and validation. However, it is still insufficient for construction. Therefore, skills and experience of the estimator will be needed when manipulating the software so that the software can be fully utilize achieve the maximum benefits. iii) Minor problem on detections For example, reinforcement bar detection is one of the limitation. CostX could not detect the rebar of the column. Besides, bents of mesh fabric reinforcement (BRC) could not be detected as well. This might affect the accuracy of the measurement sometimes. Besides, overlapped lines could not be detected.
  9. 9. P a g e | 9 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 4.0 Buildsoft Cubit Cubit is a solution that specializes in onscreen takeoff directly linked to estimating. If a user makes a change to their takeoff, it will show in real time in an estimate. Users have the ability to trace directly over imported plans to perform quantity. Plus, there are a number of
  10. 10. P a g e | 10 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report features in Cubit allowing users to validate and cross-reference your estimating and takeoff at any stage. Takeoff is designed to work equally well from rasterized PDF’s as it does with CAD when a plan is traced over with vertex snapping or advanced drawing tools. Takeoff tools can be embedded into as many estimates as needed, and the system has drag and drop capabilities that update the estimate as shapes are moved in and out of rooms. Cubit is suitable to a wide range of users in the construction industry, including estimators, quantity surveyors, commercial and residential builders, contractors and subcontractors. 4.1 Functions of Buildsoft Cubit i) Natural estimating Cubit is a specialised estimating system with flexible functionality that allows you to estimate the way you want. It’s the only application that seamlessly integrates takeoff with estimating for an all-in-one solution which called Natural Estimating. It’s all laid out in one view, meaning the information is where you want it, when you need it. This makes it up to three times faster than other software packages. ii) 3D takeoff Errors can be minimized y tracing directly over imported plans, simple or complex quantity takeoffs are performed quickly and accurately. We can see elements of takeoff from any angle in 3D, and use this as a cross-referencing tool to make sure we don’t miss taking off any items, or to check all your openings. The perform quantity takeoffs from PDF, CAD (DWG, DXF), BIM (DWFx), and image files. iii) Create and update estimates more efficiently Collect pricing information and save them as template price lists (or even import supplier price lists) to control how your company prices jobs, ensuring accuracy and maximising profitability. Go even further by creating template jobs that collate all the common trades and items, making it easier to start your next estimate, time and time again. Updates that made to the template price lists and jobs can
  11. 11. P a g e | 11 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report be pushed into existing estimates so we can work with the most up to date information. iv) Automatic Plan Revision Revisions to plans are overlaid on an existing plan you’ve already taken off. Not only that, it allows you to edit plans as part of the revision process. Within the viewport, you can clearly see where the differences occur and you can update your takeoff to reflect any revisions. This can save hours of estimating. v) Customisable reports at the click of a button Buildsoft can generate and print a range of professional reports including trade, markup, rate, takeoff, and Bills of Quantities (Pro only). Customisable reporting allows us to quickly hide and show various items, making it easy to share different elements of your estimate with a range of people. All reports can be exported in a range of common formats. 4.2 Limitation of Buildsoft Cubit i) Permanently deletion The job file that had been created will be permanently deleted when we do the amendment on the existing data. Its mean the amendment that had been done cannot be called back. So the user must be carefully in doing the amendment. ii) Typing errors This software has not created to check or identify the typing errors like numbers or figure that already type in. We have to use human skill to check the errors. This method of BQ preparation will need extra time to key-in the figure into the computer to avoid the mistakes or errors. iii) Virus Attack It is common problem to all the computer users especially using internet. The user should have licensed anti-virus software so that the virus definition can be
  12. 12. P a g e | 12 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report updated daily. The software can detect the virus attack and quarantined or killed the virus and also protect the computer and system. The problem is when no anti-virus was installed, the virus can attack the computer system and also all the content of the computer. This will cause data lost and may be can’t be recovered by any means. 5.0 Vico Software Vico software is a software that provides construction software and services to the commercial building industry. The building owners or the users use Vico software to reduce risk, optimize schedule on complex projects and manage costs. Vico's 5D Virtual ConstructionTM solutions pioneered the category of BIM for Construction, and they remain the industry's most integrated approach to coordination, cost estimation, quantity takeoff, project scheduling, and production control. 5.1 Functions of Vico Software There are some benefit and limitation in Vico software. The advantages in Vico software is it can be performing in few way, such as quantity survey, budgeting, physical planning, control and forecasting planning, construction sequence simulation and report. i) Quantity Survey The quantities adapted to the measurement rules of each company, it can audit the quantities visually in 3D, and it can explain the definition of the locations of a visual and intuitive way.
