Tripp has an IEP and a reading disability. He wants to
succeed and he wants to be able to read although, it does
not come easily to him. When reading he tends to come
upon many words he doesn’t know. He uses good
strategies such as looking to the pictures but then instead
of sounding the word out and putting it to the pictures he
“Struggling readers are often asked to read text that is far
more difficult for them to read than the texts their better
reading peers are assigned (Allington, 2013).” Tripp is well
under grade level but he is not the only one in the class
that is. Therefore, there are many resources to find “just
right books.” He has many options write at his fingertips
and is encouraged to “abandon” a book if he feels like it
gets to hard.
1. What do you think are Tripp's interests?
Tripp loves airplanes, jets, etc. If it flies, he is all over it
2. How may his home life affect his work at school?
Tripp was recently put into his grandmother's care by the state. She
is the legal guardian to him and his 3 brothers. Before her, his life
was very unstable, but the past year has been great for him. His
basic needs are being met consistently and he has an adult helping
him with schoolwork.
3. What motivates him?
Tripp wants to do well. He is very aware of his struggles, but he
tries to do what is asked of him. He is motivated by praise and
other positive reinforcement- clipping up, earning privileges
like computer time.
4. How do you think I can help this student?
He needs to feel successful. I think doing things on his level that
interest him will make him really love learning. (He does seem
to enjoy school, but is very self-conscious of his ability.)
5. Do you think my gender and different culture will
be an issue or strength while working with him?
I think it will be strength. He is used to females and trusts them.
6. What modifications are made for this student?
His IEP calls for read aloud in all subjects other than
reading itself. He gets separate location and multiple
sessions (breaks) if needed.
7. What is his learning style?
Tripp is a visual learner.
Student should be able to identify 21 of 26 letter sounds.
Student will be able to identify 24 out of 30 site words on
Student will be able to create 5 sentences from a word
bank and identify site words in the sentences.
Student will be able to be able to identify site words in
text using computer Ipad picking out books he is
interested in to keep him engaged.
Student will be able to read 20 words per minute
increasing from 4 words per minute.
Understand Tripp’s home life and whether or not it
affects his schoolwork.
Understand his emotional connection to reading.
Receive more parent involvement such as having
them sign off that they read with him or practiced
part of his action plan with him.
The goals support Culturally Responsive Teaching
(CRT) since they are concerned with Tripp’s
emotional reaction connected to reading. They will
strive to find where these frustrations and outbursts
come from. Culturally responsive teachers strive to
learn about their students’ lives in order to
understand how they construct their knowledge
(Cushner, McClelland, & Safford, 2012).
The goals support Global Learning because they use
technology to give the option of having the
electronic book read to the student while he follows
along. He will also use electronic books to pick site
words out of text and search for interesting books
stated in goal number four. Cushner, McClelland, &
Safford (2012) states that teaching toward a global
perspective through the use of technology increases
Step 1 – Tripp will identify each
level of the alphabet and say
what sound the letter makes.
Step 2 – Tripp will be shown site
word flash cards and identify as
many as he can.
Step 3 – Trip will use words from
a word bank to create 5
sentences, read them, and point
out site words.
Days 1, 4, 7, and 10
Tripp with work with an adult going
over the alphabet using alphabet
flash cards. There is one card per
letter in the alphabet along with a
multiple pictures of things and the
name above it that starts with the
letter and shows what it sounds like.
Tripp will go through the entire
stack of cards and each day come up
with his own new word that goes
with each letter which, he will write
down in his daybook. These flash
cards will be sent home to work
with the guardian for day 7 because
it will be over the weekend. Parent
note is required stating how he did
while practicing flash cards.
Days 2 and 5
Tripp will work with site word flash
cards, identifying them as an adult
flips through the flash cards with
him. As he goes through them if he
gets one wrong it will go in a
different pile and after he has
gotten through the stack he will go
back through the ones he missed.
He will do this for 30 minutes
getting through as much as he can.
The site word flash cards will be
sent home with him to work on with
Days 8 and 11
Trip will be given the book “The Little
Airplane” by Lois Lenski and he is to
go thorough the book and pick out the
site words and write them in his
daybook. After his picks out the site
words he will read aloud to an adult.
This book was chosen because it is at
his reading level and he has a love for
airplanes. This book will also be sent
home with him to practice reading and
picking out site words for day 8
because it will be over the weekend.
Parent signature is required showing
he read the book. (The book can also
be pulled up on an Ipad and give the
option to read the book to Tripp)
Days 3, 6, 9, and 12
Tripp will make his own
sentences picking from a cut
out word bank. He will make 5
sentences each day and then
read them aloud as well as
write them in his daybook
while underlining the site
Day 13 and 14
Tripp will go to the public
library with an adult and pick 2
two “just right book” for
himself and read them aloud
to an adult for 30 minutes.
Parent note required stating
he read the book and his
The Pre and Post assessment for the DAP are the same. The teacher will show the
student each letter of the alphabet and the student will give the sound that the letter
makes. This is the first stage of the pre/post-assessment: letter sounds identification.
