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2/20/2019
“HOFSTEDE’S
CULTURAL
DIMENSION”
1
SUMMARY
The world is home to 7.1 billion people. Of these many people
different cultures prevails around different areas of the world. Each
region has its own distinct and unique culture which distinguishes
itself from other parts of the world.
Culture is differentiated by the religion the people follow and the
customs and traditions of his religion are what makes each culture
unique. It is passed on
from generation to generation and is modified over time. The report
focuses on the diverse cultures of Japan, Mexico, Turkey, France
and USA. The report includes detailed information about the business
culture, greeting styles, gift
giving etiquette and HOFSTEDE INSIGHT CULTURAL
DIMENSION prevailing in each of the countries mentioned above.
The report includes data of how we are supposed to adjust our
behaviour in accordance with the different business cultures in the
world.
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our deep gratitude to our course supervisor
“Mr. Muhammad Farrukh Aslam”
for granting us the opportunity to work on this report and
understanding the Hofstede cultural dimension of different countries.
This report has helped us in getting an insight of the distinct cultures
of the globe and how to adjust our behaviour in accordance with the
environment that prevails in different regions of the world.
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
“HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS”....................................................................6
POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI)........................................................................................................................6
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which
everybody has a place, and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance,
people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. 6
INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV) .....................................................................................6
MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS) ..............................................................................................6
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI)...................................................................................................6
LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERS US SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO) .7
INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IND)....................................................................................................7
JAPAN ......................................................................................................................................8
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: .............................................................................................................8
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................................9
BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE.......................................................................................................................10
BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................10
Japanese business cards are a very important aspect of Japanese business etiquette.It is part of a formal
introduction, and business cannot start until this process is complete.....................................................................10
BUSINESS GIFT GIVING...........................................................................................................................................10
DRESS CODE..................................................................................................................................................................11
APPEARANCE................................................................................................................................................................11
TURKEY ................................................................................................................................12
MEETING ETIQUETTES ...........................................................................................................................................14
GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTES ....................................................................................................................................14
DRESS ETIQUETTE.....................................................................................................................................................14
NAMING CONVENTIONS .........................................................................................................................................15
BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................15
GREETING ETIQUETTES .........................................................................................................................................15
MASCULINITY.........................................................................................................................................................17
The score of the US on Masculinity is high at 62, and this can be seen in the typical American
behavioural patterns. This can be explained by the the combination of a high Masculinity drive
together with the most Individualist drive in the world. In other words, Americans, so to speak, all
show their Masculine drive individually..............................................................................................................17
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE............................................................................................................................17
The US scores below average, with a low score of 46, on the Uncertainty Avoidance
dimension. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the
freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans do not require a lot of rules and are less
emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures. ......................................................................................17
LONG TERM ORIENTATION.............................................................................................................................17
4
The United States scores normative on the fifth dimension with a low score of 26. Americans are
prone to analyse new information to check whether it is true. Thus, the culture doesn’t make most
Americans pragmatic, but this should not be confused with the fact that Americans are very
practical ........................................................................................................................................................................17
INDULGENCE...........................................................................................................................................................17
The United States scores as an Indulgent (68) society on the sixth dimension. Work hard and play
hard. The States has waged a war against drugs and is still very busy in doing so, yet drug addiction
in the States is higher than in many other wealthy countries........................................................................17
BUSINESS GREETINGS .............................................................................................................................................18
BUSINESS MEETINGS ................................................................................................................................................18
In the Northeast and Midwest, people are extremely punctual and view it as a sign of disrespect for someone
to be late for a meeting or appointment. In the Southern and Western states,people may be a little more
relaxed, but to be safe, always arrive on time, although you may have to wait a little before yourmeeting
begins.Americans prefer directness in communication. When Americans say "yes" or "no," they mean
exactly that..........................................................................................................................................................................18
COMMUNICATION STYLE......................................................................................................................................18
GIFT GIVING STYLE..................................................................................................................................................18
BUSINESS DRESS .........................................................................................................................................................19
FRANCE.................................................................................................................................20
INDIVIDUALISM.....................................................................................................................................................21
France, with a score of 71, is shown to be an individualist society. Parents make their children
emotionally independent with regard to groups in which they belong. This means that one is only
supposedto take care of oneself and one’s family. ...........................................................................................21
MASCULINITY.........................................................................................................................................................21
With a score of 43, France has a somewhat Feminine culture. At face value this may be indicated by
its famous welfare system, the 35-hour working week, five weeks of holidays per year and its focus
on the quality of life. French culture in terms of the model has, however, another unique
characteristic. The upper-class scores Feminine while the working-class scores Masculine. This
characteristic has not been foundin any other country. .................................................................................21
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE............................................................................................................................21
At 86, French culture scores high on Uncertainty Avoidance. The French don’t like surprises.
Structure and planning are required. Before meetings and negotiations, they like to receive all
necessary information. There is a strong need for laws, rules and regulations to structure life..........21
INDULGENCE...........................................................................................................................................................21
Despite their knowledge of and competence in the English language, the French consider their use of French
as a sign of respect for their culture. Therefore, to make your business negotiations easieryou should at least
try to use some French when dealing with French counterparts.It is helpful at yourfirst meeting with a
French speaking individual, to apologize if you cannot speakFrench fluently. This creates respect for the
French culture and reduces any stigma about potential ignorance. ..........................................................................22
DRESSCODE...................................................................................................................................................................22
BUSINESS MEETINGS ................................................................................................................................................23
BUSINESS WOMEN .....................................................................................................................................................23
MEXICO ................................................................................................................................24
5
BUSINESS ETIQUETTES ...........................................................................................................................................25
BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE.......................................................................................................................26
 Mexicans tend to give straight forwards answers without elaborating much................................................26
BUSINESS DRESS .........................................................................................................................................................26
BUSINESS CARDS ........................................................................................................................................................26
GREETING STYLES ....................................................................................................................................................26
GIFT GIVING STYLE..................................................................................................................................................27
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................28
6
“HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS”
Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values
in the workplace are influenced by culture. The six dimensions of national culture are based
on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov
and their research teams.
The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions. The cultural dimensions
represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish
countries (rather than individuals) from each other. The model consists of the following
dimensions:
POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI)
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical
order in which everybody has a place, and which needs no further justification. In
societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power
and demand justification for inequalities of power.
INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV)
The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a
loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only
themselves and their immediate families. Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference
for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or
members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS)
The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement,
heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for
a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI)
The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a
society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. Countries exhibiting strong UAI
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and
ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more
than principles.