  13. 13. P a g e | 13 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report ii) Budgeting Budget automatically updated if there are changes to the model or design, the visual identification of the model which elements contribute amounts to a service and possibility of budgeting based on reference projects iii) Physical Planning The tasks linked to budget and enriched with the respective inputs, the balance line-based planning which facilitates the optimization study of scenarios and risk analysis and the changes to the project have an immediate impact on the budget and planning. iv) Construction Sequence Simulation It will automatic update of the simulation if there are changes to the model and planning 5.2 Limitations of Vico Software i) Could not be used for more model file According to American Society for engineering Education states that by using Vico Constructor, all structural, architectural and MEP elements were modelled. Only one model file can be operated at one time by using this method, hence it will take longer time to complete the project
  14. 14. P a g e | 14 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 6.0 Summary Table: Feature Glodon CostX Cubit Vico Simplicity Yes Yes No; Manual Input No; Only one 3D Model at a time Taking-Off Yes Yes Yes Yes Applicable for Architect & Engineer No No No No Able to read different types of drawings Yes Yes Yes Yes Able to export into other formats Yes No Only Microsoft Excel Yes Overall, through our research, Glodon has the best features as a BIM QS software. We will recommend this software to improve the QS’s workflow in a construction project.
  15. 15. P a g e | 15 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report Part 2: In this second part of the report, we examine the application of BIM, CAD, and Manual methods of taking off in various stages of construction. We list down the several benefits and constraints that each method brings to the construction project. 7.0 Briefing Stage 7.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 7.1.1 – BIM Benefits i. Faster decision making process - The decision making process can also be improved using BIM. The ability to keep the date and information of the project up to date and easily accessible enables the project team members to have a better understanding and vision of the project, which means that they will be able to make decisions faster and more effectively. ii. Feasibility study - BIM capability enables fast and accurate evaluation of multiple design options iii. Floor Area/Volume Elemental Methods - BIM will extract as much 3D/geometric data to generate preliminary cost estimates 7.1.2 – BIM Constraints i. High investment in cost, time and training-The cost of BIM software is expensive, some companies may not have enough capital to implement it. The need for training will increase the cost and can give time constraints to the company’s projects. ii. Lack of standardisation and inappropriate pricing format- even though a quantity surveyor can be provided with a full breakdown of quantities through the automation capabilities of BIM, they are rarely given in a format suitable for pricing. BIM adopted currently is contended to be fragmented and there is no industry standard yet for the link between the model and cost estimating
  16. 16. P a g e | 16 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 7.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 7.2.1 – CAD Benefits i. Improve the quality of the design-The computerized design system allows the designer to a deep and accurate analysis of the design as well as provides a large number of alternative designs that can be tested, and the design errors less because of the high precision provided by the system. ii. Provide the data base for manufacturing- When the developed dimensions of the design as well as the determined lists of materials and specifications is available, the data can be used in the manufacturing process. 7.2.2 – CAD Constraints i. Training required- Enable users to know how to use the software effectively and efficiency. ii. Expenses on Software-There are some free software such as QCAD or OpenSCAD but for AutoCAD is high priced for users. Companies need to incur more cost on the software update. iii. Lack of Information Backup- CAD does not have a backup system so it can’t auto save projects. This would cause the users need to save their work manually in order to safely back it up. 7.3 Manual Measurement 7.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits i. Cost Effective- BIM and CAD measurement need to be purchased however manual measurement would cost for printing only. ii. No Training Required- BIM and CAD measurement required trained skill to ensure users could use the software in a proper way. Therefore, firms which are using software might have to spend extra expenses in order to send those fresh graduates for training programme.
  17. 17. P a g e | 17 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 7.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints i. Cost Plan- QS need to advise the client on the budgets and variations of the particular project. Nevertheless, they may require cost dare to create cost plan. This wouldn’t be a problem for experienced QS as they are experts based on their past experience projects while young QS such as fresh graduates who are lack of real life experiences might not be able to create a proper cost plan. 8.0 Design Stage 8.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 8.1.1 – BIM Benefits i. Ability to see a clearer picture of the design of a building- The application of BIM allows the designer to create a full 3D model with a 360-degree rotation of the model. ii. Enhances efficiency- The application of BIM in design stage can improve the management and collaboration of a project. Utilising BIM can also foresee the cost of the project within a short period of time. iii. Reduces material usage- The usage of BIM can reduce material costs greatly as compared to using traditional methods such as CAD and Manual measurement. 8.1.2 – BIM Constraints i. Requires knowledgeable members- As BIM is still a relatively new technology in the industry, a member who has the knowledge of BIM must be able to make changes to the complex model. ii. Adaption against time- The usage of BIM is transition from drafting to modelling. Hence, more time is required for someone who is new to BIM to learn and adapt to this transition. iii. Cost- With great functions comes the high price. BIM-based softwares such as CostX and Cubicost can be very costly and not many firms can afford to use these softwares.
