Organisational change and development


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Organisational change and development

  1. 1. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT Prepared by: Pandurang Shinde IMT-CDL, Ghaziabad Roll No.1011000501
  2. 2. Organization change and Development (OD) <ul><li>OD is about how organizations and people function and how to get them function better </li></ul><ul><li>Start Point – when the leader identifies an undesirable situation and seeks to change it. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus - Making organizations function better (total system change). </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation - Action (achieving results through planned activities). </li></ul><ul><li>No unifying theory – just models of practice </li></ul>OD is an organization improvement strategy
  3. 3. Poor morale Unclear goals Poor quality Poor team performance Intergroup conflict Organization Poorly designed tasks Inappropriate leadership style Interpersonal conflicts Low productivity Poor alignment to organization’s strategy Need of change Inappropriate organization structure Organization Development
  4. 4. When Will It Occur? Benefit of making change Compared to Cost of making change Change is made Change is not made Amount of dissatisfaction with current conditions Availability of a desirable alternative Existence of a plan for achieving a desirable alternative If benefits exceed costs If costs exceed benefits
  5. 5. Force Field Analysis Desired Conditions Current Conditions Before Change After Change During Change Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces
  6. 6. Lewin-Force Field Analysis
  7. 7. Lewin – Force Field Analysis <ul><li>Force field analysis (Lewin, 1951) is a diagnostic technique which has been applied to ways of looking at the variables involved in determining whether organisational change will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the concept of ‘forces’ , a term which refers to the perceptions of people in the organisation about a particular factor and its influence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation and which are attempting to push it in particular direction. These forces tend to initiate change or keep it going. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. A state of equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the model to be of use, the forces need to be identified perceptively, rigorously and objectively, and the means identified of addressing the resisting forces need to be creative. </li></ul><ul><li>Many practising managers will be able to reflect on occasions in their own experience when they have aimed to increase the driving forces, rather than reduce the resisting ones, and have increased the resistance and the tension as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>Other change management authors have developed models and tools which analyse forces. (Kanter, 1983; Beckhard and Harris, 1987; Nadler) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Commitment, Enrolment and Compliance DISPOSITION Players Response to Change Commitment <ul><li>Want change to happen and will work to make it happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to create whatever structures, systems and frameworks are necessary for it to work. </li></ul>Enrolment <ul><li>Want change to happen and will devote time and energy to making it happen within given frameworks. </li></ul><ul><li>Act within the spirit of the frameworks. </li></ul>Genuine Compliance <ul><li>See the virtue in what is proposed, do what is asked of them and think proactively about what is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Act within the letter of the frameworks. </li></ul>Formal Compliance <ul><li>Can describe the benefits of what is proposed and are not hostile to them. </li></ul><ul><li>They do what they are asked but no more. </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to the letter of the framework. </li></ul>Grudging Compliance <ul><li>Do not accept that there are benefits to what is proposed and do not go along with it. </li></ul><ul><li>They do enough of what is asked of them not to jeopardise position. </li></ul><ul><li>They voice opposition and hopes for failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the letter of the framework. </li></ul>Non-Compliance <ul><li>Do not accept that there are benefits and have nothing to lose by opposing the proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Will not do what is asked of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Work outside framework. </li></ul>Apathy <ul><li>Neither in support of nor in opposition to the proposal, just serving time. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t care about framework. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Readiness for change Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance) D V F Is there enough dissatisfaction with the current state? What is the gap between the current reality and the envisioned future? Is there a sense of compelling vision of a highly desirable future state? To what degree is it shared? To what degree are individuals committed to the vision? Are the first steps for making the change 'doable'?
