What exactly is telecollaboration? a. definition b. types c. modelsThe Study a. Rationale & Context b. Purpose c. Research Design d. FindingsLessons learned from this study: a. How to get started b. Reliable sites with ready made projects & more info<br />Agenda<br />
What is telecollaboration?<br />“The use of Internet communication tools <br />by internationally dispersed students of language <br />in institutionalized settings <br />in order to promote the development of <br />foreign language linguistic competence and <br />intercultural competence.” <br />(Belz, 2003).<br />
Types of telecollaborationWarschauer (1997) <br />One-to-one telecollaboration. <br />Eg. International Email Tandem Network.<br />Many-to-many telecollaboration: <br />Shared students’ publications (such as is the case with wikis or newsletter).<br />Comparative investigations involving both groups of students' cultures or issues of interest.<br />Collaborative creation and exchange of folklore compendia, oral histories and other projects.<br />E-forums (my field of research )<br />
Models of telecollaboration<br /><ul><li>E-Tandem (European Union)
Stage 1: Questionnaires designed to reveal basic cultural differences(native language). Results compiled and presented side by side.
Stage 2: Analysis of questionnaires in the classroom (target language) with the teacher's guidance.
Stage 3: Exchanges and forums. Students from both groups meet in online message boards accessible to all participants. (either language as long as they can get their message across).
Stage 4: Analysis of the forums in the classroom and analyze both the language and the content of the exchanges.
Stage 5: Broadening of fields of exploration and analysis. Students are provided with other related target language resources which allow them to better understand the culture of their partners. They later on discuss these new findings and conclusions with their partners online.</li></li></ul><li>TheStudy<br />Rationale:<br />Scarcity of research on:<br /> e-forums, <br />at the secondary school level,<br />learning each other’s languages.<br />Context:<br />Public high school students in Argentina and USA.<br />Satellite internet available at school.<br />Ages 16-18<br />Participation compulsory<br />In Villalonga: 2 Classes, 29 sts in all.<br />In USA: 70 students from 3 classes.<br />
Why? What? How?<br /><ul><li>Providing opportunities for authentic communication with native speakers of the L2 for BOTH sets of students.
Both L1 and L2 used.</li></ul>The Project<br />
<ul><li>In the frame of Burden & Williams' definition of motivation, does telecollaboration through e-forums motivate the students? If so, how?
What are the observable effects of this particular project in the students' language learning skills and performance?
What insights can be gained from this experience regarding organizational aspects of projects of this kind?</li></ul>Motivation:<br />“A state of cognitive and emotional <br />arousal, which leads to a conscious<br />decision to act, (CHOICE) and <br />which gives rise to a period of <br />sustained intellectual and/or <br />physical effort (PERSISTANCE & <br />EFFORT) in order to attain a<br />previously set goal.”<br />Purpose / Research Questions<br />
My Research Paradigm: <br />The educator doing research<br />Research Methodology <br />(According to Brown’s characteristics for primary research 2004)<br />Data type: quantitative (questionnaire, grades) and qualitative (feedback slips, forum contents, interviews). <br />Data collection methods: non-experimental. No control group. Survey research.<br />Data analysis methods: statistical as part of the process, but overall interpretive.<br />Intrusiveness of the study: leaning towards non-intervention. Students did the project subject of this research as part of their regular course of studies. <br />Selectivity: non-selective. All sts who participated in the project were included in the study.<br />Reasoning: inductive<br />Context: natural. The study was carried out in the classroom.<br />“Set of basic beliefs […] that deals<br />with ultimates or first principles. It<br />represents a worldview that defines<br />for its holder, the nature of the<br />world, the individual's place in it,<br />and the range of possible<br />relationships to that world and<br />its parts […] The beliefs are basic in<br />the sense that they must be<br />accepted simply on faith; there is no <br />way to establish their ultimate <br />truthfulness”<br />(Guba & Lincoln, 1994)<br />Research Design<br />
Findings: Motivation<br />Pamela says: <br />“¿Hubieras participado de la misma manera si la participación en el proyecto no era obligatoria y con nota?”<br />Student says: <br />“si, ya q como ingles particular<br />lo había finalizado hacia un año estaba medio<br />olvidada en el idioma entonces pude volver a<br />aplicar lo q ya había aprendido”<br />
Findings: Language Learning<br /><ul><li>Communicative competence: </li></ul> One student manifested she tried to use a more formal register when communicating in Spanish with the American students as she realized that slang was probably difficult to understand for them. <br /><ul><li>Intercultural awareness: </li></ul> Several students mentioned that they liked the project as they were able to “see things for ourselves” and “learn about how another culture is firsthand”. They also said it helped them dispel prejudices. <br /><ul><li>Learning strategies: </li></ul> Students manifested using several learning strategies. Data was tagged and classified according to Chamot (1994) with these results:<br /><ul><li>Self monitoring: A student mentioned that she tried to write better after reading how well the other students wrote in Spanish.
Self management: A student mentioned that they found that they had to be able to do things by themselves, as the teacher “is not inside the computer with me” and they had to find ways to get the message across.
Compensation strategies: once the students discovered they could post pictures, they used them to compensate for their lack of descriptive vocabulary. They included photos of their schools, themselves, etc. </li></li></ul><li>Getting started…<br /><ul><li>Spend time training yourself in the technological tools you are going to use. Choose tools based not only on your skills, but also on:
the technological capabilities of both schools and groups of students.
Do not assume that your students will be able to handle the project just because they are supposed to be “digital natives”. The skills required for language learning are very different from the ones they have developed for social use. </li></li></ul><li>Getting started…<br />When looking for partner classes, pick a colleague who…<br /> …shares your same technical skills<br />…shares your overall objectives for the projects, <br />…is willing to spend time on the project. <br />Assign enough time for each stage of the project <br />make sure you include time before the interaction to prepare the students for the project…<br />…and after the telecollaboration itself in order to allow them to process and reflect on what they have learned. <br />
Getting started…<br />Decide on how you will assess the project <br />Make sure that you set a minimum number of interventions for each student in order to promote interaction. <br />For example, if using forums you could establish that each student has to post three comments and that each comment needs to address another student’s questions as well as posting new questions to keep the conversation going. <br />
Getting started…<br />If the other group is learning your students’ native language, decide on a method to ensure that both languages are used in the forum. <br />Separating forums is a possibility, but students tend to participate in their L1 forum most. <br />Another possibility is requesting that 50% of each message is written in each language, as the E-Tandem Network recommends. <br />If you’re mostly interested in developing your students’ reading skills, Cultura’s model of only L1 writing might be suitable.<br />
http://www.epals.com<br />http://flatclassroom09-3.flatclassroomproject.org/<br />http://iearn.org<br />http://iearn.org/projects/projectbook.html<br />http://www.globalschoolnet.org/<br />Good places to start looking for projects and partners…<br />
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