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Negotiation as per Librarian's point of view.

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  3. 3. 1What is Negotiation? In one college one psychology department professor came to the library to meet thelibrarian and asked for the „Cognitive Psychology‟ book. In library already there had 2copies. But the professor wanted 2 copies more. Librarian said no to that professor but theprofessor convinced the librarian.The answer to the above question in a simple word “Negotiation”. You negotiate so that youachieve whatever you want without the fear of conflicts or misunderstandings. It is a peacefulway of accomplishing things without making anyone angry.  Negotiating is the process of getting the best terms once the other side starts to act on their interest. - Mark H. McCormack  Negotiation is a field of knowledge and endeavor that focuses on gaining the favor of people from whom we want things. - Herb CohenNegotiation is a technique of discussing issues among one selves and reaching to a conclusionbenefiting all involved in the discussion. It is one of the most effective ways to avoid conflictsand tensions. When individuals do not agree with each other, they sit together, discuss issues onan open forum, negotiate with each other and come to an alternative which satisfies all. In alayman’s language it is also termed as “Bargaining”.Negotiation helps you to achieve your goal without hurting anyone.Negotiation is essential in corporate as well as personal lives to ensure peace and happiness.Example:The Principle asks Librarian to submit a report within two working days and Librarian knowsthat the report is a little critical one and needs more time. Will Librarian say a yes to thePrinciple just to please them? Librarians yes might make the Principle happy then but laterLibrarian will land herself in big trouble if Librarian fail to submit it within the desired timeframe. It’s always better to negotiate with the Principle rather than accepting something whichLibrarian know is difficult. Ask for some more time from Principle or probably don’t make anexhaustive report. Negotiation is better as it would prevent spoiling your relation with superiorslater. 2
  4. 4. Negotiator“An individual representing an organization or a position who listens to all the parties carefullyand comes to a conclusion which is willingly acceptable to all is called the negotiator”.For eg. In library Librarian can be called the negotiator because librarian is the only one personor in that position who listens to all the library staffs carefully and comes to a conclusion.Negotiators implement their negotiation and decision strategies differently depending on whetherthe situations they deal with are instrumental or expressive.Skills of a NegotiatorGood negotiating skills are an asset in today’s information super rich world where Librarians aremore informed and prepared than ever.Good Negotiating skills demands several skill-sets to be executed with precision such as: Empathy Listening Questioning Remembering Attention Language Non-verbal cuesHaving good Negotiating skills means that you can avoid: Self-sacrificing behaviour Losing control of when to negotiate Making unnecessary concessions  A Librarian ideally should be impartial and neutral and should not favour any one.  Librarian needs to understand the situation and the parties well and decide something which will benefit all.  It is not always that people will easily accept the librarian’s decision; they may counter it if they feel their personal interests are not satisfied. In such a situation, where the librarian is left with no choice, he/she must use his power to impose his/her ideas on all, after all one can’t please everyone.
  5. 5. 3  A Librarian has to be a little tactful and smart enough to handle all situations and reach to a conclusion.Elements of Negotiation NEGOTIATION PROCESS BEHAVIOUR SUBSTANCE (AGENDA/ TOPIC)  Process- The way individuals negotiate with each other is called the process of negotiation. The process includes the various techniques and strategies employed to negotiate and reach to a solution.  Behaviour- How two parties behave with each other during the process of negotiation is referred to as behaviour. The way they interact with each other, the way they communicate with each other to make their points clear all come under behaviour.  Substance- There has to be an agenda (Topic) on which individuals negotiate. A topic is important for negotiation.Models of NegotiationNegotiation is defined as a discussion among individuals to reach to a conclusion acceptable toone and all.It is a process where people rather than fighting among themselves sit together, evaluate the prosand cons and then come out with an alternative which would be a win win situation for all.