  18. 18. P a g e | 18 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 8.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 8.2.1 – CAD Benefits i. Draw to scale- The usage of CAD can produce a very accurate design. The designer must first decide the unit of measurement to be used, then draw the model at a 1:1 scale. ii. Draw efficiently- Instead of using pencils, scales, compasses and other manual drafting tools, CAD has a variety of drawing tools that can create straight lines, circles, curves and many more. 8.2.2 – CAD Constraints i. Requires update of skill- With every release of a CAD software, the operator has to update their skills in using the software. ii. Inability to retrieve quantities for sketches- Sketches are usually made during the early design stages and CAD cannot measure the representations. 9.0 Pre-Construction Stage 9.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 9.1.1 – BIM Benefits i. Easy measurement- BIM can auto-scale length, width and depth of the 3D model easily with just few clicks for instant measurement. Besides, it has the function of auto generating descriptions and quantities for the elements of measurement from the saved database of previous project. ii. Sub-contractor quotation- Sub contractor quotation details can be placed together in spreadsheet so that the quotations can be compared easily to calculate the prime cost sum in Bill of Quantity
  19. 19. P a g e | 19 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report iii. Save time and effective- All the functions of BIM enable user to save time, reduce error and also increase efficiency for the whole project especially preparing tender document. 9.1.2 – BIM Constraints i. Risks on legal responsibility - This is because there is no standard guideline so that every party will push the responsibilities to another party when there is something happened or any mistake occurred. 9.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 9.2.1 – CAD Benefits i. On-screen take off- During this stage, CAD enable users to do on-screen take off from 2D and 3D drawings easily. Not only normal shapes such as square, rectangle or any polygon can be easily detected and calculated, any irregular shapes can be measured as well. Users can choose to measure any elements and several items can be measured together in one simple drawing. ii. High accuracy - The accuracy of using CAD to do measurement during this stage is high, error and wrong scale is nearly impossible occurred. 9.2.2 – CAD Constraints i. Unable to prepare bill of quantities- CAD does not have the function of preparing bill of quantities. It is only used to measure quantities. Therefore, data has to be transferred manually or imported to other software to prepare bill of quantities which is time consuming. Mistakes might occur when transferring the data from CAD to other software.
  20. 20. P a g e | 20 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 9.3 Manual Measurement 9.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits i. Save cost- This method is the cheapest, the most traditional and basic way to do taking off in this stage. This because it does not need any software tools. It only need the basic measurement knowledge and it need no software training. These all can save cost for the company and money would only be spent on printing papers since company no need to purchase those high cost software such as CAD or BIM. ii. Create clearer image- By using manual measurement, users will be able to develop clearer images on the project itself while doing taking off. Users would be more familiar to the project as they know every little detail. 9.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints i. Time consuming- The amount of time required to do taking off has been increased. A project might have hundreds or even thousands of drawings so that the time to complete all the task by hand will really take a lot of time. Time is very precious in construction industry. ii. Human error- Besides, manual measurement might cause some human error and lower down the accuracy. There are too many elements that has to be taken into account. Some elements might be missed out while doing huge amount of taking off and this might cause differences in the final cost of the project. Therefore, manual measurement is not recommended in this stage. 10.0 Construction Stage 10.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 10.1.1 – BIM Benefits i. Speed of Construction- BIM is able to identify changes, glitches and issues in the drawings for refinement, as well as the detection of design errors using clash detection system. It will reduce the variation orders.
  21. 21. P a g e | 21 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report ii. Project management- Using of BIM can reduce the issue about the design of building, budget control and work performance. It can easily follow up the actual construction status to the model. Thus, the project management can easily be following up the activity of the project, the cost and the time schedule. iii. High accuracy leading to waste reduction- The quantities are very accurate to come up with good and high efficient ordering process, it can also reduce the waste of the storage on site when using BIM. Besides that, BIM also can produce specifications accurately for prefabrication(IBS), because of this it will reduce the labor cost, time and wastes. 10.1.2 – BIM Constraints i. Standardization procedure- BIM is lack of standard form, contractual documents and the code of practices for BIM. There might be clash or argument in the project between 2 parties because of the unstandardized procedures. ii. External parameters- When using BIM, we have to put more care and effort manually because it does not include external factors during construction, it does not take into consideration. The factor includes price fluctuations for construction materials. 10.2 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 10.2.1 – CAD Benefits i. Standardization procedure- CAD has standardized their procedure, it imitates to the industry and company standards. The CAD systems help in standardized the design, drafting and documentation procedures. With these standardized procedure, the client wont confuses when using it. ii. Improves communication via clarity- CAD improves communication processes. This will improve the understanding of client about the design and measurement. The simplicity and consistency of the output from CAD reduces misinterpretations and uncertainly in reading plans.
