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SOC4044 Sociological Theory: Emile DurkheimSunday, October 21, 2012                     © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolend...
Emile Durkheim                                 ReferencesCoser, Lewis A. 1977. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in H...
Emile Durkheim                        1857-1917Sunday, October 21, 2012                     © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bo...
Emile Durkheim  Born in France on April 15, 1857  Son of a rabbi  Studied Hebrew and the Old Testament  Was a Catholic for...
Emile Durkheim  Paradigm     Order  Class of Theories     FunctionalismSunday, October 21, 2012                     © 1998...
Emile Durkheim                  FunctionalismThe analysis of social and cultural phenomena in terms of  the functions they...
Emile Durkheim  Functionalism is macrosociology  Think of an airport as an example of the  interrelatedness expressed with...
Emile Durkheim     What could cause “disequilibrium” of the     airport system?        Inclement weather        Malfunctio...
Emile Durkheim   Three Elements of Functionalism  The general interrelatedness, or  interdependence of the system’s parts ...
Emile Durkheim  Using the airport example, how will  equilibrium be restored?     Personnel will work harder     Overtime ...
Emile DurkheimIn analyzing how social systems maintain  and restore equilibrium, functionalists tend  to use shared values...
Emile DurkheimThe concept of norms is a basic building block in  sociological theory. Remember these terms  from Social Pr...
Emile DurkheimThe emphasis on values is the second most  important feature of functionalism. As such, it  contrasts direct...
Emile Durkheim    What should sociology study?Durkheim set out to create a proper subject matter for sociology, the realm ...
Emile Durkheim  Durkheim’s examples of social facts     Laws     Morals     Beliefs     Customs     FashionsSunday, Octobe...
Emile Durkheim  Durkheim later elaborated on the meaning  of social facts and used the term  institution     The “beliefs ...
Emile DurkheimDurkheim made it clear that he viewed macrosociology (large-scale or society- wide) phenomena as sociology’s...
Emile DurkheimIn The Rules of Sociological Method, where he  discusses social facts, Durkheim sees functions  as “general ...
Emile Durkheim  Before the next few slides are presented,    remember how “individualistic” we are in    the current socie...
Emile DurkheimPunishment is, Durkheim argues, a social reaction  to crime. It serves not simply the obvious  functions of ...
Emile DurkheimPunishment, Durkheim argues, “has the useful function of maintaining these sentiments at the same level of i...
Emile Durkheim                  (Wallace and Wolf 1999:22)Sunday, October 21, 2012                     © 1998-2006 by Rona...
Emile DurkheimContrary to modern Western thought, the purpose of the “punishment” was more important than the “dignity” or...
Emile Durkheim      Suicide: A Study In SociologyDurkheim’s study does not simply describe the suicide rates in Europe in ...
Emile Durkheim             Two Types of Integration  Attachment     Attachment to social groups and their goals. Such atta...
Emile Durkheim         Suicide and Social Integration   Humans can potentially reveal unlimited desires and   passions, wh...
Emile Durkheim     For throughout Durkheim’s illustrious      career, his theoretical work revolved    around one fundamen...
Emile Durkheim     Durkheim’s first major work was the    published version of his French doctoral      thesis, The Divisi...
Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social Integration                 Social SolidarityThe Division of Labor is about the...
Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social IntegrationThe question of social solidarity, or integration, turns on  several...
Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social IntegrationAs it is evident, these questions take us into the basic problem of ...
Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience           The Collective Conscience (later called Collective Representations)The tota...
Emile Durkheim:Collective ConsciencePeople are born into the collective conscience, and it regulates their perceptions and...
Emile Durkheim:Collective ConscienceDurkheim was concerned with morality and moral facts. This area is now termed culture....
Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience  In the course of his analysis of the  collective conscience, Durkheim  conceptualize...
Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience     Intensity        Indicates the extent to which the collective        conscience h...
Emile Durkheim:Social Morphology            Social Morphology  Social Morphology (social structure)  involves the assessme...
Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity  Mechanical and Organic Solidarity  Mechanical Solidarity     Based on a ...
Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity        Legal codes, which in Durkheim’s view are the        best empirica...
Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity  Organic Solidarity     These societies are typified by large populations...
Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity        This alteration is reflected in legal codes that        become les...
Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity                 Review Handout Descriptive Summary of Mechanical        a...
Emile Durkheim:Social Change                  Social Change  Durkheim’s view of social change revolves around an  analysis...
Emile Durkheim:Social ChangeHow does dynamic density cause the division of labor? Dynamic density increases competition am...
Emile Durkheim:Social Change  Thus, Darwin says that in a small area, open to       immigration, and where, consequently, ...
Emile Durkheim:Social ChangeDurkheim saw migration, population growth, and ecological concentration as causing increased “...
Emile Durkheim:Social Change                 Review Handout    Durkheim’s Causal Model of the           Division of LaborS...
Emile Durkheim:Anomie (Definition)                Anomie (Normlessness)When social regulations break down, the controlling...
Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor        Anomic Division of Labor  Represents insufficient normative  regulation of ...
Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor  Anomie is inevitable when the  transformation of societies from  mechanical to an...
Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor  The results of this anomic situation are  diverse.     One result is that individ...
Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor  Unlike Marx, however, Durkheim did not  consider these consequences inevitable. H...
Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social Integration                       Again . . . .The question of social solidarit...
Emile Durkheim Real World ApplicationsSunday, October 21, 2012                     © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender   ...
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Emile durkheim

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Emile durkheim

  1. 1. SOC4044 Sociological Theory: Emile DurkheimSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 1
  2. 2. Emile Durkheim ReferencesCoser, Lewis A. 1977. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. 2d ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1964. The Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Durkheim, Emile. [1895] 1982. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press.Durkheim, Emile. [1897] 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Theodorson, George A. and Achilles S. Theodorson, eds. 1969. A Modern Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.Turner, Jonathan H., Leonard Beeghley, and Charles H. Powers. 1998. The Emergence of Sociological Theory. 4th ed. Cincinnati,OH: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Wallace, Ruth A. and Alison Wolf. 1999. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition. 5th ed.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 2
  3. 3. Emile Durkheim 1857-1917Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 3
  4. 4. Emile Durkheim Born in France on April 15, 1857 Son of a rabbi Studied Hebrew and the Old Testament Was a Catholic for a short period of time Became an agnostic (Coser 1977:143)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 4
  5. 5. Emile Durkheim Paradigm Order Class of Theories FunctionalismSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 5
  6. 6. Emile Durkheim FunctionalismThe analysis of social and cultural phenomena in terms of the functions they perform in a sociocultural system. In functionalism, society is conceived of as a system of interrelated parts in which no part can be understood in isolation from the whole. A change in any part is seen as leading to a certain degree of imbalance, which in turn results in changes in other parts of the system and to some extent to a reorganization of the system as a whole. The development of functionalism was based on the model of the organic system found in the biological sciences. (Theodorson and Theodorson 1969:167)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 6
  7. 7. Emile Durkheim Functionalism is macrosociology Think of an airport as an example of the interrelatedness expressed within the functionalism framework. Pilots Maintenance crews Air traffic controllers Baggage handlers Ticketing and reservation personnelSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 7
  8. 8. Emile Durkheim What could cause “disequilibrium” of the airport system? Inclement weather Malfunctioning radar control system High volume of passengers during the holidays Strike of one category of employees (Wallace and Wolf 1999:18)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 8
  9. 9. Emile Durkheim Three Elements of Functionalism The general interrelatedness, or interdependence of the system’s parts The existence of a “normal” state of affairs, or state of equilibrium, comparable to the normal or healthy state of an organism The way that all the parts of the system reorganize to bring things back to normalSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 9
  10. 10. Emile Durkheim Using the airport example, how will equilibrium be restored? Personnel will work harder Overtime will be set up Additional staff will be hired Additional “flights” will be developed (for inclement weather)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 10