7
LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM
NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO)
Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured
traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture
which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IND)
Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural
human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that
suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
8
JAPAN
Japan is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with dense cities. Its capital city is Tokyo, which
is one of the largest cities in the world. The literacy rate in Japan is 99% which is a good by
world standards.
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
POWER DISTANCE:
At an intermediate score of 54, Japan is a borderline hierarchical society. They have a
slow decision-making process: all the decisions must be confirmed by each hierarchical
layer. There is no one top guy who can take decision like in more hierarchical societies.
INDIVIDUALISM:
Japan scores 46 on the Individualism dimension. Japan has been a paternalistic society
and the family name and asset were inherited from father to the eldest son. The younger
9
siblings had to leave home and make their own living with their core families.
MASCULINITY:
At 95, Japan is one of the most Masculine societies in the world. Masculinity in Japan is
the drive for excellence and perfection in their material production, services and
presentation in every aspect of life.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:
At 92 Japan is one of the most uncertainty avoiding countries on earth. Japan is
constantly threatened by natural disasters from earthquakes, tsunamis, and typhoons to
volcano eruptions. Under these circumstances Japanese learned to prepare themselves
for any uncertain situation
LONG TERM ORIENTATION:
At 88 Japan scores as one of the most Long-Term Orientation oriented societies. Long
term orientation in the constantly high rate of investment in R [&] D even in economically
difficult times, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share rather
than to a quarterly profit, and so on.
OTHER DIMENSIONS
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE
One of the most important things to acknowledge is that the Japanese are relationship oriented.
 In Japanese business culture employee are often hired for life. It means that there is a
mutual understanding that employee will likely remain with the company for the rest of
his or her working life.
10
BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE
 Upon the initial meeting with a Japanese host, one must honour the Japanese cultural
traditions. This includes bowing before
shaking hands.
 In Japanese business etiquette seating
positions are very important as they are in
indicator of status. The highest-ranking person
will sit at the head of the table furthest away
from the door. Always wait to be seated, and
never be the first one to sit down.
 Never refuse a request, no matter how difficult
or non- profitable it may appear. The Japanese are looking for a long-term relationship.
 Always give a small gift, as a token of your esteem, and present it to the most senior
person at the end of the meeting.
BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE
Japanese business cards are a very important aspect of Japanese business etiquette. It is part
of a formal introduction, and business cannot start until this process is complete.
 When presenting a Japanese business card to your Japanese counterpart, use both
hands and bow your head slightly while offering the card. You should use the same
technique when accepting cards as well.
 Never write notes in Japanese Business Card.
 Keep your Business Card in a proper carrying case and treat them with respect.
 Remember to deliberately and carefully pick up all of the Japanese business cards you
receive and put them into your case at the end of the meeting. Forgetting his business
card and it seems to be like you did not consider it to be relevant.
BUSINESS GIFT GIVING
Gift exchange is an important tradition in Japan especially in first meeting and is the central
part of Japanese business etiquette.
11
 There's an expectation a gift will be offered at the first
meeting, and gifts will continue to be part of your
business dealings.
 If you're bringing a gift from your home country, make
sure it's not 'made in Japan'. Don't select items with
your company logo. It may be seen as a promotional
item and be viewed as cheap.
 Expensive gifts are common. An expensive gift will
not be perceived as a bribe.
 A gift for an individual should be given in private. If you are presenting a gift to a group
of people, have all of the intended recipients assembled.
 If you are invited to a Japanese home, bring flowers [an uneven number], cakes or candy.
 The correct Japanese etiquette is to present and receive gifts with both hands.
 Before accepting a gift, it is polite to refuse at least once or twice before accepting.
DRESS CODE
The Japanese frequently dress very formal and one’s attire is often linked to their social and
corporate status. Use darker colours such as black or dark blue.
 Men should strive to wear conservative yet well-appointed business suits that are dark
in colour.
 For Women, a conservative look is also
recommended. Dark colours are best, and
short skirts and pants are never to be worn.
Heels should be avoided also as they are
seen as informal. Women should
minimize the amount of accessories that
they wear also.
APPEARANCE
 One’s appearance when speaking should be of a calm nature.
 It is not acceptable to raise your voice or speak too loudly.
 Avoid using excessive hand gestures or pointing when you speak as it is considered
informal. Some hand gestures also have different meanings in Japanese culture, so they
may be misinterpreted.
 Avoid the sign “OK” sign it means money in Japan.
 A smile can have double meaning. It can express either joy or displeasure. Use caution
with your facial expressions. They can be easily misunderstood.
12
TURKEY
Turkey is a transcontinental country located in Eurasia. Its capital city is Ankara and the
currency used is Turkish Lira. It is considered to be the most westernized Islamic nation.
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
13
POWER DISTANCE:
Turkey scores high on this dimension (score of 66) which means that the following
characterises the Turkish style: Dependent, hierarchical, superiors often inaccessible and the
ideal boss is a father figure.
INDIVIDUALISM:
Turkey, with a score of 37 is a collectivistic society. This means that the “We” is important,
people belong to in-groups (families, clans or organisations) who look after each other in
exchange for loyalty.
MASCULINITY:
Turkey scores 45 and is on the Feminine side of the scale. This means that the softer aspects of
culture such as levelling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued and
encouraged. Leisure time is important for Turks, it is the time when the whole family, clan and
friends come together to enjoy life.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:
Turkey scores 85 on this dimension and thus there is a huge need for laws and rules. In order
to minimize anxiety, people make use of a lot of rituals. For foreigners they might seem
religious, but often they are just traditional social patterns, used in specific situations to ease
tension.
LONG TERM ORIENTATION:
Turkey’s intermediate score of 46 is in the middle of the scale so no dominant cultural
preference can be inferred.
14
INDULGENCE:
With an intermediate score of 49, a characteristic corresponding to this dimension cannot be
determined for Turkey.
OTHER DIMENSIONS
MEETING ETIQUETTES
 When meeting shake hands firmly. When departing it is not
always customary to shake hands although it is practiced
occasionally.
 When entering a room, if you are not automatically met by
someone greet the most elderly or most senior first. At social occasions greet the person
closest to you then work your way around the room or table anti-clockwise.
 Have all printed material available in both English and Turkish.
GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTES
 Gift giving has no real place in business relationships or etiquette. Relationship building
and the like will usually take the form of dining or sightseeing trips rather than lavish
gifts.