  6. 6. 4Negotiation helps in reducing conflicts and disputes among each other.Negotiation is essential in every walk of life for a peaceful and stress free living.Example:Ram wanted to purchase a book, he tried his level best to buy it at the lowest discount rate andthe book shopkeeper also ensured that he could earn his profits as well. Thus the negotiationbenefited Ram who didn’t have to shell out loads of money and the book shopkeeper was alsosatisfied because even he earned his profits.Let us go through various models of negotiation:WinWin Model–In Win Win Model, each and every individual involved in negotiation wins. Nobody is at loss inthis model and everyone is benefited out of the negotiation. This is the most accepted model ofnegotiation.Example:Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) wanted to buy a “Cognition” book but it was an expensive book.She went to the shop and negotiated with the publisher to discount the price. Initially thepublisher was unwilling but after several rounds of discussions and arguments, he gave adiscount best suited to him as well as Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian). Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian)was extremely satisfied as she could now purchase the book without burning a hole in herbudget.Win Lose Model– In Win Lose Model one party wins and the other party loses. In such a model, after severalrounds of discussions and negotiations, one party benefits while the party remains dissatisfied.Example:Let us see the above example once again where Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) wanted to buy“Cognition” book . In this example, both Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) and the publisher werebenefited out of the deal. Let us suppose Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) could not even afford theprice quoted by the publisher and requests him to givediscount on the book. If the publisherfurther discountson the book, he would not be able to earn his profits but Mrs. Deshpande(Librarian) would be very happy. Thus after the negotiation, Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) wouldbe satisfied, but the publisher wouldn’t.
  7. 7. 5In a win lose model, both the two parties are not satisfied, only one of the two walks away withthe benefit.LoseLose Model–In LoseLose Model, the outcome of negotiation is zero. No party is benefited out of thismodel.In this model, generally the two parties are not willing to accept each other’s views andare reluctant to compromise. No discussions help.Example:Had Mrs. Deshpande (Librarian) not purchased the book after several rounds of negotiation,neither she nor the publisher would have got anything out of the deal?Mrs. Deshpande(Librarian) would return empty handed and the publisher would obviously not earn anything.RADPAC Model-RADPAC Model of Negotiation is a widely used model of negotiation in corporate.Everyalphabet in this model signifies something:R - RapportA - AnalysisD - DebateP - ProposeA - AgreementC - CloseR - Rapport: As the name suggests, it signifies the relation between parties involved innegotiation. The parties involved in negotiation ideally should be comfortable with each otherand share a good rapport with each other.A - Analysis: One party must understand the second party well. It is important that theindividual understand each other’s needs and interest. The shopkeeper must understand thecustomer’s needs and pocket, in the same way the customer mustn’t ignore the shopkeeper’sprofits as well. People must listen to each other attentively.D - Debate: Nothing can be achieved without discussions. This round includes discussing issuesamong the parties involved in negotiation. The pros and cons of an idea are evaluated in thisround. People debate with each other and each one tries to convince the other. One must not losehis temper in this round but remain calm and composed.
  8. 8. 6P - Propose: Each individual proposes his best idea in this round. Each one tries his level best tocome up with the best possible idea and reach to a conclusion acceptable by all.A - Agreement: Individuals come to a conclusion at this stage and agree to the best possiblealternative.C - Close: The negotiation is complete and individuals return back satisfied.How to Negotiate Effectively?Negotiation is defined as a discussion among individuals, each one trying to present his best ideato come to a conclusion benefiting all. An individual gains nothing out of conflict andmisunderstanding; instead it leads to stress and anxiety. It is always advisable to compromise tothe best extent possible and try to find out an alternative which satisfies all.An individual needs to adopt certain skills for a successful negotiation.An individual before starting with the negotiation must be very clear with the agenda (topic) ofthe negotiation.A good negotiator must react sensibly. He should never lose his temper or over react.If negotiator are unhappy with the deal, negotiator has to show displeasure. Negotiator has toshow unhappiness to others.Negotiator doesn’t keep things to himself/herself or assume that the others will understand it ontheir own. One has to voice his opinions. Negotiator realizes to other that he/she is not satisfiedwith the deal and it must be revised.Negotiator need to convince others and it needs patience. Never be in a hurry to close the deal.One needs to be confident enough for an effective negotiation.Stay firm on your quotes and do not change statements quite often. Don’t play with words or tryto confuse others. One needs to be straightforward from the very beginning.Avoid shouting or using derogatory statements against anyone. If negotiator are not satisfiedwith the deal. It’s better to quit rather than fighting and using abusive languages.
