Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
SYA 3010 Sociological Theory: Karl Mannheim                              © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28,...
Karl Mannheim    1893-1947    Born in Budapest, Hungary    Only child       Father--Hungarian       Mother--German    Educ...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge        Sociology of KnowledgeThis branch of sociology studies the relation between th...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledgeexistential : 1 Of, relating to, or affirming existence 2 a: grounded in existence or ...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeThinking is an activity that must be related to other social activity within a structu...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeThinking is never a privileged activity free from the effects of group life; therefore...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeNo given individual confronts the world and, in striving for the truth, constructs a w...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge            Ideology and Utopia    Ideology         Those total systems of thought hel...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge       Relativism and Relationalism    Relativism         More on a psychological/indi...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge    Methods of Dealing with Cultural Objects    or Intellectual Phenomena         “Fro...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim undertook to generalize Marx’s programmatic orientation to inquire into the c...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeIn the Marxian formulation, attention was called to the   functions of ideology for th...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim did not make this distinction between various systems of ideas. He allowed fo...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMen do not confront the objects of the world from the abstract levels of a contemplati...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim defined the sociology of knowledge as a theory  of the social or existential ...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge. . . Perspective . . . is something more than a merely    formal determination of thi...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeLike the proverbial seven blind men trying to  describe the properties of an elephant,...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge            Problem of Generations Zeitlin (1997:381-383)    New participants in the c...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge       Remember Comte’s Law of Human     Progress and the sociological assumption     ...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge  A good example of this idea is a review of the    concept (definition) of Nazarene m...
Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge  How do the “Problem of Generations” and   “relationalism” impact the analysis of the...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Karl Mannheim