 If you are invited to a Turkish home, a gift for the host will be expected. Typically, gifts
of pastries are given, and Baklava is the most
common. Decorative items such as vases, goblets
or ornaments are also good choices. If children are
present, then it is customary to bring them candy or
a small gift.
DRESS ETIQUETTE
Styles of business attire in Turkey, particularly in the larger cities, are pretty much the same as
in other developed countries. Men wear a conservative
suit and tie, while women normally wear business suits
with either a skirt or pants. During the summer, lighter
clothes are acceptable; men can wear shirt and trousers
without a jacket and perhaps even a tie, depending on the
formality of the business. Women can wear lighter
15
clothes, without a jacket but making sure not to wear anything
too tight or revealing.
NAMING CONVENTIONS
When addressing a Turk, the most common method is to call a man by his first name followed
by 'bey' (pronounced bay). So, Ertan Gonca, would be Ertan Bey. Similarly, a woman's first
name would be followed by 'hanim' (pronounced ha-num).
Within Turkish companies and organization’s senior ranking staff will be addressed
accordingly. A common example is Mr. Manager, 'Mudur Bey’. A common phrase you will
hear Turks using is 'efendim' (literally 'my master'). You may hear this from a waiter, a
secretary, taxi driver, doorman, shop staff and many others. It is simply a polite way of
addressing people you are not familiar.
BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE
Business cards are exchanged without formal ritual.
Use both hands to exchange cards. Present your business card to the receptionist when you
arrive. Have one side of your business card translated into Turkish. Although not a business
necessity, it will impress your business colleagues.
Often Turks do not give their business card unless they are certain that they wish to establish a
business relationship.
GREETING ETIQUETTES
Greet people with either the Islamic greeting of 'Assalam
walaikum' (peace be upon you) or
(How are you? pronounced na-sul-su-nuz). Other useful
phrases are 'Gunaydin' (Good Morning, pronounced goon-
ay-dun), 'iyi gunler' (Good Day, pronounced ee-yee gun-
ler) or 'Memnun Oldum' (pleased to meet you).
16
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 The United States of America is a federal republic composed of 50
states.
 The population of America is 320 million.
 The capital of America is Washington.
 The America Dialling Code is +1.
 Currency of America is United States Dollar its Symbols is ‘$’.
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
POWER DISTANCE
The fairly low score on Power Distance is (40). This dimension deals with the fact that all
individuals in societies are not equal, and it expresses the attitude of the culture toward these
power inequalities amongst us.
17
INDIVIDUALISM
The fairly low score on Power Distance (40) in combination with one of the the most
Individualist (91) cultures in the world reflects itself The American premise of “liberty and
justice for all.” Within American organisations, hierarchy is established for convenience,
superiors are accessible, and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their
expertise.
MASCULINITY
The score of the US on Masculinity is high at 62, and this can be seen in the typical American
behavioural patterns. This can be explained by the the combination of a high Masculinity
drive together with the most Individualist drive in the world. In other words, Americans, so to
speak, all show their Masculine drive individually.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
The US scores below average, with a low score of 46, on the Uncertainty Avoidance
dimension. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow
the freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans do not require a lot of rules and are
less emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures.
LONG TERM ORIENTATION
The United States scores normative on the fifth dimension with a low score of 26. Americans
are prone to analyse new information to check whether it is true. Thus, the culture doesn’t
make most Americans pragmatic, but this should not be confused with the fact that
Americans are very practical
INDULGENCE
The United States scores as an Indulgent (68) society on the sixth dimension. Work hard and
play hard. The States has waged a war against drugs and is still very busy in doing so, yet
drug addiction in the States is higher than in many other wealthy countries.
18
OTHER DIMENSIONS
BUSINESS GREETINGS
American greetings are generally quite informal. This is not intended to show lack of respect,
but rather a manifestation of the American belief that everyone is equal.
The hand shake is the common greeting. Handshakes are firm, brief and confident. Light
handshakes are considered distasteful. Use a firm grip. Some Americans do not shake hands at
social events. Instead, they may greet you with a
casual "Hello" or "How are you?" or even just "Hi."
Maintain eye contact during the greeting.
BUSINESS MEETINGS
In the Northeast and Midwest, people are extremely
punctual and view it as a sign of disrespect for someone to be late for a meeting or
appointment. In the Southern and Western states, people may be a little more relaxed, but to
be safe, always arrive on time, although you may have to wait a little before your meeting
begins. Americans prefer directness in communication. When Americans say "yes" or "no,"
they mean exactly that.
Interaction and participation are important during business meetings. If you are quiet and
have nothing to say, this can be looked upon as you are being unprepared and not having
anything to contribute.
COMMUNICATION STYLE
Americans are direct. They value logic expect
people to speak clearly and in a straightforward
manner. To them if you don’t “tell it how it is”
you simply waste time, and time is money.
Try to get to your point more quickly and don’t
be afraid to be more direct and honest than you
are used to.
GIFT GIVING STYLE
Americans give gifts for birthdays, anniversaries and major
holidays, such as Christmas. Gifts from your country will
always be appreciated. Good choices are local and regional
arts and crafts, books, candies, specialty foods and wines.
19
When invited to someone's home for dinner, it is polite to bring a small box of good chocolates,
a bottle of wine, a potted plant or flowers for the hostess. Gifts are normally opened when
received. It can be as simple as a card and personal note too.
BUSINESS DRESS
People in the East dress more formally, while people in the West are
known for being a bit more casual.
Executives usually dress formally regardless of which part of the
country they are in. If you are on a business visit, suit is the most
appropriate and preferred business formal. A suit with a light colour
collared shirt, a matching necktie, and a formal leather shoe is what
makes a perfect business formal dress. Suits of dark colour like black, navy blue, grey or brown
are most common, and are conventionally considered as perfect business formals.
Information Technology companies have a very casual dress code. Jeans, T-shirts, trousers,
and cotton shirts are acceptable even on weekdays.
20
FRANCE
 France is one of the most modern and highly-developed countries in the world, with one of
the largest economies, and is a leader among European nations.
 Official language is French
 Currency is Euro
 Total Population is about 67 million
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
POWER DISTANCE
With a score of 68, France scores fairly high on Power Distance. Children are raised to be
emotionally dependent, to a degree, on their parents. This dependency will be transferred to
teachers and later on to superiors. It is, therefore, a society in which a fair degree of
inequality is accepted.
21
INDIVIDUALISM
France, with a score of 71, is shown to be an individualist society. Parents make their
children emotionally independent with regard to groups in which they belong. This means
that one is only supposed to take care of oneself and one’s family.