  9. 9. 7Be very clear in your communication. Be a good listener.Don’t jump to conclusions; instead listen to what the other party offers. Understand his situationwell.Negotiation TechniquesNegotiation is referred to as the style of discussing things among individuals in an effort to cometo a conclusion satisfying all the parties involved. Discussions should be on an open forum foreveryone to not only participate but also express their views and reach to an alternativeacceptable to all.Negotiation must be in a dignified way. One has to be extremely patient and also understand thesecond party’s needs and interests as well. Never impose your ideas on anyone. Let everyonespeak their mind and decide something which would favour one and all.Example:Librarian wanted to purchase a new books for the whole academic year. She checked out theprices of almost all the leading publishers along with their quotas before going to give a finalorder. Librarian went well prepared and thus managed to crack the best deal and took the bestquality books with the maximum possible discount.Let us go through some negotiation techniques in detail. Following negotiation techniquesused by the Librarian in the library. 1. Take good care of your posture as well as your body movements - Librarian has to look confident, while speaking. Don’t look around or play with things. It’s just a discussion, no one will kill him/her if he/she are not able to close the deal. Don’t stammer in between or start sweating in front of others. The second party will take undue advantage if they find he/she nervous. Take care of his/her dressing as well. Don’t wear anything which is too casual. If his/her dress casually people will not take you seriously. 2. Be very focused - One should be very specific what he/she wants. First ask librarian himself/herself what is the purpose of this negotiation? What do you actually want? What is the affordable price for negotiator? Be firm and stick to it. Be very specific and clear.
  10. 10. 83. Never keep things to yourself and crib later - Don’t assume that the other person can read librarian mind on his own. One needs to ask for what mind wants. A mother will not feed her child unless and until he cries. If librarian is not satisfied with the deal, librarian has to show displeasure to others.4. Be a patient listener - Librarian has to listen to others as well. Think about their interest and needs as well. Don’t ask for anything which would not benefit the second party. Don’t jump to conclusions and never interfere when the other person is speaking. Listen to the other party’s proposal as well; some people might come up with something unique which librarian could not even think.5. Be realistic - Don’t ask for something librarian himself/herself knows is not possible. Don’t quote anything just for the sake of it. One should be a little practical in his approach. Don’t ask for irrational discounts. Be logical. It’s nothing bad to think about his/her personal interests, but one should not be mad for it. If librarian wants to purchase something, also remember that the publisher has to earn his profits as well.6. Don‟t be in a hurry to close the deal – Librarian has to take decision himself/herself. Make sure librarian is deciding something which would be a win win situation for all. Never drag any discussion and make the conversation too long. Too much of pleading and persuasion result in a big zero and no conclusion can be drawn out of it.7. Know where to compromise – An individual has to compromise sometimes to come to an output. If librarianfeel that if he/she accepts some terms and conditions, things would be better and it would not harm librarian much, go ahead. Everyone needs to compromise sometimes or the other. Even in marriages, one partner needs to negotiate with the other for better understanding.8. Communication is also important in negotiation – Speak clearly and precisely. One should not confuse others. Playing with words is one of the biggest threats to negotiation. Don’t use insulting or rude remarks against anyone.
  11. 11. 9 9. For a third party it‟s always better to sign a contract - It’s always better to sign agreements in the presence of both the parties for better transparency. At workplace after every discussion and negotiation, emails or minutes of the meeting must be circulated among all the team members for everyone to get a clear and the same picture.Role of Communication in NegotiationAn effective communication is directly proportional to an effective negotiation.The better the communication is the better the negotiation would be. Discussion does not meanfighting and shouting, instead it is simply the exchange of one’s ideas, thoughts and opinionswith each other.One needs to have excellent communication skills for a healthy and an effective discussion.Communication is an art and one should master it to excel in all kinds of negotiation. The otherperson will never come to know about your thoughts and ideas unless and until you share it withthem. One can’t see your grey matter. Lot depends on how you speak.One should very sensibly convert his thoughts into a speech by carefully selecting relevantwords.One must speak clearly what other persons expect from you.Don’t eat your words and try to confuse others.Be careful about the words. One should never use insulting sentences or fowl words in his/herspeech. Understand the power of speech.The way librarian present himself/herself thought matters a lot. Don’t speak just for the sake ofit. Haphazard thoughts and abstract ideas only lead to confusions.Librarian thoughts and ideas must be expressed clearly for others to understand well. Be crispand precise in your speech.Librarian style, Librarian accent, Librarian pronunciations are also important.
