What is Patent ? A patent is an exclusive right granted by the government foran invention. It provides protection for the invention to theowner of the patent for a limited period which varies fromcountry to country. Patent is also a property right granted to a person or legalentity (e.g., a corporation) by the Patent and Trademark Office.The right conferred is “the right to exclude others frommaking, using, offering for sale or selling” the patented inventionin any country or from importing the invention into the country.
Significance of Patent as Document :Traditional scholarly publications such as journal articles, books,and conference proceedings have been the major informationsources for academic researchers.With the fast development of technology and innovation, patentdocuments are becoming an increasingly important primaryscholarly information source.Patents are governments grants that give inventors the exclusiveright to make, use, or sell an invention. In exchange, inventorsmust fully describe the invention so that others can benefit fromthis advance .
Because of the unique characteristics of patentdocuments, they provide certain advantages over other kinds ofinformation sources.1. About 600,000 patents were granted worldwide each year recently, covering almost every field of technology2. Patents usually disclose the newest technology or process, therefore, it is useful for researchers to keep abreast with the development in a field and get ideas for further innovation.3. Patent documents often have a standardized format. In addition to bibliographic information and abstract sections, patent documents must describe the technology in full detail.
What is Database ? A database is a collection of information that is organized sothat it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In oneview, databases can be classified according to types of content:bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. Importance of Patent Database : Patent Information is commonly not available in developingcountries . There are significant obstacles to identifying thepatent status of any particular product even in rich countries.There are many patents field on various products . Patentapplications may be easily searchable.
Introduction : Across the globe, there are over 180 patents offices in differentregions operating in different languages. With this information, itis interesting to note that more than two-thirds of patent filingsacross the world are accounted by only three patent offices,namely US patent & trademark office, European Patent Office andJapan Patent Office, also known as Trilateral Patent Offices. Thus for any patent database it is of great importance to coverthe documents of these jurisdictions. The patent offices of thetrilateral countries and many other countries (such as China, India,Canada, Korea, Singapore etc.) provide search facilities of theirpatent documents online.
1. PatentScope (WIPO) PatentScope is the public database of record for Primary CareTrust (PCT) international patent applications published by theWorld Intellectual Property organization (WIPO). It containsapproximately 1.7 million international applications publishedfrom 1978 forward. In 2009, WIPO extended PatentScope toinclude national patent collections from the African RegionalIntellectual Property Organization, Cuba, Israel, Korea, Mexico,Singapore, South Africa and Vietnam. The largest of these areKorea (1.3 million documents from 1973-2007), Mexico (180,000documents from 1991-2009) and Israel (144,000 documents from1900-1999). WIPO also introduced a new search interface withsimple, structured and browse functions, and the option to displaysearch results as tables or graphs.
It provides Search as well as Advanced Search. We can Searchby Front Page, Any Field, Full Text, ID/ Number, Int.Classification, Names, Dates.
What is PATENTSCOPE Search ? PatentScope search is the FREE OF CHARGE search serviceprovided by the World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO) that allows you to access millions of patentdocuments, namely: International Patent Applications under the PCT Regional and national patent collections from 25Participating countries:Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, CostaRica, Cuba, Dominican Republic Etc.The collections available are listed in the box on the SimpleSearch page that opens by default.
What is the DATA COVERAGE ?The search interface is available in 9 languages . A mobileinterface was also created for users who would like to usePATENTSCOPE with their mobile phones. It is called PATENTSCOPEMobile and it is a simple and fast version of the interface allowingsmartphone users to search and browse millions of patentdocuments.
How to SEARCH ?A) Simple searchHere you can enter keywords in 6 fields: ALL; FULL TEXT;ID/NUMBER; IPC; NAMES and DATES. To do so:1. Select the field of interest;2. Enter keywords;3. Select the collection/syou are interested in and4. Hit the search button.
B) Advanced SearchThe Advanced Search is the PATENTSCOPE expert searchinterface in which an unlimited number of keywords can beentered and combined and the most complex queries searchedfor.Queries containing field codes and Boolean expressions orkeywords can be searched for in this interface. To do so:1. Enter keywords/Boolean expression/field codes etc.2. Select the language in which you would like to perform the search.11 languages are available;3. Select the collection/s you are interested in and4. Hit the search button.
Question MarkLanguage : 11 languages are available.Stem : Untick this box if you would like to restrict your search tothe exact word/sentence typed in the box.Tooltip Help: By ticking the Tooltip Help you will be shownexamples when moving your mouse over the interface.Question Mark : Clicking on this Question Mark willautomatically display some search examples.
C) Field CombinationA more targeted search usingspecific search criteria inany search fields (e.g. Title,Abstract, Description, etc.)can be performed using this interface.1. Select the field/s of interest using the arrow of the drop-down menu;2. Use the AND/OR boxes to add or include fields;3. Select the language in which you would like to perform the search. 11 languages are available;4. Select the collection/s you are interested in and5. Hit the search button.
D) CLIRCLIR stands for Cross Lingual Information Retrieval and willallow you to search a term or a phrase and its variants inChinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian or Spanish by just entering the term(s) in one of thoselanguages in the search box. Search Box
1. Enter your query in the search box2. Select the language of your query.3. Select the “Expansion mode”: a. SUPERVISED will allow you to select the technical domain associated with your query and the variants relevant to your query. b. AUTOMATIC will generate the results immediately without any further user input.4. Decide on the balance between PRECISION and RECALL for your query. If you favor RECISION, an expanded query will be built in order to retrieve only the most relevant results at the risk of missing some results. If you favor RECALL, an expanded query will be built in order to retrieve the largest possible number of accurate results, but also allowing the possible retrieval of a large number of irrelevant results.