MASCULINITY
With a score of 43, France has a somewhat Feminine culture. At face value this may be
indicated by its famous welfare system, the 35-hour working week, five weeks of holidays
per year and its focus on the quality of life. French culture in terms of the model has,
however, another unique characteristic. The upper-class scores Feminine while the working-
class scores Masculine. This characteristic has not been found in any other country.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
At 86, French culture scores high on Uncertainty Avoidance. The French don’t like surprises.
Structure and planning are required. Before meetings and negotiations, they like to receive all
necessary information. There is a strong need for laws, rules and regulations to structure life.
LONG TERM ORIENTATION
France scores high (63) in this dimension, making it pragmatic. In societies with a pragmatic
orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time.
INDULGENCE
France scores somewhat in the middle (48) where it concerns Indulgence versus Restraint.
This, in combination with a high score on Uncertainty Avoidance, implies that the French are
less relaxed and enjoy life less often than is commonly assumed. Indeed, France scores not all
that high on the happiness indices.
22
OTHER DIMENSIONS
LANGUAGE
Despite their knowledge of and competence in the English language, the French consider
their use of French as a sign of respect for their culture.
Therefore, to make your business negotiations easier you
should at least try to use some French when dealing with
French counterparts. It is helpful at your first meeting
with a French speaking individual, to apologize if you
cannot speak French fluently. This creates respect for the
French culture and reduces any stigma about potential
ignorance.
DRESSCODE
MEN
Men tend to wear dark-coloured, formal suits. First impressions are largely influenced by
appearance. Accessories & clothing must be of high quality.
Executives usually do not loosen their ties or take off their jackets
while at the office, or in restaurants.
WOMEN
Women can also wear business suits or formal dresses in soft
colours and good shoes are a must. Careful accessorizing (even of
simple outfits), is also widely seen in France. French women are also more careful with makeup
than many of their European counterparts and place a huge emphasis on skin
GIFT GIVING
Gift-giving among business associates is not common
practice in France. To express appreciation to a French
business contact, it may be better to host a special event
or dinner than to give a business gift. Gifts are however
expected at social events, especially to thank the host of
private dinner parties.
23
 Gifting a usual French Wine is offensive since the host usually prefers to make the
evening’s selection themselves, if you really want to bring a bottle of wine would be
one from your own country or a bottle of Champagne
 Good gift selections can also include coffee table books about your home country, or
anything that reflects the interests of your hosts and is representative of your country.
 Do not offer gifts with your company logo stamped on them (the French consider this
vulgar).
BUSINESS MEETINGS
Meeting and discussing business with your French
counterparts try to lower your voice and generally behave in
a more formal way. The seating arrangements are also
important with the most senior person being seated at the head
of the table and the second most senior person to their left and
third most senior to their right.
Business meetings and interactions should stay focused on business and any discussions which
are off topic that could infringe on personal privacy can be
offensive
BUSINESS WOMEN
Gender does not play a major role in French organizations and
businesswomen including foreign women on business in France are as well respected as their
male counterparts. However, it should be noted that women are more readily accepted in
management position in the major cities than in the provinces, where some gender inequalit y
can still be found.
24
MEXICO
Mexico is located in the southern part of North America. Its capital is Mexico City. Its currency
is Peso. It has a population of 119 million. In many ways the life style of Mexico has become
similar to that of USA and other European countries.
HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
POWER DISTANCE:
At a score of 81, Mexico is a hierarchical society. This means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place,
and which needs no further justification.
25
INDIVIDUALISM:
Mexico, with a score of 30 is considered a collectivistic society. This
is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member ‘group’,
be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships.
MASCULINITY:
Mexico scores 69 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society.
In Masculine countries people “live in order to work”, managers are
expected to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity,
competition and performance.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:
Mexico scores 82 on this dimension and thus has a very high
preference for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high
Uncertainty Avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour
and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
LONG TERM ORIENTATION:
Score of 24 means that the Mexican culture is normative. People in
such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute
Truth; they’re normative in their thinking. They exhibit a relatively
small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving
quick results.
OTHER DIMENSIONS
BUSINESS ETIQUETTES
Personal relationships are key to business success in Mexico and the only way to know a person
in Mexico is to know the family. Mexicans prefer to do business with people they can relate
to. Allow time to develop your business relations. Trust is very important, and it will take time
to establish trust.
Mexicans often mix business with leisure and usually invite business associates and their
families to their home during the weekend. These types of activities are important to Mexicans
and help to build the trust required for long-term business relations.
26
BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE
Business appointments should be made 2 weeks in advance and must be reconfirmed a week
prior.
 The person should make sure the Mexican secretary knows how to contact him.
Punctuality is essential in business meeting in Mexico even though the business
associates may be late themselves.
 One must not be irritated as associates may often be late.
 Meetings may be postponed or delayed.
 Initial meeting is formal
 Written material should be available in both English and Spanish.
 Mexican are well prepared so we must be match up to their standards
 Mexicans tend to give straight forwards answers without elaborating much.
BUSINESS DRESS
 European dress code is followed.
 Men should wear conservative, dark coloured suits.
 Women should wear business suits or conservative
dresses.
BUSINESS CARDS
 Business cards are exchanged during introductions with
everyone at a meeting.
 It is advisable to have one side of your business card in
Spanish.
 Business cards should contain both your professional and
educational qualifications.
 Present your business card with the Spanish side facing the recipient.
GREETING STYLES
 In social situations women pat each other on the right fore arm or on the shoulder rather
than shaking their hands
 Men shake hands until they know them very well
as time passes, they move on to hugs and
backslapping
27
 Shake hands or give a slight bow when introduced.
 Bow when greeting a Mexican woman. Shake hands only if she extends her hand first.
GIFT GIVING STYLE
 While gift giving is not always a necessity when doing business in Mexico, gifts are
much appreciated. Suggested initial gifts include non-personal
items with your corporate logo.
 Flowers should always be given when visiting a Mexican home
 Don’t give red flowers as they have a negative connotation.