  12. 12. 10It’s always better to depend on written modes of communication like emails, letters, documentsor agreements for better reliability. Use corporate terminologies, professional jargons and neveruse irrelevant statements in your speech. It is considered highly unprofessional.Don’t be rude and harsh on others.Non verbal communication also plays an important role in an effective negotiation. Our facialexpressions hand movements, posture matter a lot and must never be ignored.Be very confident and show a positive attitude.Don’t forget to carry your smile.Flash your million dollar smile but don’t laugh unnecessarily orcrack silly jokes in between.Concentrate on the negotiation and don’t look here and there.Example : What was Samir‟s mistake ?Samir was the clerk in HR College Library Department. Samir wanted to some stationaryin thelibrary which are not useful regularly but that was necessary but his only mistake was he did notspeak in a convincing manner to the HR College Librarian. Unfortunately Samir hadn’t spokenclearly and explained the Librarian as to why the stationary should be important in the library. Inthis case the negotiation was not a fruitful one as nobody gained anything.Role of Personality in NegotiationAn impressive personality goes hand in hand with good communication for an effectivenegotiation. A charming personality is the key to an effective negotiation.Let us understand how one‟s personality traits help in an effective negotiation.If Librarians not satisfied with the deal, do not pretend that librarian is happy.Be normal andrelax.Sincerity is one of the most important personality traits required in negotiation.Don’t take thingscasually.The agendaof the negotiation must be very clear to you. Carry all the related documentswhich you might require at the time of negotiation. Don’t go just for the sake of it.Be honest. Don’t fake things. During negotiations, honesty plays an important role.
  13. 13. 11It has been observed that impatient individuals are poor negotiators.Give priority to one’s personal interests but one should not be selfish.Don’t always find faults in others. Not all people are bad; there are people who are really goodand helpful. One should not always think that the other person would do harm to him.If someone is wearing a nice clothes, do take the initiative to give them a compliment.Example:If Librarian know the book costs i.e. 25000/-, Librarian doesn’t go and lie to the principle that itis much cheaper in the other publisher. Remember even principle keeps a check on the pricewhat his fellow publisher owner is offering. It’s better if Librarian asks for some discounts orprobably some additional accessories rather than reducing the price which Librarian know islittle difficult for the publisher.Our dressing plays an important role in enhancing our personality. A shabbily dressed personwill find it very difficult to convince the other person.Example:Let us suppose if you are a Librarian and user will come to the visit of your library and ask for aparticular book. Where you are not smartly dressed, has a very casual approach and is almosthalf asleep, will user feel interacting with you? User will obviously not bother to even listen toyou.Smart dressing does not mean wearing expensive clothes; instead it is dressing appropriatelyaccording to the occasion.Role of Emotions in NegotiationNegotiation is defined as a discussion among individuals where everyone contributes equally toreach to a conclusion benefiting all. Lot of factors influence the process of negotiation,Negotiator emotions being one of the major factors. Negotiator mood decides a lot many things.If one is in a happy mood, everything seems perfect and good to him. Individuals with apositive attitude tend to trust each other better. They take keen interest in the negotiation andactively participate in discussions. They try their level best to come up with a suggestion and
  14. 14. 12contribute effectively in the discussion. They do not unnecessarily find faults in other people andalways try to take things in a positive way. A happy and a positive person would always lookforward towards a concrete solution which would benefit him as well as the other party involved.Try to be cheerful always. One looks his/her best when he/she smiles.Anger is one of the most negative emotions acting as a hurdle to an effective negotiation. Aperson loses control on his mind and is not in a position to think constructively in a state ofanger. One’s anger must be kept under control for an effective negotiation. Don’t overreact onpetty issues. Anger only leads to conflicts and misunderstandings and does not solve anyproblem. An individual should learn to keep a control on his tongue. Don’t say anything whichmight hurt the other person.One needs to be friendly with the second party. Learn to trust him/her but don’t get tooinvolved in friendships. Everything has a limit and same goes with friendship as well. The otherperson might expect unnecessary favours from your side.Example:Mr. Bansod (Librarian) knew Mr. Mayekar since childhood; Mr. Mayekar was working with aretail book shop. Mr. Bansod (Librarian) wanted to purchase some books for library for givenbook bank scheme to the students and went straight to Me. Mayekarbook shop. Mr. Bansod(Librarian)and Mr. Mayekar were child hood friends and thus Mr. Bansod (Librarian) asked formore