Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise
Introduction to
A3 Problem Solving
2009 Lean
Six Sigma
Conference
March 2-3,
20...
Building Blocks of a Lean
Enterprise
Lean Enterprise
TPM

Cellular & Flow Pull System & Kanban

Error-proofing Batch Size ...
What is A3?
• A3 refers to the size of the sheet of paper
(11” x 17”)
• A simple way to capture data and
information
• A s...
Ways to Use A3s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Describe, understand and solve a problem
Present a new product concept
Propose a techni...
Strategic A3 Forms
Location/
Department(s)

Company

Competitors

Planning Period

Team

Market Segmentation (Industry, Lo...
Process
• Standard Work
– Standard Work
Combination Sheet
– One-point Lessons

• Problem Solving
Future State/Ta rge t Co ...
Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise
P-D-C-A
Plan-Do-Check-Act

Profero, Inc.
124 W. Polk Street
Suite 101
Chicago, ...
Plan
• Select the problem to be analyzed
• Clearly define the problem and establish a precise
problem statement
• Identify...
Check
• Gather data on the solution
• Analyze the data on the solution
• Review the action, analyze the results and
identi...
PDCA Flow
• Use these seven
steps to help lead you
Plan
through the PDCA
cycle
• If after “Check” you
didn’t have the resu...
Problem Solving Teams
• A3s are perfect to
facilitate team based
problem solving
• Teams outperform
individuals (one brain...
Advantages of Using A3s
• By allowing the team to focus, this reduces
the time needed to prepare and implement
the ideas

...
8 Wastes
• As part of Lean, you have
to learn how to identify
waste so that you can
eliminate it
• As part of problem
solv...
Selecting tools
• Select the correct tool (or tools)
• Think about the resources (cost, time,
effort, hardware, software, ...
Other Tools
• There are many other problem solving
tools and techniques
• Practice, practice, practice
• Learn new tools a...
The A3 Form
• The form itself is not the solution – it’s the
thinking and the process that makes A3 a
powerful tool
• Ther...
Typical A3 Layout For Problem Solving
A3 Form

Company

Project/Date

Location/
Department(s)

Future State/Target Conditi...
Header Information
• Basic information about the company,
team, date. etc.
• Consider that you will be doing many of
these...
Current State Information
• Provide facts, data, and information – “go
see”
• Make it visual – consider using graphs,
draw...
Future State
• Future State or target conditions
• Answer the question “What do you really
want?”
• What are the counterme...
Metrics/Results/Follow-up
• Metrics, results, follow-up, cost-benefit
• This is the opportunity to show how close the
resu...
Working Document
• A3s are working documents
• There aren’t meant to be picture perfect or
pretty (although they must be s...
Healthcare

© Profero, Inc. 2008

45

Office
Department/Location

Storeroom

Leader/Team

Business Case (State the compell...
Advantages
• Allows the progress, review and Lessons
Learned to be reviewed by different
interested parties like: manageme...
Thank you
• Feel free to contact
me if you have any
comments or
questions
• Visit our website for
free downloads and
more ...
Recommended Reading

The Toyota Way –
14 Management
Principles from the
World’s Greatest
Manufacturer by
Jeffrey Liker