 White flowers are a good gift as they are considered uplifting
28
REFERENCES
Country Sources
Japan  http://www.japanesebusinessresource.com/
 https://www.americanexpress.com
 http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/japan.htm
 http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-japanetiquette-
customs-culture-business.html
France  http://businessculture.org/western-europe/business-culture-
infrance/business-etiquette-in-france/
 http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-franceetiquette-
customs-culture-business.html
 http://www.expatica.com/fr/employment/Business-culture-
inFrance_102491.html
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France
United States of America  http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-the-usaetiquette-
customs-culture-business.html
 http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/usa-guide
 http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_us.htm
Turkey  http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-
inturkey/business-communication-in-turkey/
 http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/turkey-guide
 http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-turkey-business-culture
 http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details.p
hp?Id=22&CID=208
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Turkey
Mexico  http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-
inturkey/meeting-etiquette-in-turkey/
 http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/mexico-guide
 http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_mx.htm
 http://www.noruega.org.mx/Norsk/Business-i-Mexico/Makingbusiness-
in-Mexico/#.WKfxFfl9600
 http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details.p
hp?Id=19&CID=216
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Mexico

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Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

  • 2. 1 SUMMARY The world is home to 7.1 billion people. Of these many people different cultures prevails around different areas of the world. Each region has its own distinct and unique culture which distinguishes itself from other parts of the world. Culture is differentiated by the religion the people follow and the customs and traditions of his religion are what makes each culture unique. It is passed on from generation to generation and is modified over time. The report focuses on the diverse cultures of Japan, Mexico, Turkey, France and USA. The report includes detailed information about the business culture, greeting styles, gift giving etiquette and HOFSTEDE INSIGHT CULTURAL DIMENSION prevailing in each of the countries mentioned above. The report includes data of how we are supposed to adjust our behaviour in accordance with the different business cultures in the world.
  • 3. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our deep gratitude to our course supervisor “Mr. Muhammad Farrukh Aslam” for granting us the opportunity to work on this report and understanding the Hofstede cultural dimension of different countries. This report has helped us in getting an insight of the distinct cultures of the globe and how to adjust our behaviour in accordance with the environment that prevails in different regions of the world.
  • 4. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS “HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS”....................................................................6 POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI)........................................................................................................................6 People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place, and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. 6 INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV) .....................................................................................6 MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS) ..............................................................................................6 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI)...................................................................................................6 LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERS US SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO) .7 INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IND)....................................................................................................7 JAPAN ......................................................................................................................................8 HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: .............................................................................................................8 BUSINESS ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................................9 BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE.......................................................................................................................10 BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................10 Japanese business cards are a very important aspect of Japanese business etiquette.It is part of a formal introduction, and business cannot start until this process is complete.....................................................................10 BUSINESS GIFT GIVING...........................................................................................................................................10 DRESS CODE..................................................................................................................................................................11 APPEARANCE................................................................................................................................................................11 TURKEY ................................................................................................................................12 MEETING ETIQUETTES ...........................................................................................................................................14 GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTES ....................................................................................................................................14 DRESS ETIQUETTE.....................................................................................................................................................14 NAMING CONVENTIONS .........................................................................................................................................15 BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE................................................................................................................................15 GREETING ETIQUETTES .........................................................................................................................................15 MASCULINITY.........................................................................................................................................................17 The score of the US on Masculinity is high at 62, and this can be seen in the typical American behavioural patterns. This can be explained by the the combination of a high Masculinity drive together with the most Individualist drive in the world. In other words, Americans, so to speak, all show their Masculine drive individually..............................................................................................................17 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE............................................................................................................................17 The US scores below average, with a low score of 46, on the Uncertainty Avoidance dimension. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans do not require a lot of rules and are less emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures. ......................................................................................17 LONG TERM ORIENTATION.............................................................................................................................17
  • 5. 4 The United States scores normative on the fifth dimension with a low score of 26. Americans are prone to analyse new information to check whether it is true. Thus, the culture doesn’t make most Americans pragmatic, but this should not be confused with the fact that Americans are very practical ........................................................................................................................................................................17 INDULGENCE...........................................................................................................................................................17 The United States scores as an Indulgent (68) society on the sixth dimension. Work hard and play hard. The States has waged a war against drugs and is still very busy in doing so, yet drug addiction in the States is higher than in many other wealthy countries........................................................................17 BUSINESS GREETINGS .............................................................................................................................................18 BUSINESS MEETINGS ................................................................................................................................................18 In the Northeast and Midwest, people are extremely punctual and view it as a sign of disrespect for someone to be late for a meeting or appointment. In the Southern and Western states,people may be a little more relaxed, but to be safe, always arrive on time, although you may have to wait a little before yourmeeting begins.Americans prefer directness in communication. When Americans say "yes" or "no," they mean exactly that..........................................................................................................................................................................18 COMMUNICATION STYLE......................................................................................................................................18 GIFT GIVING STYLE..................................................................................................................................................18 BUSINESS DRESS .........................................................................................................................................................19 FRANCE.................................................................................................................................20 INDIVIDUALISM.....................................................................................................................................................21 France, with a score of 71, is shown to be an individualist society. Parents make their children emotionally independent with regard to groups in which they belong. This means that one is only supposedto take care of oneself and one’s family. ...........................................................................................21 MASCULINITY.........................................................................................................................................................21 With a score of 43, France has a somewhat Feminine culture. At face value this may be indicated by its famous welfare system, the 35-hour working week, five weeks of holidays per year and its focus on the quality of life. French culture in terms of the model has, however, another unique characteristic. The upper-class scores Feminine while the working-class scores Masculine. This characteristic has not been foundin any other country. .................................................................................21 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE............................................................................................................................21 At 86, French culture scores high on Uncertainty Avoidance. The French don’t like surprises. Structure and planning are required. Before meetings and negotiations, they like to receive all necessary information. There is a strong need for laws, rules and regulations to structure life..........21 INDULGENCE...........................................................................................................................................................21 Despite their knowledge of and competence in the English language, the French consider their use of French as a sign of respect for their culture. Therefore, to make your business negotiations easieryou should at least try to use some French when dealing with French counterparts.It is helpful at yourfirst meeting with a French speaking individual, to apologize if you cannot speakFrench fluently. This creates respect for the French culture and reduces any stigma about potential ignorance. ..........................................................................22 DRESSCODE...................................................................................................................................................................22 BUSINESS MEETINGS ................................................................................................................................................23 BUSINESS WOMEN .....................................................................................................................................................23 MEXICO ................................................................................................................................24
  • 6. 5 BUSINESS ETIQUETTES ...........................................................................................................................................25 BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE.......................................................................................................................26  Mexicans tend to give straight forwards answers without elaborating much................................................26 BUSINESS DRESS .........................................................................................................................................................26 BUSINESS CARDS ........................................................................................................................................................26 GREETING STYLES ....................................................................................................................................................26 GIFT GIVING STYLE..................................................................................................................................................27 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................28
  • 7. 6 “HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS” Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams. The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions. The cultural dimensions represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries (rather than individuals) from each other. The model consists of the following dimensions: POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI) People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place, and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV) The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families. Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS) The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI) The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
  • 8. 7 LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO) Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future. INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IND) Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
  • 9. 8 JAPAN Japan is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with dense cities. Its capital city is Tokyo, which is one of the largest cities in the world. The literacy rate in Japan is 99% which is a good by world standards. HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: POWER DISTANCE: At an intermediate score of 54, Japan is a borderline hierarchical society. They have a slow decision-making process: all the decisions must be confirmed by each hierarchical layer. There is no one top guy who can take decision like in more hierarchical societies. INDIVIDUALISM: Japan scores 46 on the Individualism dimension. Japan has been a paternalistic society and the family name and asset were inherited from father to the eldest son. The younger
  • 10. 9 siblings had to leave home and make their own living with their core families. MASCULINITY: At 95, Japan is one of the most Masculine societies in the world. Masculinity in Japan is the drive for excellence and perfection in their material production, services and presentation in every aspect of life. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE: At 92 Japan is one of the most uncertainty avoiding countries on earth. Japan is constantly threatened by natural disasters from earthquakes, tsunamis, and typhoons to volcano eruptions. Under these circumstances Japanese learned to prepare themselves for any uncertain situation LONG TERM ORIENTATION: At 88 Japan scores as one of the most Long-Term Orientation oriented societies. Long term orientation in the constantly high rate of investment in R [&] D even in economically difficult times, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share rather than to a quarterly profit, and so on. OTHER DIMENSIONS BUSINESS ETIQUETTE One of the most important things to acknowledge is that the Japanese are relationship oriented.  In Japanese business culture employee are often hired for life. It means that there is a mutual understanding that employee will likely remain with the company for the rest of his or her working life.