discounts as compared to what originally is offered to the other customers. Mr. Mayekarwas bound by the store policies but he could not even refuse Mr. Bansod (Librarian). He wasreally helpless and could not manage to offer Mr. Bansod (Librarian) the discounts he hadquoted. Mr. Bansod (Librarian) went back empty handed, the negotiation was not at all fruitfuland nobody gained anything out of it.Friendship should be within a limit, otherwise unrealistic expectations arise which are alittle difficult to fulfill.Negotiations must be with a clear and a tension free mind. An individual’s mind is unable totake any decisions and librarian finds it difficult to develop an interest in the negotiation. We allknow that tensions come uninvited, but it would be wise, if librarian keep the tensions on theback burner for some time when librarian are involved in negotiation.One should be calm and composed. Never lose cool and shout on the second party.Alwaysensure those librarians are comfortable with the second party. Don’t take rash decisions and oneshould not interfere while the other person is speaking. Always analyze the situation well andthen only come to any conclusion. One should try and adopt a step by step approach. Don’t
  15. 15. 13Expect the result to come out within a second. Librarian has to take time to convince the otherparty but do not drag the conversation too long. It becomes monotonous and one tends to loseinterest.Don‟t stress librarian itself at the time of negotiation. Whatever has to happen will definitelyhappen. Taking stress does not help. It’s better to relax and let things happen on their own. Noone will kill librarian, if librarian is not able to close the deal, there is always anotheropportunity. Unnecessary stress makes librarian feel nervous and librarianend to lose his/herconfidence as well.Avoid being clever. Don’t try to fool the other person. One should not fake things or manipulatethe truth. Tampering data would only add to confusions. Be honest in dealings. Neverunderestimate anyone.Learn to compromise sometimes. An individual must not be too rigid. At times it’s good to takethe initiative and be the first one to accept things.Being positive always helps. Negative emotions only lead to negativity around and triggerconflicts and misunderstandings among individuals. Fighting till date has never benefitedanyone; it simply adds on to one’s tensions and nullifies the effect of negotiation.Tips for Librarians for a Successful NegotiationNegotiation is a technique employed to avoid conflicts and decide something which wouldbenefit all. Individuals negotiate with each other and try to reach to a solution satisfying all.Negotiation is not possible unless and until individuals learn to compromise to some extent andstop finding faults in each other. Librarians must know how to negotiate well to successfully close deals, avoid conflicts, betterrelations among the library staffs and making the organization a better place to work. Anindividual spends his maximum time at his workplace and thus it is important that he/she isrelaxed and tension free here for better concentration and output. If librarian do not agree withstaff members, do not fight with them, it is always better to negotiate and find out a solutionwhich would make librarian as well as them happy.
  16. 16. 14Some tips for Librarians for a successful negotiation. 1. Preparation – It is essential that an individual prepares well for negotiation. If college principle has chosen librarian for the negotiation with an external party; they must have noticed some spark in librarian. Librarian accept the challenge willingly; librarian don’t accept anything out of fear. Librarian has to go through all the relevant details carefully. If librarian are not clear with anything, If librarian has some doubt in his/her mind then he/she have to clarify with college principle beforehand rather than going for a negotiation. 2. Stay alert – Librarian has to keep eyes and ears open during negotiation. Remember the other party would try hard to convince and impose their decisions. Negotiator don’t have to fall a prey to the other party. If librarians are not in a mood to negotiate, it is always better to postpone it rather than messing up things. 3. Confidence – Confidence is the key to an effective negotiation. A librarian needs to be confident enough to make his points clear in front of the other party. The other person can ask him/her anything and he/she can’t afford to be nervous in front of them. Librarian has to be an intelligent enough to answer all his questions. A confident person always leaves his impression on others and people look up to him/her. 4. Be cautious – Librarian has to be very careful with his/her paper work. Study the papers carefully and do take all the necessary documents along with him/her when he/she is going for any negotiation. Prepare the necessary agreements and contracts well in advance and leave space for the terms and conditions as well as signatures of both the parties. These formalities ought to be done once the negotiation is complete. 5. Avoid delays – Librarian should always reach for Library Committee meetings on time. Don’t keep the other principle or trusty waiting. If the time for the negotiation is 10 am make sure that you are there at 9.45 am. Time is precious for everyone and one should make the best use of it.
