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Causes of Disability

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Causes of Disability

  1. 1. Patricia Lima Pereira<br />Student of Master in Public Health and Social Protection<br />Institute of Public Health- Jagiellonian University Medical College<br />15th, January 2010<br />Causes of disability: A challenge forresearch in Latin America<br />
  2. 2. 1<br />Difficulties in comparing disability statistics<br />Wide range of definitions<br />Different types of classifications <br />Different methods used to measure the disability<br />
  3. 3. Disability prevalence (%), by census data <br />1<br />HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2007.VOLUME I–REGIONAL<br />
  4. 4. Disabilityprevalence (%)byhouseholdsurveys<br />1<br />HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2007.VOLUME I–REGIONAL<br />
  5. 5. Disability prevalence (%)by national studies using ICF-2001<br />1<br />HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2007.VOLUME I–REGIONAL<br />
  6. 6. Disability prevalence (%) in Chile,by different data sources<br />1<br />HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2007.VOLUME I–REGIONAL<br />
  7. 7. 2<br />Under-estimation of disability Core Impairment vs. Impairment Continuum<br />Blindness<br />Deafness<br />Mobility<br />Mental retardation<br />Allotherimpairments – moderatetomild<br />
  8. 8. 3<br />Evolution of the definition of disability<br />From <br />International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH)<br />1980<br />To <br />International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) <br />2001<br />
  9. 9. International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) 1980<br />3<br />CAUSES<br />The “medical model of disability” <br />regards disability only as <br />an individual pathological problem, <br />in need of cure, rehabilitation and adaptation to society. <br />
  10. 10. 3<br />Underlying causes of impairments<br />
  11. 11. 3<br />
  12. 12. 3<br />Main causes of disability in Latin America<br />Traffic accidents<br />Adquired diseases<br />Occupa<br />tional<br />disease<br />Violence<br />Poverty<br />Problems at birth<br />Aging<br />
  13. 13. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) 2001<br />3<br />The “social model of disability” does not deny medical & rehabilitative<br />needs of persons with disabilities, but draws attentions to social, physical,<br />informational and institutional barriers, which contribute disability.<br />
  14. 14. 3<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />Personal factors<br />(gender, age, social<br />background, education, profession, etc.)<br />Environmentalfactors (architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, ect.)<br /> <br />Contextualfactors<br />
  15. 15. Causes of disability<br />Using the approach of the ICF - 2001<br />4<br />
  16. 16. 4<br />CAUSES<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />Disability<br /> <br />CAUSES<br />CAUSES<br />Personal factors<br />(gender, age, social<br />background, education, profession, etc.)<br />Environmentalfactors (architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, ect.)<br /> <br />Contextualfactors<br />
  17. 17. 4<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />England Department of Health. Health Survey for England 2001<br />Headings of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10)<br />Disability<br /> <br />63 <br />categories <br />
  18. 18. 4<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />England Department of Health. Health Survey for England 2001<br />Headings of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10)<br />
  19. 19. 4<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />Disability<br /> <br />Personal factors<br />(gender, age, social<br />background, education, profession, etc.)<br />Environmentalfactors (architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, ect.)<br /> <br />Contextualfactors<br />
  20. 20. 4<br />Disability<br /> <br />Environmentalfactors (architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, ect.)<br /> <br />
  21. 21. 4<br />Health<br />condition<br />Diseases, disorders<br />injuries<br />Disability<br /> <br />Environmentalfactors (architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, ect.)<br /> <br />Personal factors<br />(gender, age, social<br />background, education, profession, etc.)<br />Contextualfactors<br />
  22. 22. 4<br />Disability<br /> <br />Personal factors<br />(gender, age, social<br />background, education, profession, etc.)<br />
  23. 23. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability <br />4<br />Takamine, Yutaka (2003). Disability Issues in East Asia: Review and Ways<br />Forward.<br />
  24. 24. Limitations of the ICF approach<br />5<br />
  25. 25. Limitations of the ICF approach<br />5<br />Focus on disability experience and ignores etiology of health conditions<br />“In the ICF we would record the loss of limb as such, regardless of whether the loss was the result of a landmine, diabetes or a traffic accident. The impairment remains the same. Similarly, we would document the fact that a person was not working regardless of whether the underlying health condition was ‘flu, depression, or back pain”.<br /> Training Manual on Disability Statistics (WHO/ ESCAP 2008) <br />
  26. 26. Limitations of the ICF approach<br />5<br />Focus on disability experience and ignores etiology of health conditions<br />Itmaybeconsiderate<br />a limitation?<br />
  27. 27. 5<br />Identification of the cause of disability may assist policymakers to make decisions about the type of preventive programs appropriate for their country<br />compulsory use<br /> of Helmets<br />Health care<br />services<br />Access to <br />Clean water<br />
  28. 28. Remaining questions<br />6<br />Tendency focus in disability experience, <br />neglecting the causes<br />Could that create problems in the future?<br />Would it reduce the availability of data necessary to evaluate health prevention interventions at population levels?<br />
  29. 29. CDC. Prevalence and Most Common Causes of Disability Among Adults in the United States. Morbidity and Mortility Weekly Report (MMWR), available on http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5816a2.htm#tab2. Retrievedon 04/01/10. 18:02, 2005.<br />DANE Colombia. Censo Nacional de Población. Informe preliminar cifras de población con discapacidad. Bogotá: Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, 2006.<br />DCDGRD Colombia. Información estadística de la discapacidad. Dirección de Censos y Demografía Grupo de Registros Demográficos. Colombia , 2004.<br />England Department of Health. Health Survey for England 2001. Available on: http://www.archive2.official-documents.co.uk/document/deps/doh/survey01/disa/disa01.htm. Retrieved on 03/01/2008. 21:20, 2001.<br />Hernandez Collado, Héctor. «Encuesta Nicaragüense para Personas con Discapacidad (ENDIS).» 2003.<br />Murray, Christopher, and Alan López. The Global Burden of Diseases, Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series. World Health Organization, Harvard School of Public Health, World Health, 1996.<br />PAHO. La discapacidad en Nicaragua: situación actual y perspectivas.Panamerican Health Organization, 2005.<br />Sánchez, S, M Sanabria, and N Medina. &quot;Nutritional profile of indigenous children under five years old in Paraguay. Indigenous Household Survey 2008.&quot; Pediatric Research, 2009: 65:4 (479).<br />Takamine, Yutaka. «Disability Issues in East Asia: Review and Ways.» 2003.<br />Vásquez, Armando. «La discapacidad en América Latina.» En Discapacidad: lo que todos debemos saber, de Alicia Amate y Armando Vásquez, 9-24. Washington: OPS, 2006.<br />WHO. «Health in the Americas 2007. Volume I Regional.» avalaible on www.who.int, 2007.<br />WHO. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.<br />WHO/ ESCAP. Training Manual on Disability Statistics. World Health Organization / United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Region, 2008.<br />Bibliography<br />

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