A3...
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A3 analisis

  1. 1. Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise Introduction to A3 Problem Solving 2009 Lean Six Sigma Conference March 2-3, 2009 • Phoenix, Arizona Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com Problem Solving through People Developed by Anthony Manos Monday, March 2, 2009 2:00 pm – 3: 00 pm Session C6 © Profero, Inc. 2008 1 Agenda • • • • • • Introduction to A3 P-D-C-A cycle Team Based Problem Solving Problem Solving Tools The A3 Report Real World Application © Profero, Inc. 2008 2 1
  2. 2. Building Blocks of a Lean Enterprise Lean Enterprise TPM Cellular & Flow Pull System & Kanban Error-proofing Batch Size Reduction Quick Changeover V S M Standard Work Teams Layout POUS Problem Solving Kaizen Visual 5S Planning Leadership © Profero, Inc. 2008 3 Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise Introduction to A3 “What is this A3 thing I keep hearing about?” Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 4 2
  3. 3. What is A3? • A3 refers to the size of the sheet of paper (11” x 17”) • A simple way to capture data and information • A standardized approach for team based problem solving • An easy way to visually communicate information and ideas – it tells the story © Profero, Inc. 2008 5 History of A3 • Part of Toyota’s Quality Circle problem solving efforts in the 1960s • It allowed the teams to get the most important information on one sheet of paper to easily read, understand and make decisions • If you can’t say it with one page, you’re not concise enough • Toyota and others have different styles of A3 based on scope and need © Profero, Inc. 2008 6 3
  4. 4. Ways to Use A3s • • • • • • • • • Describe, understand and solve a problem Present a new product concept Propose a technical solution Capture knowledge from past programs Explain an organization’s vision, mission and values Team Charters Present market research and customer data Analyze trade-off decisions or cost-benefits Document a standard procedure or test © Profero, Inc. 2008 7 Scopes of A3s • Strategic – Hoshin, Business Planning • System – Value Stream Mapping, Design Team Planning • Process – Standard Work – Problem solving © Profero, Inc. 2008 8 4
  5. 5. Strategic A3 Forms Location/ Department(s) Company Competitors Planning Period Team Market Segmentation (Industry, Location, Size, etc.) Name Porter Analysis Location Product Differentiation X X Competitive Scope X Opportunities Threats 5 Forces Diagram Target Segment X Gap Analysis Instructions: Rate your organization versus your competition based on the following criteria. Circle “best-in-class”. Determine Gaps and identify opportunities for improvement. Differentiation Multiple Sgements Low Cost Radar Chart Opprotunities/Marketing Strategy 1 = low 10 = high Market Development Service/Product Development Diversifica tion Gap Company Competitor 3 Competitor 4 Competitor 1 New Markets Market Penetration New Products/ Services Item Competitor 2 Current Markets Current Prod ucts/ Services New Entrants 1. Quality 2. Cost 3. On-time Delivery Suppliers Rivalry Buyers 4. Service 5. Product/Service development 6. Understanding Market/Customers 7. Marketing/Sales Substitues 8. Value Added 9. 10. 11. 12. A3 Form Company Location/ Department(s) Function www.proferoin c.com Team Reports to Planning Period Team Notes How Team Tactics 6 7 8 Process Key Processes 5 Strategies • • • • Environmental Scan SWOT Analysis Vision, Mission, Values Competitor Analysis Radar Chart and Gap Analysis Tree Diagram X-box (X-matrix) Deployment Plan Plan Review From Relationship Diagram • • • • • 1 3 Impact 2 4 Team Legend Team Leader Value Stream Profit Impact Team Member (or expected to attend meetings) Participation on team is not full-time Revenue Measurable Results Development Costs Correlation Legend Material Costs Very Strong Relationship Conversion Cost Important Relationship Value Stream Profit Weak Relationship A3 Form www.proferoin c.