  10. 10. Reaction to change (Rogers)
  11. 11. Reaction to change (Rogers) Innovators Those who will leap with enthusiasm at your proposals they will strongly support it and will expect others to be active in pursuing them. Early Adopters These are people who will be rapidly persuaded, especially by early success. They are likely to want to adapt your proposals to their own circumstances. Early Majority Are those who will want to see tangible outcomes to your proposals – they will not be convinced merely by the idea or principle. Late Majority Those who will follow the lead of a powerful person if they show signs of agreement and support for your ideas. The commitment is centred on political calculation. Resistors (Laggards) Predictable, these people’s interest will need considerable evidence – the more vivid and directly observable the better – before they can be mobilised away from present methods and preferences. As a group, this category may be relatively risk adverse.
  12. 12. The impact of change (its called resistance) UNCERTAINTY IMMOBILITY TO MEET/TRY OUT CHALLENGES BEYOND PERSONAL COMFORT ZONES UPWARD ABDICATION (Wait for direction, Claim lack of direction) FEAR FAILURE FEAR CONSEQUENCES OF NON-DELIVERY FRUSTRATION ( By seniors) LACK OF CONFIDENCE (Portrayed overtly and subtly)
  13. 13. Why Do People Resist Change? <ul><li>The phrase, “overcoming resistance,” indicates an adversarial relationship … since resistance is an emotional process, the key is understanding it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People resist change because the change is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived by them to be negative, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not want to deal with the reasons for it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These concerns tend to be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns over loss of control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns over vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your task is to help the person who is resisting change to express these concerns directly </li></ul></ul>Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and that you are on target
  14. 14. Why Resistance Occurs . . . <ul><li>Resistance can occur because people fear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of credibility or reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of career or financial advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible damage to relationships with boss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in job role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job transfer or demotion </li></ul></ul>Real/ Underlying Concerns Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ Visible Resistance Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns.
  15. 15. Resistance to Change <ul><li>Direct Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Saving Face </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of the Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruent Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruent Team Dynamics </li></ul>Forces for Change
  16. 16. Minimizing Resistance to Change Minimizing Resistance to Change Communication Training Employee Involvement Stress Management Negotiation Coercion
  17. 17. Kotter & Schlesinger - Methods for dealing with resistance to change? … /CTD Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Education + Communication Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis Once persuaded, people will often help with the implementation of the change Can be very time-consuming if lots of people are involved Participation + Involvement Where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change and where others have considerable power to resist People who participate will be committed to implementing change, and any relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if participators design and inappropriate change
  18. 18. Kotter & Schlesinger (1985) Methods for dealing with resistance to change? … /CTD Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Facilitation + Support Where people are resisting because of adjustment problems No other approach works as well with adjustment problems Can be time consuming, expensive and still fail Negotiation + Agreement Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change, and where that group has considerable power to resist Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate for compliance
  19. 19. Kotter & Schlesinger (1985) Methods for dealing with resistance to change? Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Manipulation + Cooptation Where other tactics will not work, or are too expensive It can be a relatively quick and inexpensive solution to resistance problems Can lead to future problems if people feel manipulated Explicit + Implicit Coercion Where speed is essential, and the change initiators posses considerable power It is speedy, and can overcome any kind of resistance. Can be risky if it leaves people mad at the initiators
  20. 20. Three Steps to Dealing with Resistance <ul><li>Step 1: Identify the form the resistance is taking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust what you see more than what you hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick up cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to yourself — use your own feelings as a barometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uneasy, bored, irritated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for repetition/telltale phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make two good-faith responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Acknowledge, name the resistance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell person your perception of the resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do it in a “win/win” manner; neutral, non-aggressive - “What I think I hear you saying is . . .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific, clear, authentic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Be quiet, listen, let the person respond: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get him/her talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage full expression of the concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually uncover underlying resistance/issue - be aware of other forms of resistance surfacing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Fight the resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Go into more data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Reengineer in the attempt to get a better intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Work more with your “allies” </li></ul><ul><li>Give lots of reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Get hooked into the details </li></ul>Dealing With Resistance: What Not To Do <ul><li>Expect approval, encouragement, support and/or affection </li></ul><ul><li>Lose your confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Expect to have all the answers </li></ul><ul><li>Collude with the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid giving “bad news” </li></ul><ul><li>Use aggressive language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You Dummy” Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delay/wait one more