The second stage is sight word identification. The teacher will show site word flash
cards to the students putting the cards in two different piles as they go through
them. One pile for the site words the student knows and one pile for the site words
he doesn’t know. The final stage of the assessment the teacher will give he student a
word bank and have him make five sentences and pointing out the site words in each
sentence. The assessment for the DAP can be found in appendix a.
This assessment is culturally responsive because it is meant for this particular student.
It is based around his needs and recognizes that he learns in different ways.
The rubric for the pre/post-assessment is broken down into the 3 stages listed above:
letter sound identification, sight word identification, and making sentences
identifying site words.
21 out of 26
16 – 22 letter
24 out of 30
word bank and
words in the
4 out of 5
1 or less
Based on the rubric and observation
the goal was met in letter sound
identification. Tripp went from
being able to identify 0-15 letter
sounds to being able to identify 23
letter sounds. He met partial
mastery in the sight word
identification going from identifying
5 site words to being able to identify
20. He also received partial mastery
making sentences and identifying
site words going from not being
able to make a complete sentence
to being able to make 3 and identify
the site words in the sentences.
1. Understand Tripp’s home life
and whether or not it affects his
After discussing the student’s
home life with the teacher and
talking with the student I
learned that his home life has
had an affect on his schoolwork.
He never used to get help with
his homework. Now that he is in
the custody of his Grandmother,
she works with him daily on his
homework as well as reading.
2. Understand his emotional
connection to reading.
After working with the student for s
few days it was clear to see that his
emotional outbursts came from
stress and frustration during
independent reading time. He
couldn’t read a book by himself so
he sat at his desk bored and
flustered. Working with him
everyday during this time stopped
the emotional outbursts and
seemed to ease his stress, as he was
now being productive during this
3. Receive more parent
involvement such as having
them sign off that they read
with him or practiced part of his
action plan with him.
Sending work home, books to
read, and encouraging letters
made his Grandmother aware of
exactly what he was supposed
to be doing. I also required
feedback from his assignments
such as reading or signatures
stating that he did the
Reflect on your culturally responsive teaching and describe the
characteristics that supported your plan.
Since working with Tripp from the beginning of the school year I
have been eager to find different ways to get him engaged in
reading and writing. I was fast to find out what some of his
interests and incorporate them. I also learned about his life by
interviewing the cooperating teacher. He has had some rough up
bringing but now is in the good care of his grandmother. Knowing
more about the student’s life makes it much easier to see where
their learning difficulties lie. This supported the plan by being very
patient with him understanding the things he has been through and
where his emotional surges spark from and incorporating his
interests into his readings.
Which attributional bias did you have to navigate?
The attributional bias I had to navigate was his temper
tantrums and emotional outbursts. It became obvious
that these stemmed from his frustration and not being
able to read. He felt lost with no help. He wants to
succeed but gets nowhere sitting by himself staring at a
book he can’t read on his own. His behavior and
emotional outbursts were minimal during and since the
DAP was implemented.
Which cultural bias did you have to overcome?
The cultural bias that was overcome was situational behavior.
Tripp obviously gets his way at home or with other people by
throwing a fit or bursting out in tears. Noticing in other
observations that most other adults dealing with his crying
out of frustration or being mad made it a big deal, I made
sure to give it no attention and just continue working with
him. When you feed into his crying and bad behavior
reactions he feeds into that and keeps it going. He is trying to
get attention whether it was negative or positive. Ignoring
the emotional outbursts and just continuing on like
everything was normal and letting him calm down on his own
made the outbursts happening less.
How did your cultural competence impact the plan?
Cultural competence impacted the plan because I was aware
of Tripp’s own culture and worldview; I am open and have a
good attitude towards cultural differences. I don’t feel that
anyone is smarter or better then anyone else based on
culture or social status. I have cross-cultural skills since
working with a multitude of students in different cultures. I
understand, communicate, and effectively interact with
people of all cultures even if I have to get to know the culture
as I do it.
Locate yourself on the Acculturation Strategies Block
and describe its impact on your perspective.
On the Acculturation Strategies Block I believe I am in
integration. I maintain relationships with people of
other cultures while maintaining my own culture
identity. This was good for the DAP and everyday life as
a teacher because you will always have many different
cultures in a class no matter where you are.
How did the teacher interview impact your plan?
The teacher interview impacted the DAP because it help
me get a better understanding of Tripp and how I could
help him. The fact that I was a female was a positive
because he has a certain trust in females that he doesn’t
always have with males because of things that have
happened in his past. I don’t think I would have gotten
the most applicable information just from talking to the
student so the teacher interview was key.
Fisher, D., & Ivey, G. (2006). Evaluating the interventions for struggling
adolescent readers. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy, 50(3), 180-189.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.librarylink.uncc.edu/stable/40013697
Allington, R. (2013). What really matters when working with struggling
readers. The Reading Teacher,66(7), 520-530. Retrieved from
Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2012). Human diversity in
education: An intercultural approach. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Brown, Dave F. 2004 Urban Teachers' Professed Classroom Management
Strategies: Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching. Urban Education