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 9 System A3 Forms • Value Stream Maps – Current State – Future State – Ideal State • Design Team Plans Implementation Plan/Milestones (Who, What, When, Status) Company Goodenuff, Inc. Planning Period January – December 20XX Location/ Department(s) Anytown, USA 5S Design Team Ilene, Bob, Ralph, Jennifer, Justin Item/Date Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Oct Nov Dec 1a 5a 3a 2a 4a 6a 6b 1b 3b 5b 2a 4a 25% 25% 40% 40% 60% 60% 60% 60% 80% 80% 100% 100% We will use 5S as the start of our Lean implementation program to improve our areas. We will: improve safety, reduce search time, reduce unneeded inventory, take less time to do tasks, reduce stress, impress customers, use visual controls and generally make our jobs easier. 5S Zone Map Area We have too much of some inventory and not enough of what we need. It takes too long for us to find items. We estimate that each person spends at least 15 minutes per day looking for things. We have had 5 loss work time accidents last year. The areas are cluttered and messy. Future State/Target Condition/ Goasl/Objectives Area Leader Sue Mark, Ba rb Ji m 5 5S Champi on Zone 1 Current State/Data/Facts/ Information Jennifer, Ralph Zone 2 Zone 3 To m 6 Ilene, Justin Zone 4 Lisa Marge Jennifer, Ralph Zone 6 Kim Mark, Ba rb 2 4 Measurements/Metrics/Results/ Follow-up Communication/ Learning/ Reward & Recognition Plan Communication Plan Jan 5S N ewsletter Zone 1 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Zone 2 Z one 3 Z one 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 6 Zone 1 Jul Zone 1 Z one 2 Z one 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 1 5S Tours Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 1 Z one 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 20 mi nute 5S Meeting s Zone 4 Zone 5 Z one 6 Zone 1 3 Ilene, Justin Zone 5 We want to have the right inventory, in the right amounts, where we use it. Everyone can pass the “30-second Rule” to find items. We can reduce search time by 50%. We can reduce safety incidents to zero loss work time. We will make our jobs easier, impress customers and improve morale. 5S Commun ication Bo ard Sep Zone P ercentage of People Trained Background/Business Case/ Reason/Need/Issue 5S Scores Jan Feb B etter than goal Close to goal 6 1 Did not meet goal 5S Levels Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Goal Current Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 1 Zo ne 2 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zo ne 3 Learning Plan 5S Champ ion Training 5S Overview Trai ning (2 hou r) Jan X X X Mar X Apr X X X Jun Jul Aug Jul Aug X Sep Feb Nov Dec Zo ne 4 Dec Percentag e of emp loyees trained X X X X Mar Apr Zo ne 5 X X May X X Level Advancement Oct X X Jan Most i mproved area Jun X X President’s Awa rd (Semi-annual) Outsta ndi ng Effort Award May X 5S Auditing Traini ng 5S for Sup ervisors & Mana gers Reward & Recognition Plan Feb X X Oct X Nov X X X X Zo ne 6 X Sep X X X 5S Events completed on-time 5S implementation A3 Form © Profero, Inc. 2008 Loss Workdays 0 www.5Ssupply.com 10 5
  6. 6. Process • Standard Work – Standard Work Combination Sheet – One-point Lessons • Problem Solving Future State/Ta rge t Co nd iti on Comp an y Pr oje ct/Da te Lo ca tion / De pa rtmen t( s) Te am B ackgr ou nd/B usin ess Case/ Rea son/Ne ed /Issue Cu rre nt S tate Imp lem enta ti on P lan ( Who , Wh at, Whe n, Status) P rob le m A na lysis Metrics/Resu lts/Fo llo w-up / Co st-B en efit A3 Fo rm © Profero, Inc. 2008 w ww.p rofe roi nc.co m 11 A3 Timeline • Long-term = Strategic (6-12+ months) • Medium Term = System (1 week – 6 months) • Short-term = Kaizen Event (1 week) Kaizen Event Problem Solving A3 VSM © Profero, Inc. 2008 Strategy 12 6
  7. 7. Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise P-D-C-A Plan-Do-Check-Act Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 13 P-D-C-A Cycle • Shewart Cycle or Deming Cycle • Core of improvement activities • A.k.a. Plan-Do-StudyAct • Never-ending 4. Act 1. Plan 3. Check 2. Do © Profero, Inc. 2008 14 7
  8. 8. Plan • Select the problem to be analyzed • Clearly define the problem and establish a precise problem statement • Identify the processes that impact the problem and select one • List the steps in the process as it currently exists • Map the Process • Identify potential cause of the problem • Collect and analyze data related to the problem • Verify or revise the original problem statement • Identify root causes of the problem © Profero, Inc. 2008 15 Do • Establish criteria for selecting a solution • Generate potential solutions that will address the root causes of the problem • Select a solution • Gain approval and support of the chosen solution • Plan the solution • “Test” the change • Implement the chosen solution on a trial or pilot basis © Profero, Inc. 2008 16 8