day </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Provide appropriate training in new skills and coaching in new values and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage self-management </li></ul><ul><li>Give more feedback than usual to ensure people always know where they stand </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for resistance. Help people let go of the “old” </li></ul><ul><li>Measure results, step back and take a look at what is going on. Keep asking “Is the change working the way we want it to?” </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage people to think and act creatively </li></ul><ul><li>Look for any “opportunity” created by the change </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for withdrawal and return of people who are temporarily resistant </li></ul>Tactics to Minimize Resistance <ul><li>Explain why </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Invite and answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit participation, and, if possible, early involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(“first-draft/strawmodel” reviews, membership in planning/implementation teams, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid surprises </li></ul><ul><li>Set standards and clear targets </li></ul><ul><li>Inform/involve informal leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and reward efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Over communicate </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary: Dealing With Resistance <ul><li>Resistance is inherent to change </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with resistance, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify when resistance is taking place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View resistance as a natural process and a sign that you are on target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the client in expressing the resistance directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not take the expression of the resistance personally or as an attack on you or your competence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some common forms of resistance are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack – Moralizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Give me more detail” – Avoiding responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They flood you with detail – Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No time – Pressing for solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s impractical – “We’re unique” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’m not surprised” – Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion – Nit-picking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence – Flight into health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectualizing – Changing the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One word answers – Low energy, inattention </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Basic steps of change Recognizing the need for change Attempting to create a new state of affairs Incorporating the changes, creating and maintaining a new organizational system Step 1: Unfreezing Step 3: Refreezing Step 2: Changing Current State New State
  25. 25. Team Building: Its Basic Steps Sensitivity groups Objective data Group members recognize problem Diagnose group’s strengths and weaknesses Develop desired change goals Develop action plan to make changes Implement plan Evaluate plan Process completed if successful if unsuccessful Restart process
  26. 26. <ul><li>Lewin (1951) formulated three fundamental assertions about force fields and change : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the driving forces results in an increase in the resisting forces; the current equilibrium does not change but is maintained under increased tension . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing resisting forces is preferable because it allows movement towards the desired state, without increasing tension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group norms are an important force in resisting and shaping organizational change. </li></ul></ul>(Lewin, 1951) Change Model
  27. 27. <ul><li>Once change priorities have been agreed , a Force Field Analysis can be used to identify actions that would enhance their successful implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin (1951) suggests that there are three phases in the change process . </li></ul>(Lewin, 1951) Change Model Unfreezing Moving Re-freezing
  28. 28. (Lewin, 1951) Change Model Strong exciting Vision, Providing Information on a Better Way of doing things – creating dissatisfaction with the current state, Identify the need for a solution – sell the benefits, model a positive outlook! Develop an incremental plan, with contingencies, design easy wins, create a safe first set, recognise the importance of education, listen to concerns empathetically, reward/reinforce small steps in the right direction! Continually reinforce new behaviours, ensure these are embedded in the artefacts of culture eg guidelines, policies, job descriptions etc., ensure clear responsibility for monitoring key processes using SPC! Unfreezing Moving Re-freezing
  29. 29. (Lewin, 1951) Change Model <ul><li>Unfreezing (Vision, Support, Positive Outlook & Modelling) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be done by providing information or examples of new ways of doing things or getting the job done or by raising everyone's awareness that the goal or goals of the organisation are not being met in some way and that a change is necessary to get back on track. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is necessary to make those involved in the process feel secure and at ease with the proposed change or changes to reduce threats to the safety and security of those involved and reduce resistance to the proposed change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During unfreezing , the process of developing an awareness to a need or problem is started and change is seen as the only solution . </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. (Lewin, 1951) Change Model <ul><li>Unfreezing (Vision, Support, Positive Outlook & Modelling) </li></ul><ul><li>The change agent needs to increase pressures toward the change and reduce threats associated with changing. According to Lewin, this is done through three mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation : occurs when the change agent introduces evidence that a need is not being met. This can be done through meeting with the staff in small groups to discuss inadequacies or problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inducing guilt or anxiety: can be accomplished by introducing a period of uncomfortableness about the way things are and how they are not meeting an important goal or value. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of psychological safety: the third mechanism is important to provide sufficient security to minimise risk involved with the change. The change agent can provide time for discussion, involvement, education, supervision and approval to small advances toward the intended change. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. (Lewin, 1951) Change Model <ul><li>Moving or Changing (Planning, Overcoming Resistance, Implementation, Open Communication & Support) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the actual change or implementation phase of the change process. During the moving stage, the driving forces have overcome the restraining forces and the change moves ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new way of behaving or working is established as information and feedback is used to encourage group involvement and allow the participants to discuss and assimilate the change into their practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change is planned in detail and then implementation begins. Time must be allowed for support, group discussion, evaluation, and feedback to deal with resistance as it occurs. Open communication is important. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. (Lewin, 1951) Change Model <ul><li>Refreezing (Embedding the change into the artefacts values, beliefs and behaviours of the client system as the basis of cultural regeneration/reinvention) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Refreezing, the change has been implemented and needs to be stabilised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organisation (client system) must return to its normal level of functioning and the change consolidated into the regular operations of the organisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change becomes integrated into the whole organisation as part of its routine functioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change agent must provide guidance and support to ensure that the change will be maintained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change agent needs to reduce participation in the functioning of the change and delegate responsibility for the continuance of the change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The integration of the change allows the change process to end and the participants (client system) to take on the responsibility for the continuance of operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refreezing takes place as the group has moved to a new equilibrium of the driving and restraining forces with the change functioning in place. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Model of Change (Beckhard & Harris, 1987) <ul><li>Describe a five stage model of change : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the need for change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the desired future state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the present state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the present in terms of the future to determine the work to be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the transition . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enabling Conditions and the Change Equation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D x V x C x F > Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D dissatisfaction: with the present situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V vision: an understanding of what the change(s) would look like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C capacity: sufficient resources to make the change happen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F first steps: an appreciation of how the change is to be implemented (Adapted from Beckhard & Harris, 1987) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If any of the elements on the left-hand side of the equation are zero , there will be insufficient impetus to overcome the resistance to change!! </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Change Management Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  35. 35. Leading Change <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Strong committed leadership is critical to accelerating change </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership impacts all other change processes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders must play varied roles </li></ul>
  36. 36. Leading Change <ul><li>Tools and tactics include : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Sponsorship strategy : </li></ul><ul><li>What is a sponsor? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person with the influence or responsibility to ensure that the change outcomes are delivered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sponsor has responsibility for initiating and sustaining change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a sponsorship strategy is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the sponsors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish sponsor responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build commitment of sponsors regarding the change process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight barriers to successful sponsorship. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Leading Change <ul><li>Sponsorship strategy : </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor responsibilities might include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR THE CHANGE through words, actions and decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SET A CHALLENGING PACE for the change program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE RESPONSIVE – to employees, customers and peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEET REGULARLY WITH YOUR PEOPLE in order to show support, gain understanding and listen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAISE CONCERNS AND ASK QUESTIONS early in the transition process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE UPDATES on a regular basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY AND RESOLVE POTENTIAL “HOT SPOTS”. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Leading Change <ul><li>To what extent do our change leaders : </li></ul><ul><li>Create a personal role for themselves in leading the change process? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key priorities and a critical path for the change? </li></ul><ul><li>Create a clear picture of “where we want to get to”. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a culture that will promote the desired behaviours? </li></ul><ul><li>Refine rewards, measures and feedback systems to reinforce behaviours? </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize a network of committed change sponsors and agents? </li></ul><ul><li>Coach and counsel key stakeholders throughout the change process? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and remove barriers that impede the change process? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Leading Change <ul><li>Change efforts can potentially derail when : </li></ul><ul><li>They fail to establish and clarify the key change roles of Sponsor. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders fail to engage in behaviours necessary for change. </li></ul><ul><li>They lack quantifiable measures for establishing Sponsor accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>There are competing demands for sponsor time and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Short term issues take priority over long term focus of “big picture” goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors object to change initiatives, Not all sponsor will 100% support the change process. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Creating a Shared Need <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Forces any resistance or apathy to be addressed head-on. </li></ul><ul><li>Validates why the project is important and critical to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Builds momentum needed to get the change initiative launched. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Creating a Shared Need <ul><li>The Change implementation process and the change blueprint </li></ul>CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  42. 42. Change Objectives <ul><li>Requires considerable evaluation of the organisation's current position. </li></ul><ul><li>What you are hoping to achieve by the change process: a clear understanding of the change objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Are the changes compatible with the organisation’s current systems and processes? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Information gathering <ul><li>Key Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural fit </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic fit </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy Potential </li></ul><ul><li>Management fit and style </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Structural fit </li></ul>Industry Benchmarking Information Sources Market Knowledge Internal information gathering Media Personal Experience Previous change attempts Info teams
  44. 44. Change Overview <ul><li>Takes generic change objectives and applies them to the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies how the change objectives are going to be met </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a practical reminder of what the organisation is attempting to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a bridge between the objectives and the operational blueprint. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Key Operational Decision <ul><li>Employee Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected employees know more about their company/function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to motivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most successful if well done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees must live with decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolongs uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer and slower process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected parties may not trust the change agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnage if done poorly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediate Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater clarity and certainty of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May make wrong decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No affected employee participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires detailed, thorough planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delayed Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater knowledge of the changes necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to motivate and involve affected employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolongs uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer and slower process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer for results to show </li></ul></ul>Pros Cons Pros Cons <ul><li>“ One off” financial costs e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System harmonisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continual financial costs </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources costs </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest in differences in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes/ behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imposed decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision makers are a known quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No arguments or politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May make wrong decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can seriously demotivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires detailed, thorough planning </li></ul></ul>Addressing cultural issues Assessing the change situation Resource Decisions Employee participation Speed of imple-mentation
  46. 46. Change Blue Print <ul><li>Reduces overview into task specific actions </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the basis for the post-change implementation plan by determining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What – action to be taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When – the timescale for change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who – is to be affected and who is to be responsible for leading the changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How – the actual blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why – the logic behind the actions taken </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Implementation plan and techniques <ul><li>Implementation is reliant on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior employee knowledge of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees being comfortable with their role in the change via communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The enactment of the change process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The alignment in systems and processes of the ultimate changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change co-coordinator or manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steering committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information gathering teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External specialists / facilitators </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Creating a Shared Need <ul><li>Have we framed the need for change in such a way to reflect the concerns of customers and key suppliers? </li></ul><ul><li>Would each team member deliver essentially the same “message” regarding the need for change if asked by someone outside of the team? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the key constituencies affected by this initiative, and how much importance does each give to the initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we help others increase their sense of the need for change? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of the need to change? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Creating a Shared Need <ul><li>Change efforts can potentially derail when they : </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to check for alignment and build true consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume the need for change in obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to frame the need for change in a meaningful way </li></ul><ul><li>Assume that when others fail to appreciate the need for change, its “their” problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to search beneath the surface for root causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimate the resistance to change . </li></ul>