  17. 17. 156. Understand the other person well – For an effective negotiation, it is important that librarian understand the needs and expectations of the other person as well. It is natural to be more concerned for one’s own things, but one must not also ignore the other person’s interests as well. Remember he/she has also come for decision. It is important that both the parties are involved in a healthy discussion on an open forum and evaluate the pros and cons of the plans carefully to decide something which would be beneficial to all. Never underestimate anyone. Make sure that everyone is happy after the negotiation. No one should complain.7. Don‟t cheat anyone – Librarian should be honest during negotiation. Librarian should speak only when he/she is sure about it. Don’t depend on guess works or assumptions. They don’t work in professional scenarios. It is unethical to fake things or manipulate truth. Librarian should be honest in his dealings for a fair negotiation and to avoid confusions later. Librarian will not gain much out of lies and dishonesty.8. Always have an alternate plan with librarian– If librarian plan A fails, make sure he/she is ready to present his/her plan B. An option is important. Librarian should not rely on a single plan. Librarian never know which plan would click with others.9. One must know the purpose of negotiation – Why do librarian think librarian needs the negotiation? Librarian should be clear about his/her expectations from the negotiation. The agenda (topic) of the negotiation must be clear. Make sure librarian have realistic expectations. Don’t ask for something which would incur a loss to the other party. Please don’t expect impossible things to happen.10. Don‟t get too involved in the negotiation – Librarian has to learn to keep control on his/her emotions. Librarian should not take any decision out of emotion. Don’t tend to ignore things just because librarians are dealing with their friend. Professional life must be kept separate from their personal interests. Librarian has to give more priority to work.
  18. 18. 1611. Maintain the decorum of the place – Don’t use foul words or abusive language against anyone. Never insult anyone. If the second party is not convinced, discuss with him/her but never stoop to derogatory acts. That is absolutely unacceptable.12. Be a good communicator – Clarity in thoughts is important and ideas must be communicated clearly to the other person. Don’t try to confuse others. Librarian has to make sure that he/she don’t adopt a casual approach. Use relevant words. Add professional jargons and corporate terminologies in his/her speech. Librarian should be careful about his pitch and tone as well. Pitch should neither be too high nor too low. It must be audible to everyone.13. Be patient – Negotiation needs time and one ought to be patient enough to interact, understand the second party and make his points clear. Don’t try to wind up the negotiation quickly. Librarian never impose his/her decisions on others or rush for conclusions.14. Don‟t drag the conversation too long – Once the conclusion is reached, it’s better to close the deal. Don’t wait for some more miracles to happen. Don’t make the negotiation too dull otherwise the parties will lose interest in the discussion. The discussion should be interesting and everyone should participate in it. Librarian has to express his/her opinions at the time of discussion, rather than cribbing later.15. Librarian should not act pricy or pretend things – Librarian hastried to react in a normal way. Don’t be rude to anyone. Be at ease and things will automatically fall in place. One should be comfortable with the second party for a better negotiation.16. Chose a proper room for better negotiations – A conference room, a meeting room or probably the board room is the ideal choice. Opt for a noise free place. Don’t make the discussion too formal. Librarian can order some snacks as well. Always carry a pen and a notepad to jot down important points for future reference. If librarian have to deliver any presentation, make sure it is properly downloaded in his/her laptop. Do check once before going for the negotiation. It might
  19. 19. 17 embarrass librarian in front of others. Dress appropriately for the deal. Prefer formals for the desired impact.No one would hang librarian if he/she is unable to close the deal, so avoid fighting with anyoneunnecessarily. It’s better to ignore minor things. Don’t make issues out of petty things. Librarianshould learn to compromise sometimes and strive hard to come to a conclusion.ConclusionNegotiation is simply a technique, a discussion among individuals to reach to a mutualagreement where everyone gains something or the other and conflicts are avoided.Negotiation isreferred to as the style of discussing things among individuals in an effort to come to aconclusion satisfying all the parties involved.Negotiating will help librarian work more effectively and can also help librarian get a pay rise,time off, a new job, more help or more recognition. It is a skill everyone can apply in almostevery aspect of our life, right down to our personal relationships.ReferencesAn Overview on Negotiation, Retrieved November 2, 2012, from , Meaningful Definition of Negotiation, Retrieved November 5, 2012, from, Skills Definition, Retrieved November 6, 2012, from,