  • 11. 10 BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE  Upon the initial meeting with a Japanese host, one must honour the Japanese cultural traditions. This includes bowing before shaking hands.  In Japanese business etiquette seating positions are very important as they are in indicator of status. The highest-ranking person will sit at the head of the table furthest away from the door. Always wait to be seated, and never be the first one to sit down.  Never refuse a request, no matter how difficult or non- profitable it may appear. The Japanese are looking for a long-term relationship.  Always give a small gift, as a token of your esteem, and present it to the most senior person at the end of the meeting. BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE Japanese business cards are a very important aspect of Japanese business etiquette. It is part of a formal introduction, and business cannot start until this process is complete.  When presenting a Japanese business card to your Japanese counterpart, use both hands and bow your head slightly while offering the card. You should use the same technique when accepting cards as well.  Never write notes in Japanese Business Card.  Keep your Business Card in a proper carrying case and treat them with respect.  Remember to deliberately and carefully pick up all of the Japanese business cards you receive and put them into your case at the end of the meeting. Forgetting his business card and it seems to be like you did not consider it to be relevant. BUSINESS GIFT GIVING Gift exchange is an important tradition in Japan especially in first meeting and is the central part of Japanese business etiquette.
  • 12. 11  There's an expectation a gift will be offered at the first meeting, and gifts will continue to be part of your business dealings.  If you're bringing a gift from your home country, make sure it's not 'made in Japan'. Don't select items with your company logo. It may be seen as a promotional item and be viewed as cheap.  Expensive gifts are common. An expensive gift will not be perceived as a bribe.  A gift for an individual should be given in private. If you are presenting a gift to a group of people, have all of the intended recipients assembled.  If you are invited to a Japanese home, bring flowers [an uneven number], cakes or candy.  The correct Japanese etiquette is to present and receive gifts with both hands.  Before accepting a gift, it is polite to refuse at least once or twice before accepting. DRESS CODE The Japanese frequently dress very formal and one’s attire is often linked to their social and corporate status. Use darker colours such as black or dark blue.  Men should strive to wear conservative yet well-appointed business suits that are dark in colour.  For Women, a conservative look is also recommended. Dark colours are best, and short skirts and pants are never to be worn. Heels should be avoided also as they are seen as informal. Women should minimize the amount of accessories that they wear also. APPEARANCE  One’s appearance when speaking should be of a calm nature.  It is not acceptable to raise your voice or speak too loudly.  Avoid using excessive hand gestures or pointing when you speak as it is considered informal. Some hand gestures also have different meanings in Japanese culture, so they may be misinterpreted.  Avoid the sign “OK” sign it means money in Japan.  A smile can have double meaning. It can express either joy or displeasure. Use caution with your facial expressions. They can be easily misunderstood.
  • 13. 12 TURKEY Turkey is a transcontinental country located in Eurasia. Its capital city is Ankara and the currency used is Turkish Lira. It is considered to be the most westernized Islamic nation. HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION:
  • 14. 13 POWER DISTANCE: Turkey scores high on this dimension (score of 66) which means that the following characterises the Turkish style: Dependent, hierarchical, superiors often inaccessible and the ideal boss is a father figure. INDIVIDUALISM: Turkey, with a score of 37 is a collectivistic society. This means that the “We” is important, people belong to in-groups (families, clans or organisations) who look after each other in exchange for loyalty. MASCULINITY: Turkey scores 45 and is on the Feminine side of the scale. This means that the softer aspects of culture such as levelling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued and encouraged. Leisure time is important for Turks, it is the time when the whole family, clan and friends come together to enjoy life. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE: Turkey scores 85 on this dimension and thus there is a huge need for laws and rules. In order to minimize anxiety, people make use of a lot of rituals. For foreigners they might seem religious, but often they are just traditional social patterns, used in specific situations to ease tension. LONG TERM ORIENTATION: Turkey’s intermediate score of 46 is in the middle of the scale so no dominant cultural preference can be inferred.
