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Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem


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Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem

  1. 1. Introduction of Wide Area Measurements System<br />Seminar By :<br />Nitesh Pandit<br />Kedar Khandeparkar<br />Under The Guidance of<br />Prof. A.M. Kulkarni<br />Electrical Engineering Dept, IIT Bombay<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  2. 2. 1. Introduction<br />1.1 Power Grid<br />1.2 WAMS<br />2.Components of WAMS<br />2.1 PMU<br />2.2 PDC<br />3. Standards for PMU<br />3.1 IEEE C37.118<br />4. Communication between PMU & PDC<br />4.1 UDP Communication <br />4.1 TCP Communication <br />5. WAMS Implementations<br />6. Possible Approach<br />7. Conclusion<br />8. References <br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Power Grid<br /><ul><li>High voltage electric transmission is the bulk transfer of electric energy, from generating power plants to substations located nearer.
  4. 4. Transmission lines, when interconnected with each other, become high voltage transmission networks these are typically referred to as power grids.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  5. 5. Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS)<br /><ul><li>Advanced measurement technology to collect information.
  6. 6. The WAMS technologies are comprised of two major functions:
  7. 7. obtaining the data
  8. 8. extracting value from it
  9. 9. Getting the data is accomplished with a new generation of data recording hardware that produces high quality and high volume recordings.
  10. 10. Data is extracted and analyzed using several signal analysis tools and algorithms.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  11. 11. Need Of WAMS<br />In order to avoid major regional blackouts such as those occurred in North America and Canada in 2003.<br />When constant monitoring applications are available immediate action can be taken if some failures are detected.<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  12. 12. Comparison of SCADA & WAMS<br /><ul><li>SCADA can only provides steady, low sampling density, and non synchronous information of the network.
  13. 13. Controlling centre cannot know the dynamic operation states of the system.
  14. 14. Instant action cannot be taken in case of failures.
  15. 15. WAMS enables us to observe the power system synchronously in more elaborate time scale.
  16. 16. WAMS requires data to be sent and captured at very fast rate.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  17. 17. Components of WAMS<br /><ul><li>Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
  18. 18. Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC)</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  19. 19. PMU<br /><ul><li>They are devices which use synchronization signals from the global positioning system (GPS) satellites and provide the phasor voltages and currents measured at a given substation.
  20. 20. A phasor is a complex number that represents both the magnitude and phase angle of the sine waves found in electricity.
  21. 21. PMU can have different Data Rate i.e. 60, 30, 10 frame per second.</li></ul>Input<br />Output<br />PMU<br />Secondary sides of the 3Φ P.T. or C.T.<br />Corresponding Voltage or Current phasors<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  22. 22. Advantage of using GPS<br /><ul><li>It is accurate to within 1 microsecond at any location on earth.
  23. 23. A 1-microsecond error translates into 0.021° for a 60 Hz system and 0.018 ° for a 50 Hz system and is certainly more accurate than any other application.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  24. 24. PDC<br /><ul><li>It is a node in a system where phasor data from a number of PMUs or PDCs is correlated and fed out as a single stream to other applications.
  25. 25. PDC would performs the Real time monitoring , alarming , event triggering.
  26. 26. It performs local archiving.
  27. 27. It performs various quality checks on the phasor data.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  28. 28. Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC)<br />Super PDC<br />Level n<br />Visualization<br />DB<br />Real Time Monitoring<br />Level 1<br />PDC 1<br />PDC 6<br />PMU 1<br />PMU 2<br />PMU 8<br />PMU 41<br />PMU 42<br />PMU 48<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  29. 29. Operations inside PDC<br /><ul><li>Receive data from PMU's/PDC's
  30. 30. Align the data as per the time tag and then perform sorting
  31. 31. Combine all data from multiple PMU's having same time stamp t into a single frame
  32. 32. Perform Local archival and also send the combined frame to other applications.
  33. 33. PDCs are available as Hardware and Software.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  34. 34. Time Based Aligning of Data<br />Algorithm 1<br /><ul><li>An array of time stamped buffers is maintained.
  35. 35. PDC will group together measurements from the same time stamp in to a single buffer.
  36. 36. In some cases the measurements may be delayed so there will be more than one time stamped buffer.
  37. 37. When the buffer is full the PDC will forward it to the applications consuming it.</li></ul>Drawbacks<br /><ul><li>PDC has to wait for the buffer to be full before forwarding it to the applications.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  38. 38. Algorithm 2<br /><ul><li>Add a time-out per time stamped buffer.
  39. 39. The PDC assigns this newly arrived measurement to a new buffer.
  40. 40. The countdown to the time-out is initiated when the first phasor measurement of a certain time stamp arrives at the PDC.
  41. 41. When the time-out is up the PDC will forward the set without waiting for the rest of the phasor measurements to arrive</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  42. 42. Continue…<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  43. 43. Process Model for Sorting<br />begin<br />Send_Set<br />Buffer Full<br />default<br />Time Out<br />Received Frame<br />sort<br />default<br />wait<br />default<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  44. 44. Standards for PMU<br /><ul><li>IEEE Std 1344
  45. 45. IEEE C37.118
  46. 46. OPC-DA / OPC-HDA - A Microsoft Windows based interface protocol that is currently being generalized to use XML and run on non Windows computers.