  50. 50. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Visions paint a picture that appeals to both the “head” and the “heart” and answer the question “Why change?” </li></ul><ul><li>Visions help create shared meaning and thereby help gain genuine commitment from all. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>Facilitating a visioning session : </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to session – interview key stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is working? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is not working? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at what our competitors are doing and ask ourselves, “What can be learned from this?” </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>Facilitating a visioning session : </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating the session (2 days). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the end – brainstorm loosely what the future state looks like in as much detail as possible – blue sky thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visualisation techniques to envision daily life scenarios once change is achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a dream using the language of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What we do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What we sell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who we are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss feedback from key stakeholder interviews. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>Facilitating a visioning session : </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating the session (2 days). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in rigorous self examination. Look at the relevance / effectiveness / efficiency of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a mission i.e. saying in a given time frame, what do we want to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and explore values and philosophies which will change the way people think and feel and which will guide our interactions through the change process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify first steps – processes, forums etc. to instigate the change process. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>To what extent : </li></ul><ul><li>has a vision be clearly articulated for the project? </li></ul><ul><li>is the vision simple and straightforward ? </li></ul><ul><li>is the vision motivating and energising ? </li></ul><ul><li>is the vision shared and understood across the business? </li></ul><ul><li>is the vision actionable ? </li></ul><ul><li>and finally, </li></ul><ul><li>How aligned is the team around the vision? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Shaping a Vision <ul><li>Change efforts can potentially derail when : </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has their own vision, and no effort is made to gain alignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision statements remain at such a “lofty” level that one one pushes back. </li></ul><ul><li>The vision changes too often, or conversely, is so rigid that others feel excluded. </li></ul><ul><li>The vision fails to reflect the interests and needs of customers &/suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>The vision is too complex to be easily understood or translated into day-to-day behaviors. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Helps deliver a culture of individual accountability and daily problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps create an organization that is fundamentally more flexible and able to implement change programs quickly and efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps speed up the pace of change and ensures that performance is maximized during the transition state. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Tools and tactics include : </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Change readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Communication strategy </li></ul>
  58. 58. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Stakeholder analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>A stakeholder is anyone who is impacted by or who impacts the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be an individual or a group of individuals with similar stakes in the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis is a starting point for understanding the change readiness of key stakeholder groups. </li></ul><ul><li>By understanding the requirements, and readiness gaps of key stakeholder groups, we are better equipped to plan and implement appropriate change interventions </li></ul>
  59. 59. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Stakeholder analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analyses are best conducted by way of a 2 hour brainstorming session. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to be followed include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain your role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of the session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain outcomes i.e. next steps for assessing appropriate change interventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask: What is the end-to-end nature of the change? This helps to identify who is impacted by it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete stakeholder analysis tool. Draw the table on a whiteboard. Work your way across the table as directed. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness : </li></ul><ul><li>Change readiness is the capacity of key stakeholders to support change in a manner that ensures that change is sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is achieved by facilitating the uptake along three key dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of concern , based on their degree of understanding of the change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness to support i.e. willingness to change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to support, based on the development of the skills and knowledge required. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness : </li></ul><ul><li>The change readiness tool examines change readiness for key stakeholder groups and… </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies what change interventions will be necessary to successfully guide the change. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness – stages of concern : </li></ul>Stages of Concern Focus of Concern Expression of Concern Awareness Stage (0) Information Stage (1) Personal Stage (2) Management Stage (3) Impact / Consequence Stage (4) Collaboration Stage (5) Refocusing Stage (6) Little concern or involvement. General awareness & an interest in learning more about it. Uncertainty about demands of change. Uncertainty about decision making, potential conflicts. Issues relating to efficiency, organisation, scheduling, time etc. Focus is on impact of change for individuals in immediate sphere of contact. Focus is on coordination and cooperation with others. Focus is one of exploration of more universal benefits. “ I’m not concerned about it.” “ I would like to know more about it.” “ How will using it affect me? “ I seem to be spending all my time in paperwork.” “ How is it affecting my team?” “ I am concerned about relating what I am doing with others.” “ I have some ideas about something that will work even better.”