  • 15. 14 INDULGENCE: With an intermediate score of 49, a characteristic corresponding to this dimension cannot be determined for Turkey. OTHER DIMENSIONS MEETING ETIQUETTES  When meeting shake hands firmly. When departing it is not always customary to shake hands although it is practiced occasionally.  When entering a room, if you are not automatically met by someone greet the most elderly or most senior first. At social occasions greet the person closest to you then work your way around the room or table anti-clockwise.  Have all printed material available in both English and Turkish. GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTES  Gift giving has no real place in business relationships or etiquette. Relationship building and the like will usually take the form of dining or sightseeing trips rather than lavish gifts.  If you are invited to a Turkish home, a gift for the host will be expected. Typically, gifts of pastries are given, and Baklava is the most common. Decorative items such as vases, goblets or ornaments are also good choices. If children are present, then it is customary to bring them candy or a small gift. DRESS ETIQUETTE Styles of business attire in Turkey, particularly in the larger cities, are pretty much the same as in other developed countries. Men wear a conservative suit and tie, while women normally wear business suits with either a skirt or pants. During the summer, lighter clothes are acceptable; men can wear shirt and trousers without a jacket and perhaps even a tie, depending on the formality of the business. Women can wear lighter
  • 16. 15 clothes, without a jacket but making sure not to wear anything too tight or revealing. NAMING CONVENTIONS When addressing a Turk, the most common method is to call a man by his first name followed by 'bey' (pronounced bay). So, Ertan Gonca, would be Ertan Bey. Similarly, a woman's first name would be followed by 'hanim' (pronounced ha-num). Within Turkish companies and organization’s senior ranking staff will be addressed accordingly. A common example is Mr. Manager, 'Mudur Bey’. A common phrase you will hear Turks using is 'efendim' (literally 'my master'). You may hear this from a waiter, a secretary, taxi driver, doorman, shop staff and many others. It is simply a polite way of addressing people you are not familiar. BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE Business cards are exchanged without formal ritual. Use both hands to exchange cards. Present your business card to the receptionist when you arrive. Have one side of your business card translated into Turkish. Although not a business necessity, it will impress your business colleagues. Often Turks do not give their business card unless they are certain that they wish to establish a business relationship. GREETING ETIQUETTES Greet people with either the Islamic greeting of 'Assalam walaikum' (peace be upon you) or (How are you? pronounced na-sul-su-nuz). Other useful phrases are 'Gunaydin' (Good Morning, pronounced goon- ay-dun), 'iyi gunler' (Good Day, pronounced ee-yee gun- ler) or 'Memnun Oldum' (pleased to meet you).
  • 17. 16 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  The United States of America is a federal republic composed of 50 states.  The population of America is 320 million.  The capital of America is Washington.  The America Dialling Code is +1.  Currency of America is United States Dollar its Symbols is ‘$’. HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: POWER DISTANCE The fairly low score on Power Distance is (40). This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal, and it expresses the attitude of the culture toward these power inequalities amongst us.
  • 18. 17 INDIVIDUALISM The fairly low score on Power Distance (40) in combination with one of the the most Individualist (91) cultures in the world reflects itself The American premise of “liberty and justice for all.” Within American organisations, hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are accessible, and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. MASCULINITY The score of the US on Masculinity is high at 62, and this can be seen in the typical American behavioural patterns. This can be explained by the the combination of a high Masculinity drive together with the most Individualist drive in the world. In other words, Americans, so to speak, all show their Masculine drive individually. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The US scores below average, with a low score of 46, on the Uncertainty Avoidance dimension. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans do not require a lot of rules and are less emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures. LONG TERM ORIENTATION The United States scores normative on the fifth dimension with a low score of 26. Americans are prone to analyse new information to check whether it is true. Thus, the culture doesn’t make most Americans pragmatic, but this should not be confused with the fact that Americans are very practical INDULGENCE The United States scores as an Indulgent (68) society on the sixth dimension. Work hard and play hard. The States has waged a war against drugs and is still very busy in doing so, yet drug addiction in the States is higher than in many other wealthy countries.
  • 19. 18 OTHER DIMENSIONS BUSINESS GREETINGS American greetings are generally quite informal. This is not intended to show lack of respect, but rather a manifestation of the American belief that everyone is equal. The hand shake is the common greeting. Handshakes are firm, brief and confident. Light handshakes are considered distasteful. Use a firm grip. Some Americans do not shake hands at social events. Instead, they may greet you with a casual "Hello" or "How are you?" or even just "Hi." Maintain eye contact during the greeting. BUSINESS MEETINGS In the Northeast and Midwest, people are extremely punctual and view it as a sign of disrespect for someone to be late for a meeting or appointment. In the Southern and Western states, people may be a little more relaxed, but to be safe, always arrive on time, although you may have to wait a little before your meeting begins. Americans prefer directness in communication. When Americans say "yes" or "no," they mean exactly that. Interaction and participation are important during business meetings. If you are quiet and have nothing to say, this can be looked upon as you are being unprepared and not having anything to contribute. COMMUNICATION STYLE Americans are direct. They value logic expect people to speak clearly and in a straightforward manner. To them if you don’t “tell it how it is” you simply waste time, and time is money. Try to get to your point more quickly and don’t be afraid to be more direct and honest than you are used to. GIFT GIVING STYLE Americans give gifts for birthdays, anniversaries and major holidays, such as Christmas. Gifts from your country will always be appreciated. Good choices are local and regional arts and crafts, books, candies, specialty foods and wines.
  • 20. 19 When invited to someone's home for dinner, it is polite to bring a small box of good chocolates, a bottle of wine, a potted plant or flowers for the hostess. Gifts are normally opened when received. It can be as simple as a card and personal note too. BUSINESS DRESS People in the East dress more formally, while people in the West are known for being a bit more casual. Executives usually dress formally regardless of which part of the country they are in. If you are on a business visit, suit is the most appropriate and preferred business formal. A suit with a light colour collared shirt, a matching necktie, and a formal leather shoe is what makes a perfect business formal dress. Suits of dark colour like black, navy blue, grey or brown are most common, and are conventionally considered as perfect business formals. Information Technology companies have a very casual dress code. Jeans, T-shirts, trousers, and cotton shirts are acceptable even on weekdays.
  • 21. 20 FRANCE  France is one of the most modern and highly-developed countries in the world, with one of the largest economies, and is a leader among European nations.  Official language is French  Currency is Euro  Total Population is about 67 million HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: POWER DISTANCE With a score of 68, France scores fairly high on Power Distance. Children are raised to be emotionally dependent, to a degree, on their parents. This dependency will be transferred to teachers and later on to superiors. It is, therefore, a society in which a fair degree of inequality is accepted.