4,668 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Karl Mannheim

  1. 1. SYA 3010 Sociological Theory: Karl Mannheim © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 1
  2. 2. Karl Mannheim 1893-1947 Born in Budapest, Hungary Only child Father--Hungarian Mother--German Education Hungary Germany France Fled Germany in 1933 because of the Nazis © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 2
  3. 3. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Sociology of KnowledgeThis branch of sociology studies the relation between thought and society and is concerned with the social or existential conditions of knowledge (Coser 1971:429).Coser, Lewis A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 3
  4. 4. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledgeexistential : 1 Of, relating to, or affirming existence 2 a: grounded in existence or the experience of existence: EMPIRICAL b: having being in time and space © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 4
  5. 5. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeThinking is an activity that must be related to other social activity within a structural frame. To Mannheim, the sociological viewpoint seeks from the very beginning to interpret individual activity in all spheres within the context of group experience (Mannheim 1936:27).Mannheim, Karl. 1936. Ideology and Utopia. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 5
  6. 6. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeThinking is never a privileged activity free from the effects of group life; therefore, it must be understood and interpreted within its construct. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 6
  7. 7. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeNo given individual confronts the world and, in striving for the truth, constructs a world view out of the data of his experience. . . . It is much more correct that knowledge is from the very beginning a co-operative process of group life, in which everyone unfolds his knowledge within a framework of a common fate, a common activity, and the overcoming of common difficulties (Mannheim 1936:26). © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 7
  8. 8. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Ideology and Utopia Ideology Those total systems of thought held by societys ruling groups that obscure the real conditions and thereby preserve the status quo. Utopia Total systems of thought are forged by oppressed groups interested in the transformation of society. From the utopian side, the purpose of social thought is not to diagnose the present reality but to provide a rationally justifiable system of ideas to legitimate and direct change.  Mannheim was a Conflict Theorist. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 8
  9. 9. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Relativism and Relationalism Relativism More on a psychological/individual level… knowledge/truth is subjective per the individual Relationalism Takes into account the influence of social factors, status, class, sociohistorical position © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 9
  10. 10. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Methods of Dealing with Cultural Objects or Intellectual Phenomena “From the inside” So that their immanent meanings are disclosed to the investigator “From the outside” As a reflection of the societal process in which the thinker is inevitably enmeshed • Knowledge is conceived as existentially determined © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 10
  11. 11. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim undertook to generalize Marx’s programmatic orientation to inquire into the connection of . . . philosophy with . . . reality (Marx and Engles 1939:6), and to analyze the ways in which systems of ideas depend on the social position--particularly the class positions-- of their proponents.Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engles. 1939. The German Ideology. New York: International Publishers. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 11
  12. 12. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeIn the Marxian formulation, attention was called to the functions of ideology for the defense of class privileges, and to the distortion and falsification of ideas that derived from the privileged positions of bourgeois thinkers. In contrast to this interpretation of bourgeois ideology, Marx’s own ideals were held by the Marxists to be true and unbiased by virtue of their being an expression of a class--the proletariat--that had no privileged interests to defend. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 12
  13. 13. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim did not make this distinction between various systems of ideas. He allowed for the probability that all ideas, even “truths,” were related to, and hence influenced by, the social and historical situation from which they emerged. The very fact that each thinker is affiliated with particular groups in society--that he occupies a certain status and enacts certain social roles--colors his intellectual outlook.VERY IMPORTANT STATEMENT…THINK ABOUT IT! © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 13
  14. 14. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMen do not confront the objects of the world from the abstract levels of a contemplating mind as such, nor do they do so exclusively as solitary beings. On the contrary, they act with and against one another in diversely organized groups, and while doing so they think with and against each other (Mannheim 1936:3). © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 14
  15. 15. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeMannheim defined the sociology of knowledge as a theory of the social or existential conditioning of thought. To him all knowledge and all ideas are “bound to a location,” though to different degrees, within the social structure and the historical process. At times a particular group can have fuller access to the understanding of a social phenomenon than other groups, but no group can have total access to it. Ideas are rooted in the differential location in historical time and social structure of their proponents so that thought is inevitably perspectivistic.VERY IMPORTANT STATEMENT…THINK ABOUT IT! © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 15
  16. 16. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge. . . Perspective . . . is something more than a merely formal determination of thinking. [It] signifies the manner in which one views an object, what one perceives in it, and how one construes it in his thinking. [Perspective] also refers to qualitative elements in the structure of thought, elements which must necessarily be overlooked by a purely formal logic. It is precisely these factors which are responsible for the fact that two persons, even if they apply the same formal-logical rules, may judge the same object very differently (Mannheim 1936:244). © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 16
  17. 17. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of KnowledgeLike the proverbial seven blind men trying to describe the properties of an elephant, persons viewing a common object from dissimilar angles of vision rooted in their different social location are apt to arrive at different cognitive conclusions and different value judgements. Human thought is “situationally relative.” © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 17
  18. 18. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Problem of Generations Zeitlin (1997:381-383) New participants in the cultural process are emerging Former participants in that process are continually disappearing Members of any one generation can participate only in a temporally limited section of the historical process It is therefore necessary continually to transmit the accumulated cultural heritage The transition from generation to generation is a continuous processZeitlin, Irving M. 1997. Ideology and the Development of Sociological Theory. 6th ed. Upper © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Thursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 18
  19. 19. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge Remember Comte’s Law of Human Progress and the sociological assumption of progressive change?----The sociology of knowledge (especially the problem of generations) follows the logic of this assumption. © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 19
  20. 20. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge A good example of this idea is a review of the concept (definition) of Nazarene membership from the 1st generation to the 5th generation. How has the definition and related cultural expectations changed? (Think in terms of rules, standards, and definition of the “holiness lifestyle.”) How has the “knowledge” of the culture changed? Is different? What has been lost? What has been added? © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 20
  21. 21. Karl Mannheim:Sociology of Knowledge How do the “Problem of Generations” and “relationalism” impact the analysis of the situation between the 1st and 5th generation members? © 1998-2006 by Ronald KeithThursday, February 28, 2013 Bolender 21

×