  11. 11. Emile DurkheimIn analyzing how social systems maintain and restore equilibrium, functionalists tend to use shared values or generally accepted standards of desirability as a central concept. Value consensus means that individuals will be morally committed to their society.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 11
  12. 12. Emile DurkheimThe concept of norms is a basic building block in sociological theory. Remember these terms from Social Problems? Positive Sanctions Negative Sanctions Informal Sanctions Formal Sanctions Folkways Laws Mores (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht 1997:7-8)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 12
  13. 13. Emile DurkheimThe emphasis on values is the second most important feature of functionalism. As such, it contrasts directly with the other major macrosociological perspective, conflict theory. Whereas functionalism emphasizes the unity of society and what its members share , conflict theorists stress the divisions within a society and the struggles that arise out of people’s pursuits of their different material interests. (Wallace and Wolf 1999:19)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 13
  14. 14. Emile Durkheim What should sociology study?Durkheim set out to create a proper subject matter for sociology, the realm of social facts . He defined social facts as that “which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own, independent of its individual manifestations.” (Durkheim [1893] 1964:49) (Wallace and Wolf 1999:21)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 14
  15. 15. Emile Durkheim Durkheim’s examples of social facts Laws Morals Beliefs Customs FashionsSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 15
  16. 16. Emile Durkheim Durkheim later elaborated on the meaning of social facts and used the term institution The “beliefs and modes of behavior instituted by the collectivity.” (Durkheim [1895] 1982:45) Durkheim defined sociology as the “science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning.” (Durkheim [1895] 1982:59)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 16
  17. 17. Emile DurkheimDurkheim made it clear that he viewed macrosociology (large-scale or society- wide) phenomena as sociology’s proper subject matter.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 17
  18. 18. Emile DurkheimIn The Rules of Sociological Method, where he discusses social facts, Durkheim sees functions as “general needs of the social organism” (Durkheim [1895] 1982:123). He then proceeds to make his case for explanation of social facts by social rather than nonsocial causes. He applied his method in his well-known study, Suicide: A Study in Sociology (Durkheim [1897] 1951), where he focused on suicide rates, a social fact, rather than on individual suicides.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 18
  19. 19. Emile Durkheim Before the next few slides are presented, remember how “individualistic” we are in the current society of the United States. As societies become more complex, the individual members tend to be more self- centered as opposed to community centered. Now, the next slide please. . .Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 19
  20. 20. Emile DurkheimPunishment is, Durkheim argues, a social reaction to crime. It serves not simply the obvious functions of retribution for the criminal and general deterrence of crime; it also fulfills the generally unrecognized but critical function of maintaining the intensity of collective sentiments , or what modern functionalists call shared values (in this case, the objection to criminal activity). (Wallace and Wolf 1999:21-22)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 20
  21. 21. Emile DurkheimPunishment, Durkheim argues, “has the useful function of maintaining these sentiments at the same level of intensity, for they could not fail to weaken it if the offenses committed against them remained unpunished” (Durkheim [1895] 1982:124).Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 21
  22. 22. Emile Durkheim (Wallace and Wolf 1999:22)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 22
  23. 23. Emile DurkheimContrary to modern Western thought, the purpose of the “punishment” was more important than the “dignity” or “rights” of the individual being punished. This explains why punishments are almost always public events in simpler societies. The focus on the individualistic, self-centered modern complex societies--totally distorts the “value-upholding” “normative” process of swift public punishments.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 23
  24. 24. Emile Durkheim Suicide: A Study In SociologyDurkheim’s study does not simply describe the suicide rates in Europe in the nineteenth century. Instead he begins with the basic assumption that too much or too little integration or regulation (cohesion) is unhealthy for a society, and from this he derives specific hypotheses about suicide. (Wallace and Wolf 1999:23)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 24
  25. 25. Emile Durkheim Two Types of Integration Attachment Attachment to social groups and their goals. Such attachment involves the maintenance of interpersonal ties and the perception that one is a part of a larger collectively. Regulation Regulation by the collective conscience (values, beliefs, and general norms) of social gatherings. Such regulation limits individual aspirations and needs, keeping them in check. (Turner, Beeghley, and Powers 1998:264)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 25
  26. 26. Emile Durkheim Suicide and Social Integration Humans can potentially reveal unlimited desires and passions, which must be regulated and held in check. Yet total regulation of passions and desires creates a situation where life loses all meaning. Humans need interpersonal attachments and a sense that these attachments connect them to collective purposes. Yet excessive attachment can undermine personal autonomy to the point where life loses meaning for the individual. (Turner, Beeghley, and Powers 1998:266)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 26