  47. 47. IEC 61850 a standard for electrical substation automation.
  48. 48. BPA PDCStream - a variant of IEEE 1344 used by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) PDCs and user interface software.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  49. 49. IEEE C37.118<br />Four message/frame types <br />Command (Binary)<br />Configuration (Binary)<br />Data (Binary)<br />Header (ASCII)<br />Frame Transmission Order<br />SYNC 2B<br />FRAMESIZE 2B<br />IDCODE 2B<br />SOC 4B<br />FRACSEC 4B<br />DATA 1<br />DATA 2<br />DATA n<br />CHK<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  50. 50. Command Frame is received by PMU in order to take a particular action. Example “turn ON the transmission of data”.<br />Header frame is human readable/ASCII information about the PMU, the data sources, scaling, algorithms, analog filters used, or other related information.<br />Configuration frame contains the information and processing parameters of the PMU. Like it contains phasor, analog, frequency and digital value of PMU.<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  51. 51. Configuration Frame Organization<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  52. 52. 3)Data frame provides information regarding phasor data and the state of the digital inputs on each channel. It also defines the frequency, angle, over-current, under-voltage and rate of frequency change.<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  53. 53. Communication between PMU & PDC<br />1) UDP Communication<br />2) TCP Communication<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  54. 54. PDC<br />PMU<br />CMD Frame - Send CFG frame<br />UDP Communication<br />CFG Frame <br />CMD Frame - Send data frame<br />Data Frame <br />Data Frame <br />Data Frame <br />Conf change bit (0->1)<br />CMD Frame - Send New CFG frame<br />CFG Frame<br />CMD Frame - Send data frame<br />Data Frame <br />Data Frame <br />CMD Frame -data transmission off<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  55. 55. PDC<br />PMU<br />TCP Communication<br />SYN , Seq=0<br />Seq=0, Ack=1<br />Seq=1,Ack=1<br />CMD Frame - Send CFG frame<br />Ack = YY<br />CFG Frame : Seq 22<br />Ack = 22<br />CMD Frame - Send Data frame Seq :23<br />Ack = 23<br />DATA Frame : Seq 24<br />CMD Frame - Stop Data frame Seq :xx<br />FIN<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  56. 56. WAMS Implementations<br />OpenPDC<br /><ul><li>The openPDC is a complete set of applications for processing streaming time-series data in real-time.
  57. 57. The openPDC is based on the SuperPDC which was developed by the Tennesse Valley Authority starting in 2004.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  58. 58. Wide Area Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET)‏<br /><ul><li>It is a GPS-synchronized wide-area frequency measurement network.
  59. 59. Currently, FNET collects data from over 80 FDRs, most of which are installed in the North American power grid.
  60. 60. Applications provided by FNET include
  61. 61. event detection and location,
  62. 62. oscillation detection
  63. 63. visualization.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  64. 64. Wide Area Frequency Monitoring by IIT Bombay<br /><ul><li>It is a continuous data archiving system.
  65. 65. It provides Web display of of the archived data.
  66. 66. Work on generating triggers, alarms in case some unusual events occur is in progress.
  67. 67. Currently, frequency measuring sensors are located at Mumbai, Kharagpur and Ahmedabad.
  68. 68.</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  69. 69. Other Implementations<br /><ul><li>ePDC
  70. 70. SEL
  71. 71. TNB
  72. 72. KalkiTech</li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  73. 73. PDC Product Comparison Chart<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  74. 74. Possible Approach<br /><ul><li>We have considered TCP/UDP as network communication protocol.
  75. 75. Client Server Architecture.</li></ul>State Diagram :<br />PDC : Process 1<br />CMD FRM - send CFG Frame<br />PMU Simulator<br />CFG FRM<br />DATA FRM<br />PDC : Process 2<br />CMD FRM - send DATA<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  76. 76. PDC Process 2 Details<br />Receive data/cnf frames<br />Shared Memory<br />CFG frames<br />Pass_ to_ upper_ <br />Layer()<br />Match<br />Create data nodes<br />Sort()<br />Maintains Buffer List<br />Archive()<br />History<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  77. 77. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Synchronized phasor measurement technologies have proliferated in many countries all over the world.
  78. 78. With the spread and advancement in this technology real time monitoring and decision making is going to be much easier.
  79. 79. Development of free and open source PDC software will certainly boost more contributions from all over the world. </li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  80. 80. References<br /><ul><li>Ken Martin, “IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power Systems”, IEEE Std C37.118 -2005 (Revision of IEEE Std 1344-1995).
  81. 81. “Real Time Wide-Area Monitoring, Control and Protection”, EIPP Real Time Task Team, White Paper DRAFT 3: Wide Area Monitoring-Control Phasor Data Requirements.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Andrew Armenia, “A Flexible Phasor Data Concentrator Design Leveraging Existing Software Technologies”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JUNE 2010.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Biju Naduvathuparambil, Matthew C. Valenti and Ali FeXiachi, “Communication Delays in Wide Area Measurement Systems”, Lane Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Elect. Eng., West Virginia University, WV.</li></ul>  <br /><ul><li>Basics of Electric Power Transmission and Grid technology </li></ul> <br /><ul><li> </li></ul>10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />
  82. 82. Thank you<br />10/18/10<br /><number><br />Wide Area Measurement System<br />