  9. 9. Check • Gather data on the solution • Analyze the data on the solution • Review the action, analyze the results and identify what lessons learned • Use the measure or metrics to determine Planned Vs. Actual © Profero, Inc. 2008 17 Act • Take action based on what you learned in the Check step - If the change did not work, go through the cycle again with a different plan. If you were successful, standardize to the new way • Use what you learned to plan new improvements, beginning the cycle again • Identify systemic changes and training needs for full implementation • Adopt the solution • Plan ongoing monitoring of the solution • Continue to look for incremental improvements to refine the solution • Look for another improvement opportunity © Profero, Inc. 2008 18 9
  10. 10. PDCA Flow • Use these seven steps to help lead you Plan through the PDCA cycle • If after “Check” you didn’t have the results needed the next step Do is to capture Lessons Learned and go back Check to “Plan” Act Define problem Analyze problem Identify Cause Plan Solution Implement Solution Confirm Results Standardize © Profero, Inc. 2008 19 Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise Team Based Problem Solving “When the team wins, everybody wins.” Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 20 10
  11. 11. Problem Solving Teams • A3s are perfect to facilitate team based problem solving • Teams outperform individuals (one brain versus many) • Working together to solve the problem builds buy-in and ownership © Profero, Inc. 2008 21 Team Make-up • Typically Problem solving A3s are made up of small groups (approximately 3-5 people) • Having process owners or value-adders is a must • A good cross-functional representation is recommended • This allows the people closest to the problem to make an impact © Profero, Inc. 2008 22 11
  12. 12. Advantages of Using A3s • By allowing the team to focus, this reduces the time needed to prepare and implement the ideas © Profero, Inc. 2008 23 Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise Problem Solving Tools “When all you have is a hammer, everything looks like nail.” Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 24 12
  13. 13. 8 Wastes • As part of Lean, you have to learn how to identify waste so that you can eliminate it • As part of problem solving, try to eliminate waste and other nonvalue added activities • • • • • • • • OMIT What U DO Overproduction Motion Inventory Transportation Waiting Under-utilized people Defects Over-processing © Profero, Inc. 2008 25 Examples of Tools for A3 • • • • • • • • • • • 5 Whys Affinity Diagram Brainstorming Check Sheet Control Charts Fishbone Diagram Flow Chart Gantt Chart Histogram Matrix Diagram Pareto Diagram • • • • • • • • • • © Profero, Inc. 2008 PDPC Radar Chart Relations Diagram Activity Network Diagram Run Chart Scatter Diagram Sketches Spaghetti Diagram Tree Diagram Value Stream Map 26 13
  14. 14. Selecting tools • Select the correct tool (or tools) • Think about the resources (cost, time, effort, hardware, software, people) needed to use the tool • Train others in the use of the tool if necessary • Data integrity (GIGO) • Don’t get stuck in analysis paralysis © Profero, Inc. 2008 27 Building Blocks of a Lean Enterprise Lean Enterprise TPM Cellular & Flow Pull System & Kanban Error-proofing Batch Size Reduction Quick Changeover V S M Standard Work Teams Layout POUS Problem Solving Kaizen Visual 5S Planning Leadership © Profero, Inc. 2008 28 14
  15. 15. Other Tools • There are many other problem solving tools and techniques • Practice, practice, practice • Learn new tools as you go © Profero, Inc. 2008 29 Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise The A3 Form Clear, concise, simple Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 30 15