  27. 27. Emile Durkheim For throughout Durkheim’s illustrious career, his theoretical work revolved around one fundamental question: what is the basis for integration and solidarity in human societies? (Turner, Beeghley, and Powers 1998:251)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 27
  28. 28. Emile Durkheim Durkheim’s first major work was the published version of his French doctoral thesis, The Division of Labor in Society: A Study of the Organization of Advanced Societies. (Durkheim [1893] 1947)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 28
  29. 29. Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social Integration Social SolidarityThe Division of Labor is about the shifting basis of social solidarity as societies evolve from an undifferentiated and simple profile to a complex and differentiated one. Today this topic would be termed social integration , because the concern is with how units of a social system are coordinated.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 29
  30. 30. Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social IntegrationThe question of social solidarity, or integration, turns on several related issues: How are individuals made to feel part of a larger social collective? How are their desires and wants constrained in ways that allow them to participate in the collective? How are the activities of individuals and other social units coordinated and adjusted to one another?Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 30
  31. 31. Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social IntegrationAs it is evident, these questions take us into the basic problem of how patterns of social organization are created, maintained, and changed. It is little wonder, therefore, that Durkheim’s analysis of social solidarity contains a more general theory of social organization .Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 31
  32. 32. Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience The Collective Conscience (later called Collective Representations)The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society forms a determinate system which has its own life, one may call it the collective or common conscience. (Durkheim [1893] 1947:79-80)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 32
  33. 33. Emile Durkheim:Collective ConsciencePeople are born into the collective conscience, and it regulates their perceptions and behavior . What Durkheim was denoting with the concept of collective conscience, then, is that social systems evidence systems of ideas, such as values, beliefs, and norms, that constrain the thoughts and actions of individuals.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 33
  34. 34. Emile Durkheim:Collective ConscienceDurkheim was concerned with morality and moral facts. This area is now termed culture.Durkheim was concerned with the systems of symbols--particularly the norms, values, and beliefs--that humans create and use to organize their activities.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 34
  35. 35. Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience In the course of his analysis of the collective conscience, Durkheim conceptualized its varying states as having four variables Volume Denotes the degree to which the values, beliefs, and rules of the collective conscience are shared by the members of a societySunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 35
  36. 36. Emile Durkheim:Collective Conscience Intensity Indicates the extent to which the collective conscience has power to guide a person’s thoughts and actions Determinateness Denotes the degree of clarity in the components of the collective conscience Content Pertains to the ratio of religious to purely secular symbolism in the collective conscienceSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 36
  37. 37. Emile Durkheim:Social Morphology Social Morphology Social Morphology (social structure) involves the assessment of the following: Nature Number Arrangement Nature of Interrelations Whether these were individuals or corporate (groups and organizations)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 37
  38. 38. Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity Based on a strong collective conscience regulating the thought and actions of individuals located within structural units that are all alikeSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 38
  39. 39. Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity Legal codes, which in Durkheim’s view are the best empirical indicator of solidarity, are repressive, and sanctions are punitive. • The reason for such repressiveness is that deviation from the dictates of the collective conscience is viewed as a crime against all members of the society and the gods.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 39
  40. 40. Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity Organic Solidarity These societies are typified by large populations, distributed in specialized roles in many diverse structural units. Organic societies reveal high degrees of interdependence among individuals and corporate units, with exchange, legal contracts, and norms regulating these interrelations. The collective conscience becomes “enfeebled” and “more abstract,” providing highly general and secular premises for the exchanges, contracts, and norms regulating the interdependencies among specialized social units.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 40