  22. 22. P a g e | 22 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 10.2.2 – CAD Constraints i. Limited measurements- For CAD, there are limited measurements. For example, 2D drawings is just for measured the unit of measurement for 2D drawing only while 3D drawings can calculate measurements such as volume. ii. Operating expenses on site- The company financial management policies might be conflict at construction site when using CAD. Usually CAD will increase automation expenses, it might influence the decision of project managers who want to keep their budget low. 10.3 Manual Measurement 10.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits i. Cost effective- It is a cheapest method compare to other method because the most expense is on printing and the salary of worker. ii. No Training required- In university, most of the students using manual method to do dimension, so when they graduate they can do it without any specific training, it will save a lot of training cost. 10.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints i. Dimensional restriction- It will not provide the 2D, 3D, 4D and 5D services of software. ii. Time consuming- The construction project might not complete on time because everything is doing manually, include recalculation and other manual work, it will cost a lot of time while doing it.
  23. 23. P a g e | 23 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report 11.0 Post-Construction Stage 11.1 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 11.1.1 – BIM Benefits i. Locating buildings components - During maintenance, the location of hidden buildings equipment such as HVAC and electrical ducting can be located with ease, as compared to using traditional 2D drawings. Locating these building services usually take a substantial amount of effort and time. Using a 3D BIM model, the maintenance team will be able to carry out the maintenance work in a shorter amount of time, and thus lead to reduction of maintenance cost ii. Real-time Data - BIM data can also be used to track the building conditions in real time, such as the temperature of individual rooms. This enables decisions to be made fairly quickly by eliminating any delays caused by incomplete information. iii. Space Visualisation - A 3D visualisation of the building space is deemed useful when renovations are to be made, as it can be used to access the method of construction and identifying high-density areas where equipment and machinery access might pose a problem. The 3D model can also be used for various training purposes. iv. Space Management - BIM models can predict the attributes of space and assign the space to the appropriate function, among other functions such as identifying underutilised spaces, comparing the planning and actual space utilisation, and forecasting spatial requirements. In the case of insurance, FM can reproduce how the building looks prior to refurbishment/remodelling. 11.1.2 – BIM Constraints i. Resource constraints – Using BIM in the post-construction stage is only practically feasible if BIM was used throughout the whole construction process. It is impractical to port traditional measurement and estimating data into a BIM model after construction is completed as it requires too much time and resources.
  24. 24. P a g e | 24 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report ii. Compatibility – As the maintenance team is often hired separately after the building is commissioned, it is possible for the hired team to not equip such software to run the BIM models provided by the client. 11.2 – Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 11.2.1 – CAD Benefits i. Extension of Information – 3D-CAD files extends the information given in the Manual by visualising the various compartments of the building, including hidden items such as wirings. This makes it easier for major maintenance works to be carried out especially those that involve sensitive parts of the building. ii. Commonly usable – CAD files can be read in a variety of software in the market today, most of them even providing free file readers. CAD files will be universally accessible and usable by all parties, including the maintenance team. 11.2.2 – CAD Constraints i. Limited information – As CAD files only comprises of the building hardscape, there is little to no information provided on the softscape of a building, which includes the population density and designated space usage. This will cause problems during when changes are to be made to a building as CAD files do not provide the adequate visualisation and information needed. 11.3 – Manual Measurement 11.3.1 – Manual Measurement Benefits i. Ease to obtain information – The Operation and Maintenance manual is always kept in the maintenance office and can be accessible to anyone at any given time.
  25. 25. P a g e | 25 Software Application for Quantity Surveying | CSC 60603 | Group Report ii. Straightforward information – The information provided is also straightforward and can be understood by any persons with a decent amount of knowledge in buildings. As it is in hardcopy, a person does not need to master any software in order locate and extract the specific information needed. 11.3.2 – Manual Measurement Constraints i. Time needed after commissioning – Significant time isneeded to collect and validate data needed to form the Manual, as the information often consists of 2D Drawings and PDF documents. ii. Limited information – A hardcopy Manual does not provide some crucial information for the Facility Maintenance team that extends beyond the 2D drawings such as maintenance planning and space planning. END
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