2. EKASWA EKASWA is India’s first patent database hosted by TechnologyInformation and Forecasting Council (TIFAC). As a first step inthis direction a Patent Facilitating Centre (PFC) was set up byDepartment of Science and Technology under TechnologyInformation Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) in1995.The patent search involves three levels.1. A bibliographic report on patents granted/published in US, Europe, PCT and India are provided to the client.2. Providing the abstracts of the relevant patents as requested by the client.3. Providing full text document of the patents.
The patent search services can be availed free of cost byuniversities, academic institutions, Govt. R&D institutions andgovernment departments.EKASWA –A, EKASWA –B AND EKASWA- C
How to SEARCH ?The search allows queries to be formed using "+" , ",","#", and "*" options.Use of And (+) option :e.g. "microwave + oven": retrieves all records about microwave ovens.Use of Or (,) function:e.g. "Laser, beam" retrieves records either having laser alone or beam alone or having both. For records having both laser as well as beam, use "laser + beam".
Use of bracket [ ] option: (Works only in Title Field) :e.g."Laser+ [carbon monoxide, infra red]" looks for carbon monoxide lasers as well a infrared lasers.Use of wildcard option:e.g. use " * " for plural. In the Title field, the keyword "lamp* " locates lamps as well as lamps.Use of Not (#) option: (Works only in Title Filed):e.g. microwave# [oven, antenna] locates all those records which contain microwave without oven or antenna.
The above Tips for Searching is the same to all threeEKASWA-A, EKASWA-B and EKASWA-C. But thedifference is given below:EKASWA –A = Patent applications filed in India as published inthe issues of the Gazette of India (Part III, Section 2) fromJanuary 1995 onwards.) (January 1995 to December 2004)EKASWA –B = (Patent applications notified for opposition inthe Gazette of lndia (Part III, Section 2) published from January1995 onwards.) (January 1, 1995 to December 2004)EKASWA- C = (Patent applications published in official journalof patent office published from January 2005 to June 2007)
3. EPIDOS-INPADOC EPIDOS-INPADOC is complete database under the NationalInformatics Centre (NIC). It is one of the most comprehensivedatabase on the Patent Bibliography. This database is known asEPIDOS (European Patent Information and Document Service).European Patent Office (EPO) publishes this database. EPO hasbeen receiving the bibliography of all the patents filed andgranted in approximately 71 countries since 1968. It containsover 33 millions references from 1968 onwards. Almost 3millions references are added each year. We live in the age of theInformation Technology (IT). The universal acceptance of thepower of IT to transform and accelerate the developmentprocess, especially in developing economies is indisputable.
Unique Field Search Combined Field SearchSimpleSearch Combination of Fields Equivalent Search
Tips on Simple and Equivalent Search :Application Number (AN)This is Patent Number 15 characters long e.g. 196600006608137Applicants Name (AN)The name of one or more persons or organizations which areregistered as proprietor of a patent application. The applicant canalso be the inventor. One keyword each box.Inventors (TI)The name of the person(s) who is/are registered on patentapplication as the inventor(s). One keyword each box.
International Classification (IP)The International classification(s) the patent has been placedunder. To search for International Class G06F 19/00, you cansearch G06F0190000.Patent Number (PN)Is unique number assigned by respective patent office to agranted application filed by inventor/applicant. E.g. us6012891.Title (TI) Title of the Patent.Equivalent Patent SearchSame Patent published in other countries with same priority.Select publishing country from the list in Equivalent Search andenter the patent no.
4. Canadian Patents Database (CIPO) The Canadian Patents Database, which is maintained by theCanadian Intellectual Property Office, contains more than twomillion Canadian patents and published applications from 1869to the present. This database lets you access 92 years of patentdescriptions and images. You can search, retrieve and study morethan 2,110,000 patent documents. Full-text images are availablefrom 1920 onward. Recent improvements include a few aestheticchanges to the search interface and the inclusion of arepresentative drawing (if available) displayed in thebibliographic record. In addition, as of January29, 2010, abstracts in both English and French are available forapplications field under the PCT.
C) Boolean SearchType the words or phrases you want to search in one or all textentry areas. Select the patent fields to be searched with theselector to the right of each entry area. When using bothareas, choose the logical operator (OR or AND). You can getthe text field definitions or you can view example queries .
Conclusion :Despite the advantages of patent documents as an informationsources, they are still an underutilized information source forresearch and development, particularly in non-industry settings.During the last decade, commercialization of research andscholarly work in the sciences has been increasing significantly.Therefore, the library needs to adopt a more systematicapproach to patent information support to the users.
References :Baillie, Jim. (2002). Introduction to Patent Searching, RetrievedAugust 29, 2012, from Boston Public Library, General ReferenceDepartment. Web Site:Euro.ecom.cmu.edu/program/law/08…/Patents/PatentSearching.pdfPatent Facilitating Center (n.d.). Retrieved on September 1, 2012 fromhttp://pfc.org.in/fac/fac.htmWhat is INPADOC-EPIDOS? (2010). Retrieved September 4, 2012 fromhttp://patinfo.nic.in/Patent Scope (WIPO) (n.d.). Retrieved September 6, 2012 fromhttp://www.wipo.int/pctdb/index.jspCanadian Intellectual Property Office (n.d.). Retrieved September9, 2012 from http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/introduction.html