  41. 41. Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity This alteration is reflected in legal codes that become less punitive and more “restitutive,” specifying nonpunitive ways to redress violations of normative arrangements and to reintegrate violators back into the network of interdependencies that typify organic societies. In such societies individual freedom is great, and the secular and highly abstract collective conscience becomes dominated by values stressing respect for the personal dignity of the individual.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 41
  42. 42. Emile Durkheim: Mechanicaland Organic Solidarity Review Handout Descriptive Summary of Mechanical and Organic SocietiesSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 42
  43. 43. Emile Durkheim:Social Change Social Change Durkheim’s view of social change revolves around an analysis of the causes and consequences of increases in the division of labor: The division of labor varies in direct ratio with the volume and density of societies, and, if it progresses in a continuous manner in the course of social development, it is because societies become regularly denser and generally more voluminous (Durkheim [1893] 1947:262).Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 43
  44. 44. Emile Durkheim:Social ChangeHow does dynamic density cause the division of labor? Dynamic density increases competition among individuals who, if they are to survive the “struggle,” must assume specialized roles and then establish exchange relations with each other. The division of labor is thus the mechanism by which competition is mitigated.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 44
  45. 45. Emile Durkheim:Social Change Thus, Darwin says that in a small area, open to immigration, and where, consequently, the conflict of individuals must be acute, there is always to be seen a very great diversity in the species inhabiting it.. . . Men submit to the same law. In the same city, different occupations can co-exist without being obliged mutually to destroy one another, for they pursue different objects. (Durkheim [1893] 1947:-266-267)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 45
  46. 46. Emile Durkheim:Social ChangeDurkheim saw migration, population growth, and ecological concentration as causing increased “material density,” which in turn caused increased moral or dynamic density--that is, escalated social contact and interaction. Such interaction could be further heightened by varied means of communication and transportation.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 46
  47. 47. Emile Durkheim:Social Change Review Handout Durkheim’s Causal Model of the Division of LaborSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 47
  48. 48. Emile Durkheim:Anomie (Definition) Anomie (Normlessness)When social regulations break down, the controlling influence of society on individual propensities is no longer effective and individuals are left to their own devices. Such a state of affairs Durkheim calls anomie , a term that refers to a condition of relative normlessness in a whole society or in some of its component groups. Anomie does not refer to a state of mind, but to a property of the social structure. It characterizes a condition in which individuals desires are no longer regulated by common norms and where, as a consequence, individuals are left without moral guidance in the pursuit of their goals. (Coser 1977:132-133)Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 48
  49. 49. Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor Anomic Division of Labor Represents insufficient normative regulation of individuals’ activities, with the result that individuals do not feel attached to the collectivity.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 49
  50. 50. Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor Anomie is inevitable when the transformation of societies from mechanical to an organic basis of social solidarity is rapid and causes the “generalization,” or “enfeeblement,” of values. With generalization, individuals’ attachment to, and regulation by, values is lessened.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 50
  51. 51. Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor The results of this anomic situation are diverse. One result is that individuals feel alienated, because their only attachment is to the monotony and crushing schedule dictated by the machines of the industrial age Another is the escalated frustrations and the sense of deprivation, manifested by increased incident of revolt, that come in a state of underregulation.Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 51
  52. 52. Emile Durkheim:Anomic Division of Labor Unlike Marx, however, Durkheim did not consider these consequences inevitable. He rejected the notion that there were inherent contradictions in capitalism, for if, in certain cases, organic solidarity is not all it should be . . . [it is] because all the conditions for the existence of organic solidarity have not been realized”(Durkheim [1983] 1947:372-373).Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 52
  53. 53. Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarityor Social Integration Again . . . .The question of social solidarity, or integration, turns on several related issues: How are individuals made to feel part of a larger social collective? How are their desires and wants constrained in ways that allow them to participate in the collective? How are the activities of individuals and other social units coordinated and adjusted to one another?Sunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 53
  54. 54. Emile Durkheim Real World ApplicationsSunday, October 21, 2012 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 54

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