Introduction to steelmaking

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Route: Primary Route uses Blast Furnace / Basic Oxygen Furnace for steel making, which is a traditional route of steel making. Iron Ore and Coke is main raw material in this process, leading to high Carbon emission in environment. While on the other side Secondary route uses Electric Arc Furnace / Induction furnace for steel making and uses Scrap, Pig Iron and Sponge Iron (HBI /DRI) as key raw materials. Steel produced by Primary route accounted for around 70% of global production and the rest through Secondary route, however after realizing the environmental impact and stringent guidelines laid by Kyoto protocol question arises of “How To Lower Iron and Steel making Carbon Emission”.

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Introduction to steelmaking

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  2. 2. *IRON OREFinesLumpsPelletsSCRAPRecycled SteelSTEEL INDUSTRYFINISHED STEEL PRODUCTSSheetBarRodProfileManufactured Goods – Metal – Mechanic Industry
  3. 3. *010,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000100,000JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecPig iron/Blast furnace iron Direct reduced iron (DRI)
  4. 4. *Pig iron/Blast furnaceiron Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecEuropean Union (27) 7.745 7.335 8.190 7.951 8.271 7.850 7.857 7.474 7.359 7.322 7.108 6.790Other Europe 853 750 869 711 782 730 815 841 781 841 837 864CIS 7.048 6.400 7.095 6.936 7.152 6.797 6.629 6.707 6.773 6.857 6.748 6.673North America 3.828 3.703 4.162 3.979 3.913 3.349 3.618 3.900 3.462 3.278 3.514 3.820South America 2.540 2.485 2.790 2.687 2.543 2.476 2.549 2.448 2.463 2.677 2.409 2.534South Africa 389 363 436 466 441 422 376 414 351 440 315 440Asia 68.544 67.388 72.393 71.572 72.390 70.529 71.658 69.294 67.505 68.830 65.683 65.646Oceania 386 350 338 378 372 373 374 378 378 372 324 358Total 38 countries 91.548 89.008 96.491 94.904 96.078 92.703 94.035 91.603 89.224 90.758 87.071 87.251Direct reduced iron(DRI) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecCanada 76 67 70 65 19 64 83 81 85 76 69 86Mexico 353 309 496 490 501 527 458 488 497 471 460 480Trinidad and Tobago 128 148 183 138 195 164 166 131 89 153 99 105Argentina 177 163 166 140 119 121 69 1 153 167 185 145Peru 9 8 7 9 9 9 8 9 6 7 7 7Venezuela 398 374 431 439 364 393 391 337 318 364 383 402Egypt 248 238 268 264 252 258 257 260 259 253 244 266South Africa 129 127 114 117 123 127 99 140 147 150 145 150Iran 925 833 872 965 971 1.007 912 982 993 945 995 1.182Saudi Arabia 430 429 478 291 474 465 457 424 368 458 443 260India 1.733 1.638 1.678 1.679 1.678 1.653 1.652 1.729 1.659 1.580 1.530 1.590Total 11 countries 4.606 4.334 4.763 4.596 4.706 4.788 4.553 4.583 4.575 4.623 4.560 4.673
  5. 5. *Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecEuropean Union(27) 14.158 14.173 15.729 14.951 15.415 14.716 14.228 12.028 14.301 14.161 13.595 11.975CIS (6) 9.503 8.918 9.865 9.570 9.615 9.243 9.172 9.250 9.280 8.933 8.904 8.925North America 10.451 10.191 10.850 10.684 10.772 9.780 10.014 10.348 9.592 9.582 9.511 10.087South America 3.731 3.780 4.303 4.074 3.945 3.829 3.937 3.836 3.835 4.185 3.873 3.603Africa/Middle East 2.929 2.934 2.984 3.045 2.994 2.897 2.570 2.803 2.795 2.830 2.810 2.857Asia 79.173 77.688 85.108 83.710 84.887 83.330 84.971 81.747 80.147 81.862 79.681 80.406Oceania 490 454 463 485 477 485 494 519 511 504 473 450Total 62 countries 123.768 121.037 132.637 129.599 131.387 127.431 128.650 123.707 123.648 125.075121.990 121.293China 56.733 55.883 61.581 60.575 61.234 60.213 61.693 58.703 57.946 59.096 57.471 57.656India 6.357 6.039 6.253 6.360 6.593 6.375 6.359 6.476 6.299 6.604 6.400 6.600Japan 8.630 8.612 9.324 9.077 9.224 9.198 9.251 9.207 8.802 8.836 8.505 8.569South Korea 5.774 5.439 6.095 5.915 6.032 5.764 5.907 5.632 5.661 5.651 5.640 5.811Taiwan, China 1.679 1.714 1.855 1.783 1.804 1.781 1.761 1.730 1.440 1.675 1.664 1.770Asia 79.173 77.688 85.108 83.710 84.887 83.330 84.971 81.747 80.147 81.862 79.681 80.406
  6. 6. *1511104708784107233886377153470032693874264835866346780 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000Total WorldJapanRussiaSouth KoreaTurkey2012China:47%Japan: 7%UnitedStates:6%India: 5%Russia: 5%SouthKorea: 5%Rest oftheworld:26%0100000200000300000400000500000600000700000800000198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012China Japan United States India Russia South Korea
  7. 7. *Coke Integrated Plant(Brazil : Usiminas, CSN, CST)Direct Reduction IntegratedPlant(Brazil : Usiminas, CSN, CST)Energy Source: Coal Energy Source: Natural GasCapital High Intensive Capital Low IntensitasHigh Dependence of Scale Low Dependence of ScaleStream:Coke Oven + B. Furnace + Oxygen ConventerStream:Direct Reduction + Electric Furnace Charcoal Integrated Plant (VallourecMannesmann). Charcoal Non Integrated Plant (Pig IronProducers). Semi integrated Plant – Mini Mill(Arcellor-Mittal)
  8. 8. *C(s) + O 2(g)  CO2(g)CaCO3(s)  CO2 (g) + CaO(s)CO2(g) + C(s)  2CO(g)3CO(g) + Fe2O3(s)  2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g)CaO(s) + SiO(s)  CaSiO3(l)
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  12. 12. *Fe Total 90-94%Fe Metallic 83-90%Metallization 92-96%C 1.0-2.5%P2O5† 0.005 – 0.09%S† 0.001-0.03%Gangue† 2.8-6%
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  23. 23. *Source: Midrex Tech
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