  • 22. 21 INDIVIDUALISM France, with a score of 71, is shown to be an individualist society. Parents make their children emotionally independent with regard to groups in which they belong. This means that one is only supposed to take care of oneself and one’s family. MASCULINITY With a score of 43, France has a somewhat Feminine culture. At face value this may be indicated by its famous welfare system, the 35-hour working week, five weeks of holidays per year and its focus on the quality of life. French culture in terms of the model has, however, another unique characteristic. The upper-class scores Feminine while the working- class scores Masculine. This characteristic has not been found in any other country. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE At 86, French culture scores high on Uncertainty Avoidance. The French don’t like surprises. Structure and planning are required. Before meetings and negotiations, they like to receive all necessary information. There is a strong need for laws, rules and regulations to structure life. LONG TERM ORIENTATION France scores high (63) in this dimension, making it pragmatic. In societies with a pragmatic orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time. INDULGENCE France scores somewhat in the middle (48) where it concerns Indulgence versus Restraint. This, in combination with a high score on Uncertainty Avoidance, implies that the French are less relaxed and enjoy life less often than is commonly assumed. Indeed, France scores not all that high on the happiness indices.
  • 23. 22 OTHER DIMENSIONS LANGUAGE Despite their knowledge of and competence in the English language, the French consider their use of French as a sign of respect for their culture. Therefore, to make your business negotiations easier you should at least try to use some French when dealing with French counterparts. It is helpful at your first meeting with a French speaking individual, to apologize if you cannot speak French fluently. This creates respect for the French culture and reduces any stigma about potential ignorance. DRESSCODE MEN Men tend to wear dark-coloured, formal suits. First impressions are largely influenced by appearance. Accessories & clothing must be of high quality. Executives usually do not loosen their ties or take off their jackets while at the office, or in restaurants. WOMEN Women can also wear business suits or formal dresses in soft colours and good shoes are a must. Careful accessorizing (even of simple outfits), is also widely seen in France. French women are also more careful with makeup than many of their European counterparts and place a huge emphasis on skin GIFT GIVING Gift-giving among business associates is not common practice in France. To express appreciation to a French business contact, it may be better to host a special event or dinner than to give a business gift. Gifts are however expected at social events, especially to thank the host of private dinner parties.
  • 24. 23  Gifting a usual French Wine is offensive since the host usually prefers to make the evening’s selection themselves, if you really want to bring a bottle of wine would be one from your own country or a bottle of Champagne  Good gift selections can also include coffee table books about your home country, or anything that reflects the interests of your hosts and is representative of your country.  Do not offer gifts with your company logo stamped on them (the French consider this vulgar). BUSINESS MEETINGS Meeting and discussing business with your French counterparts try to lower your voice and generally behave in a more formal way. The seating arrangements are also important with the most senior person being seated at the head of the table and the second most senior person to their left and third most senior to their right. Business meetings and interactions should stay focused on business and any discussions which are off topic that could infringe on personal privacy can be offensive BUSINESS WOMEN Gender does not play a major role in French organizations and businesswomen including foreign women on business in France are as well respected as their male counterparts. However, it should be noted that women are more readily accepted in management position in the major cities than in the provinces, where some gender inequalit y can still be found.
  • 25. 24 MEXICO Mexico is located in the southern part of North America. Its capital is Mexico City. Its currency is Peso. It has a population of 119 million. In many ways the life style of Mexico has become similar to that of USA and other European countries. HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSION: POWER DISTANCE: At a score of 81, Mexico is a hierarchical society. This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place, and which needs no further justification.
  • 26. 25 INDIVIDUALISM: Mexico, with a score of 30 is considered a collectivistic society. This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member ‘group’, be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. MASCULINITY: Mexico scores 69 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society. In Masculine countries people “live in order to work”, managers are expected to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity, competition and performance. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE: Mexico scores 82 on this dimension and thus has a very high preference for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. LONG TERM ORIENTATION: Score of 24 means that the Mexican culture is normative. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth; they’re normative in their thinking. They exhibit a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. OTHER DIMENSIONS BUSINESS ETIQUETTES Personal relationships are key to business success in Mexico and the only way to know a person in Mexico is to know the family. Mexicans prefer to do business with people they can relate to. Allow time to develop your business relations. Trust is very important, and it will take time to establish trust. Mexicans often mix business with leisure and usually invite business associates and their families to their home during the weekend. These types of activities are important to Mexicans and help to build the trust required for long-term business relations.
  • 27. 26 BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE Business appointments should be made 2 weeks in advance and must be reconfirmed a week prior.  The person should make sure the Mexican secretary knows how to contact him. Punctuality is essential in business meeting in Mexico even though the business associates may be late themselves.  One must not be irritated as associates may often be late.  Meetings may be postponed or delayed.  Initial meeting is formal  Written material should be available in both English and Spanish.  Mexican are well prepared so we must be match up to their standards  Mexicans tend to give straight forwards answers without elaborating much. BUSINESS DRESS  European dress code is followed.  Men should wear conservative, dark coloured suits.  Women should wear business suits or conservative dresses. BUSINESS CARDS  Business cards are exchanged during introductions with everyone at a meeting.  It is advisable to have one side of your business card in Spanish.  Business cards should contain both your professional and educational qualifications.  Present your business card with the Spanish side facing the recipient. GREETING STYLES  In social situations women pat each other on the right fore arm or on the shoulder rather than shaking their hands  Men shake hands until they know them very well as time passes, they move on to hugs and backslapping
  • 28. 27  Shake hands or give a slight bow when introduced.  Bow when greeting a Mexican woman. Shake hands only if she extends her hand first. GIFT GIVING STYLE  While gift giving is not always a necessity when doing business in Mexico, gifts are much appreciated. Suggested initial gifts include non-personal items with your corporate logo.  Flowers should always be given when visiting a Mexican home  Don’t give red flowers as they have a negative connotation.  White flowers are a good gift as they are considered uplifting
  • 29. 28 REFERENCES Country Sources Japan  http://www.japanesebusinessresource.com/  https://www.americanexpress.com  http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/japan.htm  http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-japanetiquette- customs-culture-business.html France  http://businessculture.org/western-europe/business-culture- infrance/business-etiquette-in-france/  http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-franceetiquette- customs-culture-business.html  http://www.expatica.com/fr/employment/Business-culture- inFrance_102491.html  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France United States of America  http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide-to-the-usaetiquette- customs-culture-business.html  http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/usa-guide  http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_us.htm Turkey  http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture- inturkey/business-communication-in-turkey/  http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/turkey-guide  http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-turkey-business-culture  http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details.p hp?Id=22&CID=208  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Turkey Mexico  http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture- inturkey/meeting-etiquette-in-turkey/  http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/mexico-guide  http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_mx.htm  http://www.noruega.org.mx/Norsk/Business-i-Mexico/Makingbusiness- in-Mexico/#.WKfxFfl9600  http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details.p hp?Id=19&CID=216  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Mexico