  63. 63. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness – stages of concern : </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further information and motivating. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allaying personal concerns and providing a level of support. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching, training and development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact / Consequence Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving people in shaping the change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities to use them to influence others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refocusing Stage. Tactics are mainly around… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities for them to innovate. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness – stages of concern : </li></ul><ul><li>Determining stage of concern is best conducted by way of a 2 hour small group session. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to follow include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarise yourself with the Stages of Concern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time in open discussion about what their concerns are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sythesise concerns on a flipchart, looking for themes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to Stages of Concern and, together with participants, plot their stage of concern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jointly discuss tactics to help overcome their concerns, using the interventions previously discussed as guidelines for suggestions. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Change readiness – preparedness to support : </li></ul><ul><li>Gauging support is best conducted by way of a half day facilitated small group session. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to follow include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of the session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get people to talk about the current change. Facilitate discussion on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the critical / core changes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you feel you are losing in the process? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do you feel about it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate discussion about object vs state loss – What can you control? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate discussion on, “What do you need?”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All boils down to support – “Where can you get support from?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of actions / commitments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put all unresolved issues into further process. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Communication : </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a communication strategy is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the objectives of the communication effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop guiding principles for communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for developing and implementing the communications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot possible barriers to communication and determine the appropriate solutions. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Communication : </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a communication strategy could include: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication objectives </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Enroll people in the change through involvement at all levels in the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical success factors </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Availability of resources to produce communications materials. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Maximising the use of respected and influential people to deliver messages. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Maximising the use of face-to-face communication. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Communication : </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding principles for effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Employees should hear information from the appropriate source. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Communication should be two-way and face-to-face to the extent possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages are the themes that will underpin all communication. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Mobilizing Commitment <ul><li>Communication : </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback mechanisms are important for ensuring that communication objectives are being met and messages are conveyed in the most effective way possible. </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a facility for target audience groups to communicate their concerns, thereby ensuring a two-way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open dialogue forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey / questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications log (This would be a mechanism to track any communications issues that are being identified.) </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>How well have you : </li></ul><ul><li>Understood the needs and concerns of the people impacting or impacted by the change? </li></ul><ul><li>Analysed sources of resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>Developed problem solving process to resolve resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>Developed tactics to help prepare the stakeholders for and support them through the change? </li></ul>
  71. 71. Mobilising Commitment <ul><li>Change efforts can derail when : </li></ul><ul><li>Too little information is shared with key stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much information is shared with key stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>They assume technical solution is sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t involve others due to time constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>They underestimate human resistance to change. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Making Change Last <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Experience shows that successful, sustained change is difficult to achieve without attention from the entire team </li></ul><ul><li>Every change initiative will compete for time, resources and attention. </li></ul><ul><li>We often spend most available time on the launch of an initiative rather than its institutionalisation. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Making Change Last <ul><li>Tools and tactics include : </li></ul><ul><li>Force field analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Systems and Structures worksheet </li></ul>
  74. 74. Making Change Last Desired Conditions Current Conditions Before Change After Change During Change Force field Analysis Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces
  75. 75. Making Change Last <ul><li>To what extent have we accurately estimated : </li></ul><ul><li>The magnitude of the total change effort? </li></ul><ul><li>The level of resistance this initiative will face? </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of time required to implement the change? </li></ul><ul><li>The level of clarity and alignment regarding the kind of implementation process required? </li></ul><ul><li>And also… </li></ul><ul><li>How has the change effort been integrated into other business initiatives? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent are needed resources made available? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent have we altered (or used) existing systems and structures as “levers for change”? </li></ul>