  16. 16. The A3 Form • The form itself is not the solution – it’s the thinking and the process that makes A3 a powerful tool • There are different versions of the form based on scope and need – there is no one A3 form that does it all; make it fit your requirements • It is typically read from the upper left corner down and then the upper right side down © Profero, Inc. 2008 31 Typical Information on A3 • Title/header information • Background information, business case, reason, need, issue • Current State • Problem Analysis • Future State, target condition • Implementation plan (who, what, when, when, where, status) • Metrics, results, follow-up, cost-benefit analysis © Profero, Inc. 2008 32 16
  17. 17. Typical A3 Layout For Problem Solving A3 Form Company Project/Date Location/ Department(s) Future State/Target Condition Team Background/Business Case/ Reason/Need/Issue Future State, Target Condition Current State Title, Header Information Background, Case, Reason, Need, Issue The size of the boxes can be larger or smaller Current State The title and style based on of the boxes can need Implementation Plan (Who, What, When, Status) Implementation be changed based Plan on need and application Problem Analysis Metrics/Results/Follow-up/CostBenefit Problem Analysis Metrics, Results, Follow-up © Profero, Inc. 2008 33 www.proferoinc.com Format • Use words only when you can’t describe the situation with a drawing, sketch, graph, chart, diagram or something visual • The A3 should be easy to read, logical and tell a story © Profero, Inc. 2008 34 17
  18. 18. Header Information • Basic information about the company, team, date. etc. • Consider that you will be doing many of these and therefore need to have a way to identify them by area or team © Profero, Inc. 2008 35 Background • Background, business case, reason, need, or issue • Focus on the issue or problem, not the solution • Use a customer focus if needed © Profero, Inc. 2008 36 18
  19. 19. Current State Information • Provide facts, data, and information – “go see” • Make it visual – consider using graphs, drawings, etc. • Do not judge – reserve that for the analysis phase • Do not solve the problem during this phase – you may end up with a solution that will cause more problems later © Profero, Inc. 2008 37 Problem Analysis • At this point, analyze the information that you have gathered • Try to get to the root cause of the problem • Use tools such as the “5 Whys” © Profero, Inc. 2008 38 19
  20. 20. Future State • Future State or target conditions • Answer the question “What do you really want?” • What are the countermeasures to the specific issue? • Keep the customer in mind • Don’t optimize one area and sub-optimize another • Use “Creativity before capital” © Profero, Inc. 2008 39 Implementation Plan • Who, what, when, status • Layout the steps and timing – consider if things can be done concurrent or parallel • Make sure to identify the team leaders • Determine a way to keep track of the progress – typically through measures or metrics © Profero, Inc. 2008 40 20
  21. 21. Metrics/Results/Follow-up • Metrics, results, follow-up, cost-benefit • This is the opportunity to show how close the results were to plan (a.k.a. Plan vs. Actual) • Since the scientific method is part of Toyota’s DNA, this allows the team to “experiment” to achieve the best results • Prioritizing projects based on cost-benefit comparison • Consider the total long-term impact on the organization © Profero, Inc. 2008 41 Intangible benefits • Try converting intangible benefits also into dollar terms, so as to have the same units of comparison • Enlist accountants’ help • Realize that there are other benefits other than just money like: – Safety, Quality, Ergonomics, Search time, Morale, Customer satisfaction, Teamwork, Employee satisfaction/retention, Pleasant organized workplace © Profero, Inc. 2008 42 21
  22. 22. Working Document • A3s are working documents • There aren’t meant to be picture perfect or pretty (although they must be somewhat legible) • Don’t waste time to put in on a computer, use digital photos, etc. • Use pencil and eraser! © Profero, Inc. 2008 43 Manufacturing © Profero, Inc. 2008 44 22
  23. 23. Healthcare © Profero, Inc. 2008 45 Office Department/Location Storeroom Leader/Team Business Case (State the compelling reason why this is important) We spend too much time searching for the right toner cartridges/ink cartridges in the storeroom. Sometimes it can take two (or more) trips to get the right one. Purchasing switches the brands to get a better price and we’re not sure which one to use. If we have 20 printers and we waste 15 minutes each time we search for it (on average once a month) then we waste 60 man-hours per year just to get a toner/ink cartridge! Current State (How it is today) We don’t always have the right toner/ink cartridges or don’t know which one to use because purchasing gets different brands to save money. We waste time searching for them in the storeroom even though the shelves are marked. Ilene Werk, Justin Tyme, Seymour Waiste Future State (How we want it to be) 1. When a new printer is bought, it will be labeled by the IT department with the type of toner/ink cartridge and the shelf location in the storeroom. 2. Each printer will have one toner/ink cartridge at point of use. 3. When a toner/ink cartridge needs to be replaced, the user puts in the new toner/ink cartridge and returns the empty to the receptionist to order a new one. Implementation (What is our plan to get there) Who What When Notes M T W R F Since we know that printers wear out or we have to get new ones, there will always be a different model and type of toner/ink cartridges to deal with. We waste time trying to find the right toner/ink cartridge Why: because we’re not always sure which one to use Why: it’s not clear which type to use Why: we have many types in the storeroom Why: no one verifies what we have Why: not assigned to anyone Setup IT One point lesson X Change shelves and label X Jennifer Make sure printers are labeled Jennifer Toner/Ink cartridge at POUS George Problem Analysis (Use data, information, 5 Whys, Pareto Analysis, etc. We have 20 printers, 8 different models and 36 different toner/ink cartridges in the storeroom. We even found 10 toner cartridges that we don’t use anymore. Ralph Joanne Train receptionist on new procedure Train IT Help Desk Red Tag unneeded items X X X Standardized labels X Label storage spot X Metrics (How do we know we are making progress?) Time to retrieve toner/ink cartridges Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 15 6 4 2 1 1 Toner/ink cartridge inventory Inventory We need a simple system to be able to get the right toner/ink cartridge even when purchasing buys different brands. Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 46 25 15 10 10 11 Signed by: Ilene © Profero, Inc. 2008 Werk 46 23
  24. 24. Advantages • Allows the progress, review and Lessons Learned to be reviewed by different interested parties like: management, bench-marking by other departments, other problem solving teams, auditors, ISO, Joint Commission, etc. • You have a method to document results (instead of relying on tribal knowledge) © Profero, Inc. 2008 47 Profero, Inc. | Leaders in Lean Enterprise Wrap-up & Evaluations Open discussion Q&A Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 Tel: .312.294.9900 Fax: 312.294.9911 www.proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 48 24
  25. 25. Thank you • Feel free to contact me if you have any comments or questions • Visit our website for free downloads and more information about Lean Website: www.proferoinc.com Tony Manos Catalyst Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street, Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 USA Office: 312.294.9900 Cell: 312.718.0078 Fax: 312.294.9911 Email: anthony.manos@proferoinc.com © Profero, Inc. 2008 49 Developer Anthony Manos • • Tony Manos is a Catalyst with expertise in Lean and quality. Trained and certified by the Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Lean principles and as a trainer in Lean courses. International speaker on Quality and Lean Enterprise topics. Mr. Manos is a Senior Member of ASQ with several certifications. He is also a Shingo Prize Examiner and helped developed the AME/SME/Shingo Prize Lean Certification. © Profero, Inc. 2008 Contact information Tony Manos Catalyst Profero, Inc. 124 W. Polk Street, Suite 101 Chicago, IL 60605-1770 USA Office: 312.294.9900 Cell: 312.718.0078 Fax: 312.294.9911 Email: anthony.manos@proferoinc.com Website: www.proferoinc.com 50 25
  26. 26. Recommended Reading The Toyota Way – 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest Manufacturer by Jeffrey Liker A3 Problem Solving for Healthcare: A Practical Method for Eliminating Waste by Cindy Jimmerson The Memory Jogger II by Michael Brassard © Profero, Inc. 2008 51 26

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