  76. 76. Making Change Last <ul><li>Change efforts can potentially derail because of ten classic implementation pitfalls : </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimating the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly co-ordinated activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate capabilities / skills of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support for the initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of involvement of Change Targets. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissing complaints outright. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable externalities (life happens). </li></ul>
  77. 77. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>•     An accurate measure of the project provides focus, direction and momentum </li></ul><ul><li>•     Corrective action can only occur if you know you are off track </li></ul><ul><li>•     Monitoring Progress enhances you ability to reward key events and milestones, building momentum and commitment. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Tools and tactics include : </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a good measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Robot system </li></ul><ul><li>Status report </li></ul>
  79. 79. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Characteristics of a good measurement system: </li></ul><ul><li>Completeness : The extent to which a measure adequately measures the phenomenon rather than only some aspect of the phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness : The extent to which a measurement can be taken soon after the need to measure, rather than being held to an arbitrary date. </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility : The extent to which a measure can be openly tracked by those being measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Controllability : The extent to which a measure can be directly influenced by those being measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost : Whether the measure is inexpensive, making use of the data easily obtained or already being collected for some other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretability :The degree to which a measure is easy to understand and produces data that is readily comparable to other organisations and/or time periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance : Whether the measure is connected to important business objectives rather than being measured because it is easy to measure. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Using the ROBOT system to measure: </li></ul>The robot system is a good, colourful, eye-catching technique that makes you focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. RED – Change not implemented at all / little progress on this objective. YELLOW – Change has been partially implemented / some resistance occurring / installation not complete or signed off. GREEN – Sound progress has been made on change objective and / or has been signed off as complete. One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking of change progress is to use the robot system – or even the colours of the robot.
  81. 81. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Status report : </li></ul><ul><li>Status reports track progress in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving specifications – functional, technical, operational </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Have we stated our objectives in concrete terms? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we translated these objectives to observable behaviours? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we set milestones that all understand and agree to? </li></ul><ul><li>Are expected results tied to external and internal goals and have we ensured that outcomes will be evident to stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>Are individuals and teams accountable for results? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we know which existing data will pick up progress toward our goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we established new ways to gather data? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have accurate and timely baseline data to work from? </li></ul>
  83. 83. Monitoring Progress <ul><li>Change efforts can potentially derail when they : </li></ul><ul><li>Want results too soon and fail to look for long-term indicators of progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume all stakeholders know how things are going and fail to keep them informed. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure only against internal issues or goals, forgetting that customers are often impacted by the change initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t see how the change project is connected to other initiatives and fail to measure impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Think some things are too “soft” to measure, only looking at “hard” indicators of progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply get too busy to track progress. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Changing Systems and Structures <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>When the way we organise, train, develop, reward, compensate, promote etc is changed, we are likely to see individual behaviour change </li></ul><ul><li>Successful changes usually involve significant re-alignment of “organisational infrastructure”. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop the capacity to change, not just the ability to change – “Can we build this change into our ongoing systems?” </li></ul>
  85. 85. Changing Systems and Structures <ul><li>Changing Systems & Structures involves modifying: </li></ul><ul><li>STAFFING </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>REWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGNING </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANISATIONS </li></ul>(How we acquire / place talent) (How we build competence / capability) (How we track performance) (How we recognise / reward desired behaviour) (How we use information to build and sustain momentum) (How we organise to support the change initiative?
  86. 86. Implementation process <ul><li>Manage employee and customer expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Project manage and measure the process </li></ul><ul><li>Be seen to add value </li></ul><ul><li>Build on some “quick wins” </li></ul><ul><li>Use the line managers </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic about what you can achieve personally and corporately </li></ul><ul><li>Manage conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat key messages and communicate even when you think you have nothing to say </li></ul><ul><li>Expect strange behaviour and be ready for it </li></ul><ul><li>Realise everything you say and do will be scrutinised and exaggerated </li></ul><ul><li>Remain visible and “out of the bunker” </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your eye on the ball and don’t forget about your customers </li></ul>
  87. 87. Effects of change <ul><li>In most organizations, it requires a change in management perspective and skill base as well as a new alignment of systems and processes </li></ul><ul><li>If handled well, change can increase organizational flexibility and responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>If handled poorly, the organization can experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower management credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher employee turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower employee productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower employee satisfaction and trust </li></ul></ul>